King Arthur

King Arthur

King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders in the early 6th century. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians. [Harvnb|Higham|2002|pp= 11–37, has a summary of the debate on this point.] The sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various histories, including those of Gildas, Nennius and the "Annales Cambriae". Arthur's name also occurs in early poetic sources such as "Y Gododdin". [Harvnb|Charles-Edwards|1991|p= 15; Harvnb|Sims-Williams|1991. "Y Gododdin" cannot be dated precisely: it describes 6th-century events and contains 9th- or 10th- century spelling, but the surviving copy is 13th-century.]

The legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest largely through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century "Historia Regum Britanniae" ("History of the Kings of Britain"). [Harvnb|Thorpe|1966, but see also Harvnb|Loomis|1956] However, some Welsh and Breton tales and poems relating the story of Arthur date earlier than this work; these are usually termed "pre-Galfridian" texts (from the Latin form of Geoffrey, "Galfridus"). In these works, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies, or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh Otherworld, Annwn. [See Harvnb|Padel|1994; Harvnb|Sims-Williams|1991; Harvnb|Green|2007b; and Harvnb|Roberts|1991a] How much of Geoffrey's "Historia" (completed in 1138) was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown.

Although the themes, events and characters of the Arthurian legend varied widely from text to text, and there was no one canonical version until Malory's "Le Morte d'Arthur" was published in 1485, Geoffrey's version of events often served as the starting point for later stories. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who defeated the Saxons and established an empire over the British Isles, Iceland, Norway and Gaul. In fact, many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's "Historia", including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, adviser Merlin, the sword Excalibur, his birth at Tintagel and his death at Camlann and final rest in Avalon. The 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus often shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table. Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, both in literature and in adaptations for theatre, film, television, comics and other media.

Debated historicity

The historical basis for the King Arthur legend has long been debated by scholars. One school of thought, citing entries in the "Historia Brittonum" and "Annales Cambriae", sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons sometime in the late 5th to early 6th century. The "Historia Brittonum" ("History of the Britons"), a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, lists twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Mons Badonicus, or Mount Badon, where he is said to have single-handedly killed 960 men. Recent studies, however, question the reliability of the "Historia Brittonum" as a source for the history of this period. [Harvnb|Dumville|1986; Harvnb|Higham|2002|pp= 116–69; Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 15–26, 30–38.]

The other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century "Annales Cambriae" ("Welsh Annals"), which also links Arthur with the Battle of Mount Badon. The "Annales" dates this battle to 516–518, and also mentions the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have often been used to bolster confidence in the "Historia"'s account and to confirm that Arthur really did fight at Mount Badon. Problems have been identified, however, with using this source to support the "Historia Brittonum"'s account. The latest research shows that the "Annales Cambriae" was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the complex textual history of the "Annales Cambriae" precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it even that early. They were more likely added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals. The Mount Badon entry probably derived from the "Historia Brittonum". [Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 26–30; Harvnb|Koch|1996|pp= 251–53.]

This lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of post-Roman Britain. In the view of the historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, "at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur [but …] the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him". [Harvnb|Charles-Edwards|1991|p=29] These modern admissions of ignorance are a relatively recent trend; earlier generations of historians were less sceptical. The historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, "The Age of Arthur" (1973). Even so, he found little to say of a historic Arthur. [Harvnb|Morris|1973]

Partly in reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all. Morris's "Age of Arthur" prompted the archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time". [Harvnb|Myres|1986|p= 16] Gildas' 6th-century polemic "De Excidio Britanniae" ("On the Ruin of Britain"), written within living memory of Mount Badon, mentions that battle but does not mention Arthur. [Gildas, "", chapter 26.] Arthur is not mentioned in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" or named in any surviving manuscript written between 400 and 820. [Harvnb|Pryor|2004|pp= 22–27] He is absent from Bede's early 8th-century "Ecclesiastical History of the English People", another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Mount Badon. [Bede, "Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum", .] The historian David Dumville has written: "I think we can dispose of him [Arthur] quite briefly. He owes his place in our history books to a 'no smoke without fire' school of thought ... The fact of the matter is that there is no historical evidence about Arthur; we must reject him from our histories and, above all, from the titles of our books." [Harvnb|Dumville|1977|pp= 187–88]

Some scholars argue that Arthur was originally a fictional hero of folklore – or even a half-forgotten Celtic deity – who became credited with real deeds in the distant past. They cite parallels with figures such as the Kentish totemic horse-gods Hengest and Horsa, who later became historicised. Bede ascribed to these legendary figures a historical role in the 5th-century Anglo-Saxon conquest of eastern Britain.Harvnb|Green|1998; Harvnb|Padel|1994; Harvnb|Green|2007b, chapters five and seven.] It is not even certain that Arthur was considered a king in the early texts. Neither the "Historia" nor the "Annales" calls him "rex": the former calls him instead "dux" or "dux bellorum" (leader of battles). ["Historia Brittonum ; "Annales Cambriae" .]

Historical documents for the post-Roman period are scarce, so a definitive answer to the question of Arthur's historical existence is unlikely. Sites and places have been identified as "Arthurian" since the 12th century, [For example, Harvnb|Ashley|2005.] but archaeology can confidently reveal names only through inscriptions found in secure contexts. The so-called "Arthur stone," discovered in 1998 among the ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall in securely dated 6th-century contexts, created a brief stir but proved irrelevant. [Harvnb|Heroic Age|1999] Other inscriptional evidence for Arthur, including the Glastonbury cross, is tainted with the suggestion of forgery. [Modern scholarship views the Glastonbury cross as the result of a probably late 12th-century fraud. See Harvnb|Rahtz|1993 and Harvnb|Carey|1999.] Although several historical figures have been proposed as the basis for Arthur, [These range from Lucius Artorius Castus, a Roman officer who served in Britain in the 2nd century (Harvnb|Littleton|Malcor|1994), to Roman usurper emperors such as Magnus Maximus or sub-Roman British rulers such as Riotamus (Harvnb|Ashe|1985), Ambrosius Aurelianus (Harvnb|Reno|1996), Owain Ddantgwyn (Harvnb|Phillips|Keatman|1992), and Athrwys ap Meurig (Harvnb|Gilbert|Wilson|Blackett|1998)] no convincing evidence for these identifications has emerged.


