- Urologic disease
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Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the
Kidney diseases are normally investigated and treated by
nephrologists, while the specialty of urologydeals with problems in the other organs. Gynecologists may deal with problems of incontinence in women.
Diseases of other bodily systems also have a direct effect on urogenital function. For instance it has been shown that
protein[ released by the kidneys in diabetes mellitussensitises the kidney to the damaging effects of hypertension[Baba T, Murabayashi S, Tomiyama T, Takebe K; Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with a rapid progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria and preserved renal function. Tohoku J Exp Med 1990 Aug;161(4):311-8 PMID 2256104 ] . Diabetesalso can have a direct effect in micturitiondue to peripheral neuropathies which occur in some individuals with poorly controlled diabetics.
Renal failureis defined by functional impairment of the kidney. Renal failure can be acute or chronic, and can be further broken down into categories of pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal.
Pre-renal failure refers to impairment of supply of blood to the functional nephrons including
renal artery stenosis. Intrinsic renal diseases are the classic diseases of the kidney including drug toxicity and nephritis. Post-renal failure is outlet obstruction after the kidney, such as a renal stone or prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Renal failuremay require medication, dietary and lifestyle modification and dialysis.
Primary renal cell carcinomas as well as metastatic cancers can affect the
Non-renal urinary tract disease
The causes of diseases of the body are common to the urinary tract. Structural and or traumatic change can lead to
hemorrhage, functional blockage or inflammation. Colonisation by bacteria, protozoaor fungican cause infection. Uncontrolled cell growth can cause neoplasia. For example:
Urinary tract infections (UTIs), interstitial cystitis
*incontinence (involuntary loss of urine),
benign prostatic hyperplasia(where the prostate overgrows), prostatitis(inflammation of the prostate).
* Transitional cell carcinoma (
bladder cancer), renal cell carcinoma(kidney cancer), and prostate cancerare examples of neoplasms affecting the urinary system.
The term "uropathy" refers to a disease of the urinary tract, while "
nephropathy" refers to a disease of the kidney.
Biochemicalblood tests determine the amount of typical markers of renal function in the blood serum, for instance serum ureaand serum creatinine. Biochemistry can also be used to determine serum electrolytes. Special biochemical tests ( arterial blood gas) can determine the amount of dissolved gases in the blood, indicating if pH imbalances are acute or chronic. Urinalysisis a test that studies urinefor abnormal substances such as protein or signs of infection.
*A Full Ward Test, also known as
dipstickurinalysis, involves the dipping of a biochemically active test strip into the urine specimen to determine levels of tell-tale chemicals in the urine.
*Urinalysis can also involve MC&S
microscopy, culture and sensitivity
Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the bladder and the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. It may be performed in cases of incontinence or neurological problems affecting the urinary tract.
Ultrasound is commonly performed to investigate problems of the kidney and/or urinary tract.
KUBis plain radiography of the urinary system, e.g. to identify kidney stones.
intravenous pyelogramstudies the shape of the urinary system.
CAT scans and MRIcan also be useful in localising urinary tract pathology.
* A voiding cystogram is a functional study where contrast "dye" is injected through a catheter into the bladder. Under x-ray the radiologist asks the patient to void (usually young children) and will watch the contrast exiting the body on the x-ray monitor. This examines the child's bladder and lower urinary tract. Typically looking for
vesicoureteral reflux, involving urine backflow up into the kidneys.
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