- Ine of Wessex
title =King of Wessex
Æthelburg of Wessex
date of death =after 726
place of death =
Ine was King of
Wessexfrom 688 to 726. He was unable to retain the territorial gains of his predecessor, Cædwalla, who had brought much of southern Englandunder his control and expanded West Saxon territory substantially. By the end of Ine's reign the kingdoms of Kent, Sussex and Essex were no longer under West Saxon domination; however, Ine maintained control of what is now Hampshire, and consolidated and extended Wessex's territory in the western peninsula.
Ine is noted for his code of laws, which he issued in about 694. These laws were the first issued by an Anglo-Saxon king outside Kent. They shed much light on the history of Anglo-Saxon society, and reveal Ine's
Christianconvictions. Trade increased significantly during Ine's reign, with the town of Hamwic (now Southampton) becoming prominent. It was probably during Ine's reign that the West Saxons began to mint coins, though none have been found that bear his name.
Ine abdicated in 726 to go to
Rome, leaving the kingdom to "younger men", in the words of the contemporary chronicler Bede. He was succeeded by Æthelheard.
Genealogy and accession
Early sources agree that Ine was the son of Cenred, and that Cenred was the son of Ceolwald; further back there is less agreement.Swanton, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", pp. 42–43.] Ine's siblings included a brother, Ingild, and two sisters, Cuthburh and Cwenburg. Cuthburh was married to King
Aldfrith of Northumbria,Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 143.] and Ine himself was married to Æthelburg. Bedetells that Ine was "of the blood royal", by which he means the royal line of the Gewisse, the early West Saxon tribal name.Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", quoted from Leo Sherley-Price's translation, p. 276.]
The genealogy of Ine and of the kings of Wessex is known from two sources: the "
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List. The Chronicle was created in the late ninth century, probably at the court of Alfred the Great, and some of its annals incorporated short genealogies of kings of Wessex. These are often at variance with the more extensive information in the Regnal List.For a discussion of the Chronicle and Regnal List see Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 128–129. For a recent translation of both sources, see Swanton, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", pp. 2, 40–41.] The inconsistencies appear to result from the efforts of later chroniclers to demonstrate that each king on the list was descended from Cerdic, the founder, according to the Chronicle, of the West Saxon line in England.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 142–143.]
Ine's predecessor on the throne of Wessex was Cædwalla, but there is some uncertainty about the transition from Cædwalla to Ine. Cædwalla
abdicated in 688 and departed for Rometo be baptised. According to the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, Ine reigned for 37 years, abdicating in 726. These dates imply that he did not gain the throne until 689, which could indicate an unsettled period between Cædwalla's abdication and Ine's accession. Ine may have ruled alongside his father, Cenred, for a period: there is weak evidence for joint kingships, and stronger evidence of subkings reigning under a dominant ruler in Wessex, not long before this time.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p.145–146] Ine acknowledges his father's help in his code of laws,Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 122.] and there is also a surviving land-grant that indicates Cenred was still reigning in Wessex after Ine's accession.cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=seek&query=S+1164 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net S 1164 | accessmonthday=4 July | accessyear = 2007] Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 120.]
The extent of West Saxon territory at the start of Ine's reign is fairly well known. The upper Thames valley on both sides of the river had long been the territory of the Gewisse, though Cædwalla had lost territory north of the river to the kingdom of
Merciabefore Ine's accession. To the west, Ceawlin of Wessexis known to have reached the Bristol Channelone hundred years before.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", p. 29.] The West Saxons had since expanded further down the southwestern peninsula, pushing back the boundary with the British kingdom of Dumnonia, which was probably roughly equivalent to modern Devonand Cornwall.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", pp. 72–73.] On the West Saxons’ eastern border was the kingdom of the East Saxons, which included Londonand what is now Surrey. To the southeast were the South Saxons, on the coast east of the Isle of Wight. Beyond Sussex lay the kingdom of Kent.Blair, "Roman Britain", p. 209.] Ine’s predecessor, Cædwalla, had made himself overlord of most of these southern kingdoms,Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 137–138.] though he had not been able to prevent Mercian inroads along the upper Thames.
Ine retained control of the Isle of Wight, and made further advances in Dumnonia, but the territorial gains Cædwalla had made in Sussex, Surrey and Kent were all lost by the end of Ine's reign.
Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Surrey
Ine made peace with Kent in 694, when its king Wihtred gave Ine a substantial sum in compensation for the death of Cædwalla's brother Mul, who had been killed during a Kentish rebellion in 687. The value of the amount offered to Ine by Wihtred is uncertain; most manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle record "thirty thousand", and some specify thirty thousand pounds. If the pounds are equal to
sceattas, then this amount is the equal of a king's wergild—that is, the legal valuation of a man's life, according to his rank.Swanton, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", 40–41, note 3.] Lapidge, Michael (ed.), "Wergild", in "The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England", p. 469.]