The origin of the Welsh name Arthur remains a matter of debate. Some suggest it is derived from the Latin family name Artorius, of obscure and contested etymology. [Harvnb|Malone|1925] Others propose a derivation from Welsh "arth" (earlier "art"), meaning "bear", suggesting "art-ur", "bear-man", (earlier "*Arto-uiros") is the original form, although there are difficulties with this theory. [See Harvnb|Higham|2002|p= 74.] It may be relevant to this debate that Arthur's name appears as "Arthur", or "Arturus", in early Latin Arthurian texts, never as "Artorius". However, this may not say anything about the origin of the name "Arthur", as "Artorius" would regularly become "Art(h)ur" when borrowed into Welsh; all it would mean, as John Koch has pointed out, is that the surviving Latin references to a historical Arthur (if he was called Artorius and really existed) must date from after the 6th century. [Harvnb|Koch|1996|p= 253. See further Harvnb|Malone|1925 and Harvnb|Green|2007b|p =255 on how "Artorius" would regular take the form "Arthur" when borrowed into Welsh.] An alternative theory links the name Arthur to Arcturus, the brightest star in the constellation Boötes, near Ursa Major or the Great Bear. Classical Latin "Arcturus" would also have become "Art(h)ur" when borrowed into Welsh, and its brightness and position in the sky led people to regard it as the "guardian of the bear" and the "leader" of the other stars in Boötes. [Harvnb|Anderson|2004|pp= 28–29; Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 191–94.] The exact significance of such etymologies is unclear. It is often assumed that an Artorius derivation would mean that the legends of Arthur had a genuine historical core, but recent studies suggest that this assumption may not be well founded. [Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 178–87.] By contrast, a derivation of Arthur from Arcturus might be taken to indicate a non-historical origin for Arthur, but Toby Griffen has suggested it was an alternative name for a historical Arthur designed to appeal to Latin-speakers. [Harvnb |Griffen|1994]

Medieval literary traditions

The creator of the familiar literary "persona" of Arthur was Geoffrey of Monmouth, with his pseudo-historical "Historia Regum Britanniae" ("History of the Kings of Britain"), written in the 1130s. The textual sources for Arthur are usually divided into those written before Geoffrey's "Historia" (known as "pre-Galfridian" texts, from the Latin form of Geoffrey, "Galfridus") and those written afterwards, which could not avoid his influence (Galfridian, or post-Galfridian, texts).

Pre-Galfridian traditions

The earliest literary references to Arthur come from Welsh and Breton sources. There have been few attempts to define the nature and character of Arthur in the pre-Galfridian tradition as a whole, rather than in a single text or text/story-type. One recent academic survey that does attempt this, by Thomas Green, identifies three key strands to the portrayal of Arthur in this earliest material. [Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 45–176] The first is that he was a peerless warrior who functioned as the monster-hunting protector of Britain from all internal and external threats. Some of these are human threats, such as the Saxons he fights in the "Historia Brittonum", but the majority are supernatural, including giant cat-monsters, destructive divine boars, dragons, dogheads, giants and witches. [Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 93–130] The second is that the pre-Galfridian Arthur was a figure of folklore (particularly topographic or onomastic folklore) and localized magical wonder-tales, the leader of a band of superhuman heroes who live in the wilds of the landscape. [Harvnb|Padel|1994 has a thorough discussion of this aspect of Arthur's character.] The third and final strand is that the early Welsh Arthur had a close connection with the Welsh Otherworld, Annwn. On the one hand, he launches assaults on Otherworldly fortresses in search of treasure and frees their prisoners. On the other, his warband in the earliest sources includes former pagan gods and his wife and his possessions are clearly Otherworldly in origin. [Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 135–76. On his possessions and wife, see also Harvnb|Ford|1983.]

One of the most famous Welsh poetic references to Arthur comes in the collection of heroic death-songs known as "Y Gododdin" ("The Gododdin"), attributed to the 6th-century poet Aneirin. In one stanza, the bravery of a warrior who slew 300 enemies is praised, but it is then noted that despite this "he was no Arthur", that is to say his feats cannot compare to the valour of Arthur. [Harvnb|Williams|1937|p= 64, line 1242] "Y Gododdin" is known only from a 13th-century manuscript, so it is impossible to determine whether this passage is original or a later interpolation: 9th- or 10th-century dates are often proposed for it, but John Koch's view that the passage dates from a 7th-century or earlier version is regarded as unproven. [Harvnb|Charles-Edwards|1991|p= 15; Harvnb|Koch|1996|pp= 242–45; Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 13–15, 50–52.] Several poems attributed to Taliesin, a poet said to have lived in the 6th century, also refer to Arthur, although these all probably date from between the 8th and 12th centuries. [See, for example, Harvnb|Haycock|1983–84 and Harvnb|Koch|1996|pp= 264–65.] They include "Kadeir Teyrnon" ("The Chair of the Prince"), [Online translations of this poem are out-dated and inaccurate. See Harvnb|Haycock|2007|pp= 293–311, for a full translation, and Harvnb|Green|2007b|p= 197 for a discussion of its Arthurian aspects.] which refers to "Arthur the Blessed", "Preiddeu Annwn" ("The Spoils of the Annwn"), [See, for example, Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 54–67 and Harvnb|Budgey|1992, who includes a translation.] which recounts an expedition of Arthur to the Otherworld, and "Marwnat vthyr pen [dragon] " ("The Elegy of Uthyr Pen [dragon] "), [Harvnb|Koch|Carey|1994|pp= 314–15] which refers to Arthur's valour and is suggestive of a father-son relationship for Arthur and Uthyr that pre-dates Geoffrey of Monmouth.Other early Welsh Arthurian texts include a poem found in the Black Book of Carmarthen, "Pa gur yv y porthaur?" ("What man is the gatekeeper?"). [Harvnb|Sims-Williams|1991|pp= 38–46 has a full translation and analysis of this poem.] This takes the form of a dialogue between Arthur and the gatekeeper of a fortress he wishes to enter, in which Arthur recounts the names and deeds of himself and his men, notably Cei and Bedwyr. The Welsh prose tale "Culhwch and Olwen" (c. 1100), included in the modern Mabinogion collection, has a much longer list of more than 200 of Arthur's men, though Cei and Bedwyr again take a central place. The story as a whole tells of Arthur helping his kinsman Culhwch win the hand of Olwen, daughter of Ysbaddaden Chief-Giant, by completing a series of apparently impossible tasks, including the hunt for the great semi-divine boar Twrch Trwyth. This latter tale is also referenced in the 9th-century "Historia Brittonum", with the boar there named Troy(n)t. [For a discussion of the tale, see Harvnb|Bromwich|Evans|1992; see also Harvnb|Padel|1994|pp =2–4; Harvnb|Roberts|1991a; and Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 67–72 and chapter three.] Finally, Arthur is referenced numerous times in the "Welsh Triads", a collection of short summaries of Welsh tradition and legend which are classified into groups of three linked characters or episodes in order to assist recall. The later manuscripts of the Triads are partly derivative from Geoffrey of Monmouth and later continental traditions, but the earliest ones show no such influence and are usually agreed to refer to pre-existing Welsh traditions. Even in these, however, Arthur's court has started to embody legendary Britain as a whole, with "Arthur's Court" sometimes substituted for "The Island of Britain" in the formula "Three XXX of the Island of Britain". [Harvnb|Barber|1986|pp=17–18, 49; Harvnb|Bromwich|1978] While it is not clear from the "Historia Brittonum" and the "Annales Cambriae" that Arthur was even considered a king, by the time "Culhwch and Olwen" and the Triads were written he had become "Penteyrnedd yr Ynys hon", "Chief of the Lords of this Island", the overlord of Wales, Cornwall and the North. [Harvnb|Roberts|1991a|pp= 78, 81]

In addition to these pre-Galfridian Welsh poems and tales, Arthur appears in some other early Latin texts besides the "Historia Brittonum" and the "Annales Cambriae". In particular, Arthur features in a number of well known "vitae" ("Lives") of post-Roman saints, none of which are now generally considered to be reliable historical sources (the earliest probably dates from the 11th century). [Harvnb|Roberts|1991a] According to the "Life of Saint Gildas", written in the early 12th century by Caradoc of Llancarfan, Arthur is said to have killed Gildas' brother Hueil and to have rescued his wife Gwenhwyfar from Glastonbury. [Translated in Harvnb|Coe|Young|1995|pp= 22–27. On the Glastonbury tale and its Otherworldly antecedents, see Harvnb|Sims-Williams|1991|pp= 58–61.] In the "Life of Saint Cadoc", written around 1100 or a little before by Lifris of Llancarfan, the saint gives protection to a man who killed three of Arthur's soldiers, and Arthur demands a herd of cattle as "wergeld" for his men. Cadoc delivers them as demanded, but when Arthur takes possession of the animals, they turn into bundles of ferns. [Harvnb|Coe|Young|1995|pp= 26–37] Similar incidents are described in the medieval biographies of Carannog, Padarn and Eufflam, probably written around the 12th century. A less obviously legendary account of Arthur appears in the "Legenda Sancti Goeznovii", which is often claimed to date from the early 11th century although the earliest manuscript of this text dates from the 15th century. [See Harvnb|Ashe|1985 for an attempt to use this "vita" as a historical source.] Also important are the references to Arthur in William of Malmesbury's "De Gestis Regum Anglorum" and Herman's "De Miraculis Sanctae Mariae Laudensis", which together provide the first certain evidence for a belief that Arthur was not actually dead and would at some point return, a theme that is often revisited in post-Galfridian folklore. [Harvnb|Padel|1994|pp =8–12; Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp =72–5, 259, 261–2; Harvnb|Bullock-Davies|1982]

Geoffrey of Monmouth

The first narrative account of Arthur's life is found in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Latin work "Historia Regum Britanniae" ("History of the Kings of Britain"). [Harvnb|Wright|1985; Harvnb|Thorpe|1966] This work, completed c. 1138, is an imaginative and fanciful account of British kings from the legendary Trojan exile Brutus to the 7th-century Welsh king Cadwallader. Geoffrey places Arthur in the same post-Roman period as do "Historia Brittonum" and "Annales Cambriae". He incorporates Arthur's father, Uther Pendragon, his magician advisor Merlin, and the story of Arthur's conception, in which Uther, disguised as his enemy Gorlois by Merlin's magic, fathers Arthur on Gorlois's wife Igerna at Tintagel. On Uther's death, the fifteen-year-old Arthur succeeds him as King of Britain and fights a series of battles, similar to those in the "Historia Brittonum", culminating in the Battle of Bath. He then defeats the Picts and Scots, before creating an Arthurian empire through his conquests of Ireland, Iceland, and the Orkney Islands. After twelve years of peace, Arthur sets out to expand his empire once more, taking control of Norway, Denmark and Gaul. Gaul is still held by the Roman Empire when it is conquered, and Arthur's victory naturally leads to a further confrontation between his empire and Rome's. Arthur and his warriors, including Kaius (Kay), Beduerus (Bedivere) and Gualguanus (Gawain), defeat the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius in Gaul but, as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears that his nephew Modredus (Mordred) – whom he had left in charge of Britain – has married his wife Guenhuuara (Guinevere) and seized the throne. Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but he is mortally wounded. He hands the crown to his kinsman Constantine and is taken to the isle of Avalon to be healed of his wounds, never to be seen again. [Geoffrey of Monmouth, "Historia Regum Britanniae" , , , ]