Ine kept the South Saxons, who had been conquered by Cædwalla in 686, in subjugation for a period.Lapidge, Michael (ed.), "Ine", in "The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England", p. 251.] King
Nothhelm of Sussexis referred to in a charter of 692 as a kinsman of Ine (perhaps by marriage).Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 125–126.] Sussex was still under West Saxon domination in 710, when Nothhelm is recorded as having campaigned with Ine in the west against Dumnonia.
Control of Surrey, which may never have been an independent kingdom, passed between Kent, Mercia, Essex, and Wessex in the years before Ine's reign. Essex also included London, and the diocese of London included Surrey; this appears to have been a source of friction between Ine and the East Saxon and Mercian kings, until the province was transferred to the diocese of Winchester in 705.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 49.] Evidence for Ine's early control of Surrey comes from the introduction to his laws, in which he refers to
Eorcenwald, bishop of London, as "my bishop".See Eorcenwald, under "Events" and "Law-Making", at cite web | url = http://eagle.cch.kcl.ac.uk:8080/pase/persons/index.html | title = Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England | accessmonthday=17 July | accessyear = 2007] Ine's subsequent relations with the East Saxons are illuminated by a letter written in 704 or 705 by Bishop Wealdhere of London to Brihtwold, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The letter refers to "disputes and discords" that had arisen "between the king of the West Saxons and the rulers of our country". The rulers that Wealdhere refers to are Sigeheard and Swaefred of the East Saxons, and the cause of the discord was the East Saxons' sheltering of exiles from the West Saxons. Ine had agreed to peace on the condition that the exiles were expelled. A council at Brentfordwas planned to resolve the disputes.A translation of Wealdhere's letter can be found in Whitelock, "English Historical Documents", p. 729.] By this point Surrey had clearly passed out of West Saxon control.
Bede records that Ine held Sussex in subjection for "several years",Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", quoted from Leo Sherley-Price's translation, p. 230.] but in 722 an exile named Ealdberht fled to Surrey and Sussex, and Ine invaded Sussex as a result. Three years later Ine invaded again, this time killing Ealdberht. Sussex had evidently broken away from West Saxon domination some time before this. It has been suggested that Ealdberht was a son of Ine, or a son of Ine's brother Ingild.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 131 & note 75.]
Dumnonia and Mercia
In 710, Ine and Nothhelm fought against
Geraint of Dumnonia, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; John of Worcesterstates that Geraint was killed in this battle.John of Worcester was a twelfth-century chronicler who had access to versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that have not survived to the present day. See Campbell (ed.), "The Anglo-Saxons", p. 222. For the chronicle text, see Forester, "Chronicle", p. 36.] Ine's advance brought him control of what is now Devon, the new border with Dumnonia being the river Tamar. The " Annales Cambriae", a tenth century chronicle,Higham, "King Arthur", p. 170.] records that in 722 the British defeated their enemies at the Hehil. The "enemies" must be Ine or his people, but the location is unidentified; historians have suggested locations in both Cornwall and Devon.Todd & Fleming, "The Southwest", p. 273.]
Ine fought a battle with the
Mercians under Ceolred at Woden’s Barrow in 715, but the result is not recorded. Woden’s Barrow is a tumulus, now called Adam’s Grave, at Alton Prior, Wiltshire.Swanton, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", p. 14.] Ine may not have recovered any of the lands north of the Thames that had belonged to the West Saxons under previous kings, but it is known that he controlled the southern bank: a charter dated 687 shows him giving land to the church at Streatley on the Thames and at nearby Basildon. [cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=charter&id=239 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net: S 239 | accessmonthday=19 July | accessyear = 2007]
In 721, the Chronicle records that Ine slew one Cynewulf, of whom nothing else is known, though his name suggests a connection to the Wessex royal line. A quarrel apparently arose in the royal family soon afterwards: in 722, according to the Chronicle, Ine's queen Æthelburg destroyed
Taunton, which her husband had built earlier in his reign.
The first mention of the office of
ealdormanin Wessex, and the first references to the shires they led, occur during Ine's reign. It may have been Ine who divided Wessex into something approximating the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Somerset, Devon, and Dorset, though earlier administrative boundaries might also have influenced these borders. It has also been suggested that these counties began as divisions of the kingdom among members of the royal family.
By about 710, in the middle of Ine's reign, the trading settlement of Hamwic had become established on the west bank of the river Itchen; the site is now part of the modern city of Southampton. The goods traded at this port included glass vessels, and finds of animal bones suggest an active trade in hides. Further evidence of trade comes from finds of imported goods such as quernstones, whetstones, and pottery; and finds of sceattas from the town include Frisian coins. Specialist trades carried on in the town included cloth-making, smithying, and metalworking. It is not known whether Ine took an interest in Hamwic, but some of the goods he favoured, including luxuries, were imported there, and the merchants would probably have needed royal protection. The total population of Hamwic has been estimated at 5,000, and this high population itself implies Ine's involvement, since no-one but the king would have been able to arrange to feed and house such a large group of people.Campbell (ed.), "The Anglo-Saxons", p. 102.] Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 139–140.]
The growth of trade after about 700 was paralleled by an expansion of the area of circulation of the
sceat, the common coin of the day, to include the upper Thames valley. It is thought that the first West Saxon coinage was minted during Ine's reign, though no coins bearing his name have been found—sceattas typically gave no hint of the reigning king.
The earliest Anglo-Saxon law code to survive, which may date from 602 or 603, is that of
Æthelberht of Kent, whose reign ended in 616.Whitelock, "English Historical Documents", p. 357.] In the 670s or 680s, a code was issued in the names of Hlothhere and Eadric of Kent. The next kings to issue laws were Wihtred of Kentand Ine.Whitelock, "English Historical Documents", pp. 327–337.]
The dates of Wihtred’s and Ine’s laws are somewhat uncertain, but there is reason to believe that Wihtred’s laws were issued on 6 September 695,Whitelock, "English Historical Documents", p. 361.] while Ine’s laws were written in 694 or shortly before. Ine had recently agreed peaceful terms with Wihtred over compensation for the death of Mul, and there are indications that the two rulers collaborated to some degree in producing their laws. In addition to the coincidence of timing, there is one clause that appears in almost identical form in both codes.The law is chapter 20 in Ine's code, and chapter 28 in Wihtred's. Ine's version reads "If a man from a distance or a foreigner goes through the wood off the track, and does not shout nor blow a horn, he is to be assumed to be a thief, to be either killed or redeemed." Wihtred's version is "If a man from a distance or a foreigner goes off the track, and he neither shouts nor blows a horn, he is to be assumed to be a thief, to be either killed or redeemed." See Whitelock, "English Historical Documents", pp. 364, 366.] Another sign of collaboration is that Wihtred’s laws use "gesith", a West Saxon term for noble, in place of the Kentish term "eorlcund". It is possible that Ine and Wihtred issued the law codes as an act of prestige, to re-establish authority after periods of disruption in both kingdoms.
Ine’s laws survive only because Alfred the Great appended them to his own code of laws.Whitelock, "English Historical Documents", pp. 364–372.] The oldest surviving manuscript, and only complete copy, is
Corpus Christi College, CambridgeMS 173, which contains both Alfred’s and Ine’s law codes and the oldest extant text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Two more partial texts survive. One was originally a complete copy of Ine's laws, part of British Library MS Cotton Otho B xi, but that manuscript was largely destroyed in 1731 by a fire at Ashburnham Housein which only Chapters 66 to 76.2 of Ine's laws escaped destruction. A fragment of Ine’s laws can also be found in British Museum MS Burney 277.
It is possible that we do not have Ine’s laws in their original seventh-century form. Alfred mentions in the prologue to his laws that he rejected earlier laws which he disliked. He did not specify what laws he omitted, but if they were the ones no longer relevant in his own time, it cannot be assumed that the surviving version of Ine's laws is complete.
The prologue to Ine's laws lists his advisors. Three people are named: bishops Eorcenwald and
Hædde, and Ine’s father, King Cenred. Ine was a Christian king, whose intent to encourage Christianityis clear from the laws. The oath of a communicant, for example, is declared to carry more weight than that of a non-Christian; and baptism and religious observance are also addressed. Significant attention is also paid to civil issues—more than in the contemporary Kentish laws.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 124.]
One of the laws states that
common landmight be enclosed by several ceorls (the contemporary name for Saxon freemen). Any ceorl who fails to fence his share, however, and allows his cattle to stray into someone else's field is to be held liable for any damage caused. This does not mean that the land was held in common: each ceorl had his own strip of land that supported him. It is notable that a king's law is required to settle a relatively minor issue; the laws do not mention the role of local lords in obtaining compliance from the ceorls.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", pp. 279–280.] It is clear from this and other laws that tenants held the land in tenure from a lord; the king's close involvement indicates that the relationship between lord and tenant was under the king's control.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", pp. 312–314.]