How much of this narrative was Geoffrey's own invention is open to debate. Certainly, Geoffrey seems to have made use of the list of Arthur's twelve battles against the Saxons found in the 9th-century "Historia Brittonum", along with the battle of Camlann from the "Annales Cambriae" and the idea that Arthur was still alive. [Harvnb|Roberts|1991b|p= 106; Harvnb|Padel|1994|pp =11–12] Arthur's personal status as the king of all Britain would also seem to be borrowed from pre-Galfridian tradition, being found in "Culhwch and Olwen", the "Triads" and the Saints' Lives. [Harvnb|Green|2007b|pp= 217–19] Finally, Geoffrey borrowed many of the names for Arthur's possessions, close family and companions from the pre-Galfridian Welsh tradition, including Kaius (Cei), Beduerus (Bedwyr), Guenhuuara (Gwenhwyfar), Uther (Uthyr) and perhaps also Caliburnus (Caledfwlch), the latter becoming Excalibur in subsequent Arthurian tales. [Harvnb|Roberts|1991b|pp= 109–10, 112; Harvnb|Bromwich|Evans|1992|pp= 64–5] However, while names, key events and titles may have been borrowed, Brynley Roberts has argued that "the Arthurian section is Geoffrey’s literary creation and it owes nothing to prior narrative." [Harvnb|Roberts|1991b|p= 108] So, for instance, the Welsh Medraut is made the villainous Modredus by Geoffrey, but there is no trace of such a negative character for this figure in Welsh sources until the 16th century. [Harvnb|Bromwich|1978|pp= 454–55] There have been relatively few modern attempts to challenge this notion that the "Historia Regum Britanniae" is primarily Geoffrey's own work, with scholarly opinion often echoing William of Newburgh's late-12th-century comment that Geoffrey "made up" his narrative, perhaps through an "inordinate love of lying". [See, for example, Harvnb|Brooke|1986|p= 95.] Geoffrey Ashe is one dissenter from this view, believing that Geoffrey's narrative is partially derived from a lost source telling of the deeds of a 5th-century British king named Riotamus, this figure being the original Arthur, although historians and Celticists have been reluctant to follow Ashe in his conclusions. [Harvnb|Ashe|1985|p=6; Harvnb|Padel|1995|p= 110; Harvnb|Higham|2002|p= 76.]

Whatever his sources may have been, the immense popularity of Geoffrey's "Historia Regum Britanniae" cannot be denied. Well over 200 manuscript copies of Geoffrey’s Latin work are known to have survived, and this does not include translations into other languages. [Harvnb|Crick|1989] Thus, for example, around 60 manuscripts are extant containing Welsh-language versions of the "Historia", the earliest of which were created in the 13th century; the old notion that some of these Welsh versions actually underlie Geoffrey's "Historia", advanced by antiquarians such as the 18th-century Lewis Morris, has long since been discounted in academic circles. [Harvnb|Sweet|2004|p=140. See further, Harvnb|Roberts|1991b and Harvnb|Roberts|1980.] As a result of this popularity, Geoffrey's "Historia Regum Britanniae" was enormously influential on the later medieval development of the Arthurian legend. While it was by no means the only creative force behind Arthurian romance, many of its elements were borrowed and developed (e.g. the death of Arthur) and it provided the historical framework into which the romancers' tales of magical and wonderful adventures were inserted. [As noted by, for example, Harvnb|Ashe|1996.]

Romance traditions

The popularity of Geoffrey's "Historia" and its other derivative works (such as Wace's "Roman de Brut") is generally agreed to be an important factor in explaining the appearance of significant numbers of new Arthurian works in continental Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in France. [For example, Harvnb|Thorpe|1966|p= 29] It was not, however, the only Arthurian influence on the developing "Matter of Britain". There is clear evidence for a knowledge of Arthur and Arthurian tales on the Continent before Geoffrey's work became widely known (see for example, the Modena Archivolt), [Harvnb |Stokstad|1996] as well as for the use of "Celtic" names and stories not found in Geoffrey's "Historia" in the Arthurian romances. [Harvnb|Loomis|1956; Harvnb|Bromwich|1983; Harvnb|Bromwich|1991.] From the perspective of Arthur, perhaps the most significant effect of this great outpouring of new Arthurian story was on the role of the king himself: much of this 12th-century and later Arthurian literature centres less on Arthur himself than on characters such as Lancelot and Guenevere, Perceval, Galahad, Gawain, and Tristan and Isolde. Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey's "Historia" itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined. [Harvnb|Lacy|1996a|p= 16; Harvnb|Morris|1982|p= 2.] His character also alters significantly. In both the earliest materials and Geoffrey he is a great and ferocious warrior, who laughs as he personally slaughters witches and giants and takes a leading role in all military campaigns, [For example, Geoffrey of Monmouth, "Historia Regum Britanniae" .] whereas in the continental romances he becomes the "roi fainéant", the "do-nothing king", whose "inactivity and acquiescence constituted a central flaw in his otherwise ideal society". [Harvnb|Padel|2000|p= 81] Arthur's role in these works is frequently that of a wise, dignified, even-tempered, somewhat bland, and occasionally feeble monarch. So, he simply turns pale and silent when he learns of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere in the "Mort Artu", whilst in Chrétien de Troyes's "Yvain, the Knight of the Lion" he is unable to stay awake after a feast and has to retire for a nap. [Harvnb|Morris|1982|pp= 99–102; Harvnb|Lacy|1996a|p= 17.] Nonetheless, as Norris J. Lacy has observed, whatever his faults and frailties may be in these Arthurian romances, "his prestige is never – or almost never – compromised by his personal weaknesses ... his authority and glory remain intact." [Harvnb|Lacy|1996a|p= 17] Arthur and his retinue appear in some of the "Lais" of Marie de France, [Harvnb|Burgess|Busby|1999] but it was the work of another French poet, Chrétien de Troyes, that had the greatest influence with regard to the above development of the character of Arthur and his legend. [Harvnb|Lacy|1996b] Chrétien wrote five Arthurian romances between c. 1170 and c. 1190. "Erec and Enide" and "Cligès" are tales of courtly love with Arthur's court as their backdrop, demonstrating the shift away from the heroic world of the Welsh and Galfridian Arthur, while "Yvain, the Knight of the Lion" features Yvain and Gawain in a supernatural adventure, with Arthur very much on the sidelines and weakened. However, the most significant for the development of the Arthurian legend are "Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart", which introduces Lancelot and his adulterous relationship with Arthur's queen (Guinevere), extending and popularizing the recurring theme of Arthur as a cuckold, and "Perceval, the Story of the Grail", which introduces the Holy Grail and the Fisher King and which again sees Arthur having a much reduced role. [Harvnb|Kibler|Carroll|1991|p= 1] Chrétien was thus "instrumental both in the elaboration of the Arthurian legend and in the establishment of the ideal form for the diffusion of that legend", [Harvnb|Lacy|1996b|p= 88] and much of what came after him in terms of the portrayal of Arthur and his world built upon the foundations he had laid. "Perceval", although unfinished, was particularly popular: four separate continuations of the poem appeared over the next half century, with the notion of the Grail and its quest being developed by other writers such as Robert de Boron, a fact that helped accelerate the decline of Arthur in continental romance. [Harvnb|Roach|1949–83] Similarly, Lancelot and his cuckolding of Arthur with Guinevere became one of the classic motifs of the Arthurian legend, although the Lancelot of the prose "Lancelot" (c. 1225) and later texts was a combination of Chrétien's character and that of Ulrich von Zatzikhoven's "Lanzelet". [Harvnb|Ulrich, von Zatzikhoven|2005] Chrétien's work even appears to feed back into Welsh Arthurian literature, with the result that the romance Arthur began to replace the heroic, active Arthur in Welsh literary tradition. [Harvnb|Padel|2000|pp =77–82] Particularly significant in this development were the three Welsh Arthurian romances, which are closely similar to those of Chrétien, albeit with some significant differences: "Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain" is related to Chrétien's "Yvain"; "Geraint and Enid", to "Erec and Enide"; and "Peredur son of Efrawg", to "Perceval". [See Harvnb|Jones|Jones|1949 for accurate translations of all three texts. It is not entirely certain what, exactly, the relationship is between these Welsh romances and Chrétien's works, however: see Harvnb|Koch|1996|pp= 280–88 for a survey of opinions] Up to c. 1210, continental Arthurian romance was expressed primarily through poetry; after this date the tales began to be told in prose. The most significant of these 13th-century prose romances was the Vulgate Cycle, (also known as the Lancelot-Grail Cycle), a series of five Middle French prose works written in the first half of that century.Harvnb|Lacy|1992–96] These works were the "Estoire del Saint Grail", the "Estoire de Merlin", the "Lancelot propre" (or Prose "Lancelot", which made up half the entire Vulgate Cycle on its own), the "Queste del Saint Graal" and the "Mort Artu", which combine to form the first coherent version of the entire Arthurian legend. The cycle continued the trend towards reducing the role played by Arthur in his own legend, partly through the introduction of the character of Galahad and an expansion of the role of Merlin. It also made Mordred the result of an incestuous relationship between Arthur and his sister and established the role of Camelot, first mentioned in passing in Chrétien's "Lancelot", as Arthur's primary court. [For a study of this cycle, see Harvnb|Burns|1985.] This series of texts was quickly followed by the Post-Vulgate Cycle (c. 1230–40), of which the "Suite du Merlin" is a part, which greatly reduced the importance of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere but continued to sideline Arthur, now in order to focus more on the Grail quest. As such, Arthur became even more of a relatively minor character in these French prose romances; in the Vulgate itself he only figures significantly in the "Estoire de Merlin" and the "Mort Artu".

The development of the medieval Arthurian cycle and the character of the 'Arthur of romance' culminated in "Le Morte d'Arthur", Thomas Malory's retelling of the entire legend in a single work in English in the late 15th century. Malory based his book – originally titled "The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table" – on the various previous romance versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories. [On Malory and his work, see Harvnb|Field|1993 and Harvnb|Field|1998.] Perhaps as a result of this, and the fact that "Le Morte D'Arthur" was one of the earliest printed books in England, published by William Caxton in 1485, most later Arthurian works are derivative of Malory's. [Harvnb|Vinaver|1990]

Decline, revival, and the modern legend

Post-medieval literature

The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur. Although Malory's English version of the great French romances was popular, there were increasing attacks upon the truthfulness of the historical framework of the Arthurian romances – established since Geoffrey of Monmouth's time – and thus the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain. So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian medieval 'chronicle tradition', to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians. [Harvnb|Carley|1984] Social changes associated with the end of the medieval period and the Renaissance also conspired to rob the character of Arthur and his associated legend of some of their power to enthral audiences, with the result that 1634 saw the last printing of Malory's "Le Morte d'Arthur" for nearly 200 years. [Harvnb|Parins|1995|p= 5] King Arthur and the Arthurian legend were not entirely abandoned, but until the early 19th century the material was taken less seriously and often used simply as vehicle for allegories of 17th- and 18th-century politics.Harvnb|Ashe|1968|pp= 20–21; Harvnb|Merriman|1973] Thus Richard Blackmore's epics "Prince Arthur" (1695) and "King Arthur" (1697) feature Arthur as an allegory for the struggles of William III against James II.Harvnb|Ashe|1968|pp= 20–21] Similarly, the most popular Arthurian tale throughout this period seems to have been that of Tom Thumb, which was told first through chapbooks and later through the political plays of Henry Fielding; although the action is clearly set in Arthurian Britain, the treatment is humorous and Arthur appears as a primarily comedic version of his romance character. [Harvnb|Green|2007a]

Tennyson and the revival

In the early 19th century, medievalism, Romanticism, and the Gothic Revival reawakened interest in the Arthur and the medieval romances. A new code of ethics for 19th-century gentlemen was shaped around the chivalric ideals that the 'Arthur of romance' embodied. This renewed interest first made itself felt in 1816, when Malory's "Le Morte d'Arthur" was reprinted for the first time since 1634. [Harvnb|Parins|1995|pp= 8–10] Initially the medieval Arthurian legends were of particular interest to poets, inspiring, for example, William Wordsworth to write "The Egyptian Maid" (1835), an allegory of the Holy Grail. [Harvnb|Wordsworth|1835] Pre-eminent among these was Alfred Lord Tennyson, whose first Arthurian poem, "The Lady of Shalott", was published in 1832. [See Harvnb|Potwin|1902 for the sources Tennyson used when writing this poem] Although Arthur himself played a minor role in some of these works, following in the medieval romance tradition, Tennyson's Arthurian work reached its peak of popularity with "Idylls of the King", which reworked the entire narrative of Arthur's life for the Victorian era. First published in 1859, it sold 10,000 copies within the first week. [Harvnb|Taylor|Brewer|1983|p= 127] In the "Idylls", Arthur became a symbol of ideal manhood whose attempt to establish a perfect kingdom on earth fails, finally, through human weakness. [See Harvnb|Rosenberg|1973 and Harvnb|Taylor|Brewer|1983|pp= 89–128 for analyses of "The Idylls of the King".] Tennyson's works prompted an large number of imitators, generated considerable public interest in the legends of Arthur and the character himself, and brought Malory’s tales to a wider audience. [See, for example, Harvnb|Simpson|1990.] Indeed, the first modernization of Malory's great compilation of Arthur's tales was published shortly after "Idylls" appeared, in 1862, and there were six further editions and five competitors before the century ended. [Harvnb|Staines|1996|p= 449] This interest in the 'Arthur of romance' and his associated stories continued through the 19th century and into the 20th, and influenced poets such as William Morris and Pre-Raphaelite artists including Edward Burne-Jones. [Harvnb|Taylor|Brewer|1983|pp= 127–161; Harvnb|Mancoff|1990.] Even the humorous tale of Tom Thumb, which had been the primary manifestation of Arthur's legend in the 18th century, was rewritten after the publication of "Idylls". While Tom maintained his small stature and remained a figure of comic relief, his story now included more elements from the medieval Arthurian romances and Arthur is treated more seriously and historically in these new versions. [Harvnb|Green|2007a|p= 127; Harvnb|Gamerschlag|1983] The revived Arthurian romance also proved influential in the United States, with such books as Sidney Lanier's "The Boy's King Arthur" (1880) reaching wide audiences and providing inspiration for Mark Twain's satiric "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" (1889). [Harvnb|Twain|1889; Harvnb|Smith|Thompson|1996.] Although the 'Arthur of romance' was sometimes central to these new Arthurian works (as he was in Burne-Jones's "The Sleep of Arthur in Avalon", 1881-1898), on other occasions he reverted back to his medieval status and is either marginalized or even missing entirely, with Wagner's Arthurian operas providing a notable instance of the latter. [Harvnb|Watson|2002] Furthermore, the revival of interest in Arthur and the Arthurian tales did not continue unabated. By the end of the 19th century, it was confined mainly to Pre-Raphaelite imitators, [Harvnb |Mancoff|1990] and it could not avoid being affected by the First World War, which damaged the reputation of chivalry and thus interest in its medieval manifestations and Arthur as chivalric role model. [Harvnb|Workman|1994] The romance tradition did, however, remain sufficiently powerful to persuade Thomas Hardy, Laurence Binyon and John Masefield to compose Arthurian plays, [Harvnb|Hardy|1923; Harvnb|Binyon|1923; and Harvnb|Masefield|1927] and T. S. Eliot alludes to the Arthur myth (but not Arthur) in his poem "The Waste Land", which mentions the Fisher King. [Harvnb|Eliot|1949; Harvnb|Barber|2004|pp= 327–28]

Modern legend

In the latter half of the 20th century, the influence of the romance tradition of Arthur continued, through novels such as T. H. White's "The Once and Future King" (1958) and Marion Zimmer Bradley's "The Mists of Avalon" (1982) in addition to comic strips such as "Prince Valiant" (from 1937 onward). [Harvnb|White|1958; Harvnb|Bradley|1982; Harvnb|Tondro|2002|p=170] Tennyson had reworked the romance tales of Arthur to suit and comment upon the issues of his day, and the same is often the case with modern treatments too. Bradley's tale, for example, takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials. [Harvnb |Lagorio|1996] The romance Arthur has become popular in film as well. The musical "Camelot", with its focus on the love of Lancelot and Guinevere and the cuckolding of Arthur, was made into a film in 1967. The romance tradition of Arthur is particularly evident and, according to critics, successfully handled in Robert Bresson's "Lancelot du Lac" (1974), Eric Rohmer's "Perceval le Gallois" (1978), and perhaps John Boorman's fantasy film "Excalibur" (1981); it is also the main source of the Arthurian material utilised in "Monty Python and the Holy Grail" (1975). [Harvnb|Harty|1996; Harvnb|Harty|1997]

Re-tellings and re-imaginings of the romance tradition are not the only important aspect of the modern legend of King Arthur. Attempts to portray Arthur as a genuine historical figure of c. 500 AD, stripping away the 'romance', have also emerged. As Taylor and Brewer have noted, this return to the medieval 'chronicle tradition' of Geoffrey of Monmouth and the "Historia Brittonum" is a recent trend which became dominant in Arthurian literature in the years following the outbreak of the Second World War, when Arthur's legendary resistance to Germanic invaders struck a chord in Britain. [Harvnb|Taylor|Brewer|1983, chapter nine; see also Harvnb|Higham|2002|pp= 21–22, 30.] Clemence Dane's series of radio plays, "The Saviours" (1942), used a historical Arthur to embody the spirit of heroic resistance against desperate odds, and Robert Sherriff's play "The Long Sunset" (1955) saw Arthur rallying Romano-British resistance against the Germanic invaders. [Harvnb|Thompson|1996|p= 141] This trend towards placing Arthur in a historical setting is also apparent in historical and fantasy novels published during this period. [For example, in historical fiction: Parke Godwin's "Firelord" (1980) and its sequels; Stephen Lawhead's "Pendragon Cycle" (1987–99); Nikolai Tolstoy's "The Coming of the King" (1988); Jack Whyte's "Camulod Chronicles" (1992–97); and Bernard Cornwell's "The Warlord Chronicles" (1995–97). In fantasy fiction: S. R. Lawhead, "Taliesin" (Crossway, 1987); N. Tolstoy, "The Coming of the King" (Bantam, 1988); J. Whyte, "The Skystone" (Viking, 1992); and B. Cornwell, "The Winter King" (Michael Joseph, 1995).] In recent years the portrayal of Arthur as a real hero of the 5th century has also made its way into film versions of the Arthurian legend, most notably "King Arthur" (2004) and "The Last Legion" (2007). [imdb title|0349683; imdb title|0462396|The Last Legion]

Arthur has also been used as a model for modern-day behaviour. In the 1930s, the Order of the Fellowship of the Knights of the Round Table formed in Britain to promote Christian ideals and Arthurian notions of medieval chivalry. [Harvnb|Thomas|1993|pp= 128–31] In the United States, hundreds of thousands of boys and girls joined Arthurian youth groups, such as the Knights of King Arthur, in which Arthur and his legends were promoted as wholesome exemplars. [Harvnb|Lupack|2002|p= 2; Harvnb|Forbush|Forbush|1915] However, Arthur's diffusion within contemporary culture goes beyond such obviously Arthurian endeavours, with Arthurian names being regularly attached to objects, buildings and places. As Norris J. Lacy has observed, "The popular notion of Arthur appears to be limited, not surprisingly, to a few motifs and names, but there can be no doubt of the extent to which a legend born many centuries ago is profoundly embedded in modern culture at every level."Harvnb|Lacy|1996c|p= 364]

ee also

*King Arthur's family
*King Arthur's messianic return
*King Arthur's weapons
*Nine Worthies, of which Arthur was one
*List of Arthurian characters
*List of books about King Arthur
*List of films based on Arthurian legend



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*citation|last=Rahtz |first= Philip |title=English Heritage Book of Glastonbury |place=London |publisher= Batsford |year= 1993 |isbn=978-0713468656.
*citation|last=Reno |first=Frank D. |title=The Historic King Arthur: Authenticating the Celtic Hero of Post-Roman Britain |place= Jefferson, NC |publisher= McFarland |year= 1996 |isbn=978-0786402663.
*citation|editor-last=Roach |editor-first=William | title=The Continuations of the Old French 'Perceval' of Chrétien de Troyes | place= Philadelphia |publisher= University of Pennsylvania Press |year= 1949–83 |oclc=67476613. 5 vols.
*citation| last= Roberts |first= Brynley F. |title= Brut Tysilio: darlith agoriadol gan Athro y Gymraeg a'i Llenyddiaeth |place= Abertawe |publisher= Coleg Prifysgol Abertawe |year= 1980 |language= Welsh |isbn= 978-0860760207.
*citation|last=Roberts |first=Brynley F. |chapter=Culhwch ac Olwen, The Triads, Saints' Lives |editor1-first= Rachel |editor1-last=Bromwich |editor2-first= A. O. H. |editor2-last= Jarman |editor3-first=Brynley F. |editor3-last= Roberts |title=The Arthur of the Welsh |place=Cardiff |publisher= University of Wales Press |year= 1991a |pages=73–95 |isbn=978-0708311073.
*citation|last=Roberts |first= Brynley F. |chapter=Geoffrey of Monmouth, "Historia Regum Britanniae" and "Brut Y Brenhinedd"|editor1-first= Rachel |editor1-last=Bromwich |editor2-first= A. O. H. |editor2-last= Jarman |editor3-first=Brynley F. |editor3-last= Roberts |title=The Arthur of the Welsh |place=Cardiff |publisher= University of Wales Press |year= 1991b |pages=98–116 |isbn=978-0708311073.
*citation|last= Rosenberg |first=John D. |title= The Fall of Camelot: A Study of Tennyson's 'Idylls of the King' |place= Cambridge, MA |publisher=Harvard University Press |year= 1973 | isbn= 978-0674291751.
*citation| last= Simpson |first= Roger |title= Camelot Regained: The Arthurian Revival and Tennyson, 1800–1849 |place= Cambridge |publisher= Brewer |year= 1990 |isbn= 978-0859913003.
*citation|last=Sims-Williams |first= Patrick| chapter=The Early Welsh Arthurian Poems |editor1-first= Rachel |editor1-last=Bromwich |editor2-first= A. O. H. |editor2-last= Jarman |editor3-first=Brynley F. |editor3-last= Roberts |title=The Arthur of the Welsh |place=Cardiff |publisher= University of Wales Press |year= 1991 |pages=33–71 |isbn=978-0708311073.
*citation |last1= Smith |first1= C. |first2= R. H. |last2= Thompson |chapter= Twain, Mark |editor1-first= Norris J. |editor1-last= Lacy |title= The New Arthurian Encyclopedia |place= New York |publisher= Garland |year= 1996 |pages= 478 |isbn= 978-1568654324.
*citation|last= Staines |first= D. |chapter= Tennyson, Alfred Lord |editor1-first= Norris J. |editor1-last= Lacy |title= The New Arthurian Encyclopedia |place= New York |publisher= Garland |year= 1996 |pages= 446–449 |isbn= 978-1568654324.
*citation|last= Stokstad |first= M. |chapter= Modena Archivolt |editor1-first= Norris J. |editor1-last= Lacy |title= The New Arthurian Encyclopedia |place= New York |publisher= Garland |year= 1996 |pages= 324–326 |isbn= 978-1568654324.
*citation|last= Sweet|first= Rosemary |chapter= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |title= Antiquaries: The Discovery of the Past in Eighteenth-century Britain |place= London |publisher= Continuum|year= 2004 |pages= |isbn= 1852853093.
*citation| last1= Taylor |first1= Beverly |first2= Elisabeth |last2= Brewer |title= The Return of King Arthur: British and American Arthurian Literature Since 1800 |place= Cambridge |publisher= Brewer |year= 1983 |isbn= 978-0389202783.
*citation| last= Thomas |first= Charles |title= Book of Tintagel: Arthur and Archaeology |place= London |publisher= Batsford |year= 1993 |isbn= 978-0713466898.
*citation|last= Thompson |first= R. H. |chapter= English, Arthurian Literature in (Modern) |editor1-first= Norris J. |editor1-last= Lacy |title= The New Arthurian Encyclopedia |place= New York |publisher= Garland |year= 1996 |pages= 136-144 |isbn= 978-1568654324.
*citation|editor1-last=Thorpe |editor1-first= Lewis |title= Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain |place= Harmondsworth |publisher= Penguin |year= 1966 |oclc= 3370598.
*citation|last= Tondro |first= Jason |chapter= Camelot in Comics |editor1-first= Elizabeth Sherr |editor1-last= Sklar |editor2-first= Donald L. |editor2-last= Hoffman |title= King Arthur in Popular Culture |place= Jefferson, NC |publisher= McFarland |year= 2002 |pages= 169–181 |isbn= 978-0786412570.
*citation|last= Twain |first= Mark |title= A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court |place= New York |publisher= Webster |year= 1889 |oclc= 11267671.
*citation| last=Ulrich, von Zatzikhoven |title= Lanzelet |place= New York |publisher= Columbia University Press |year= 2005 |isbn= 978-0231128698. Trans. Thomas Kerth.
*citation|editor1-last=Vinaver |editor1-first= Sir Eugène |title= The Works of Sir Thomas Malory |place= Oxford | publisher= Oxford University Press |year= 1990 |isbn= 978-0198123460. Third, revised, ed.
*citation|last=Watson |first= Derek| chapter=Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde" and "Parsifal" |editor1-first= Richard |editor1-last=Barber |title=King Arthur in Music |place=Cambridge |publisher= D. S. Brewer |year= 2002 |pages=23–34 |isbn=978-0859917673.
*citation|last=White |first= Terence Hanbury |author-link= T. H. White |title= The Once and Future King |place= London |publisher= Collins |year= 1958 |oclc= 547840.
*citation| editor1-last= Williams |editor1-first= Sir Ifor |title= Canu Aneirin |language= Welsh | place= Caerdydd [Cardiff] | publisher= Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru [University of Wales Press] |year= 1937 |oclc= 13163081.
*citation| last= Wordsworth |first= William |chapter= The Egyptian Maid, or, The Romance of the Water-Lily |title= The Camelot Project |publisher= The University of Rochester | url= |year= 1835 |accessdate= 2008-05-22.
*citation| last= Workman |first= L. J. |title= Medievalism and Romanticism |journal= Poetica |issue= 39–40 |year= 1994 |pages= 1–44.
*citation|editor1-last=Wright |editor1-first= Neil |title=The Historia Regum Britanniae of Geoffrey of Monmouth, 1: Bern, Burgerbibliothek, MS. 568 |place=Cambridge |publisher= Brewer |year= 1985 |isbn= 978-0859912112.

External links

*citation|url= |title= Arthurian Resources: King Arthur, History and the Welsh Arthurian Legends |accessdate=2008-05-22. A detailed and comprehensive academic site, which includes numerous scholarly articles, from Thomas Green of Oxford University.
*citation|url= |title= Arthuriana |accessdate=2008-05-22. The only academic journal solely concerned with the Arthurian Legend; a good selection of resources and links.
*citation|url= |title= The Camelot Project |publisher= The University of Rochester |accessdate=2008-05-22. Provides valuable bibliographies and freely downloadable versions of Arthurian texts.
*citation|url= |chapter= Arthurian Gwent |title= Blaenau Gwent Borough County Council |accessdate=2008-05-22. An excellent site detailing Welsh Arthurian folklore.
*citation|url= |title= Celtic Literature Collective |accessdate=2008-05-22. Provides texts and translations (of varying quality) of Welsh medieval sources, many of which mention Arthur.
*citation| chapter= Faces of Arthur |url= |title= Vortigern Studies |accessdate=2008-05-22. An interesting collection of articles on King Arthur by various Arthurian enthusiasts.
*citation|url= |title= The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe |issn= 1526-1827 |accessdate=2008-05-22. An online peer-reviewed journal that includes regular Arthurian articles; see especially the first issue.
*citation|url= |chapter= The Medieval Development of Arthurian Literature |title= h2g2 |publisher=BBC |accessdate=2008-05-22
*citation|last= Ford |first= David Nash |url= |chapter= King Arthur, General of the Britons |title=Britannia History |accessdate=2008-05-22.

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