The laws that deal with straying cattle provide the earliest documentary evidence for an open-field farming system. They show that open-field agriculture was practiced in Wessex in Ine's time, and it is probable that this was also the prevalent agricultural method throughout the English midlands, and as far north and east as Lindsey and Deira. Not all of Wessex used this system, however: it was not used in Devon, for example. The law which mentions a "yard" of land is the first documented mention of that unit. A yard was a unit of land equal to a quarter of a hide; a hide was itself variable from place to place but could be as much as a hundred and twenty acres. The yard in this sense later became the standard holding of the medieval
villein, and was known as the virgate. One historian has commented that "the beginnings of a manorial economy are clearly visible in Ine's laws."
The fine for neglecting
fyrd, the obligation to do military service for the king, is set at 120 shillings for a nobleman, and half that for a ceorl, incidentally revealing that ceorls were required to serve in the army. Scholars have disagreed on the military value of the ceorl, but it is not surprising that all free men would fight, since defeat might have meant slavery.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", p. 290.]
Another law specified that anyone accused of murder required at least one high-ranking person among his "oath-helpers". An oath-helper would swear an oath on behalf of an accused man, to clear him from the suspicion of the crime. Ine's requirement implies that he did not trust an oath sworn only by peasants. It may represent a significant change from an earlier time when a man's kin were expected to support him with oaths.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", pp. 316–317.]
The laws made separate provision for Ine's English and British subjects and were neither oppressive to the British nor completely even-handed. The evidence they provide for the incomplete integration of the two populations is supported by research into
placenamehistory, the history of religious houses, and local archaeology, which indicates that the western part of Wessex was thinly settled by the Germanic newcomers at the time the laws were issued. It is notable that, although issued by the Saxon king of a Saxon kingdom, the term used in the laws to define Ine's Germanic subjects is "Englisc". This reflects the existence, even at this early date, of a common English identity encompassing all the Germanic peoples of Britain. [Patrick Wormald, "Bede, the "Bretwaldas" and the origins of the "Gens Anglorum", in Patrick Wormald, "The Times of Bede - studies in early English Christian society and its historian" (Oxford 2006), pp. 106-34 at p. 119]
Ine was a Christian king, who ruled as a patron and protector of the church. The introduction to his laws names his advisors, among whom are Eorcenwald,
Bishop of Londonand Hædde, Bishop of Winchester; Ine says that the laws were also made with the advice and instruction of "all my ealdormen, and chief councillors of my people, and also a great assembly of the servants of God".Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 2.] The laws themselves demonstrate Ine's Christian convictions, though the need for a fine for failing to baptise a child or to tithe indicates that some Christian practices had yet to take firm root. Ine supported the church by patronising religious houses, especially in the new diocese of Sherborne, which had been divided from the diocese of Winchesterin 705. Ine had opposed this division, ignoring threats of excommunication from Canterbury, but he agreed to it when Bishop Haedde died.
The first West Saxon nunneries were founded in Ine's reign by Ine's kinswoman, Bugga, the daughter of King Centwine, and by Ine's sister Cuthburh, who founded the abbey of Wimborne at some point after she separated from her husband, King Aldfrith of Northumbria.Lapidge, Michael (ed.), "Cuthburg", in "The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England", p. 133.] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle also records that Ine built a minster at
Glastonbury. This must refer to additional building or re-building since there was already a British monastery at Glastonbury.Swanton, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", p. 40, note 1.]
Ine has been credited with supporting the establishment of an organized church in Wessex, though it is not clear that this was his initiative. He is also connected with the oldest known West Saxon
synods, presiding at one himself and apparently addressing the assembled clerics.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", p. 71.]
Abdication and succession
In 726, Ine abdicated, with no obvious heir and, according to
Bede, left his kingdom to "younger men" in order to travel to Rome, where he died; his predecessor, Cædwalla, had also abdicated to go to Rome. A trip to Rome was thought to aid one's chance of a welcome in heaven, and according to Bede, many people went to Rome for these reasons: ". . . both noble and simple, layfolk and clergy, men and women alike." Either Ine or Offa of Merciais traditionally supposed to have founded the Schola Saxonumthere, in what is today the Roman rione, or district, of Borgo. The Schola Saxonum took its name from the militias of Saxons who served in Rome, but it eventually developed into a hostelry for English visitors to the city.Keynes & Lapidge, "Alfred the Great", p. 244.] Ine's successor was King Æthelheard; it is not known whether Æthelheard was related to Ine, though some later sources state that Æthelheard was Ine's brother-in-law. [Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 147. The relationship is recorded in a forged charter: cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=seek&query=S+250 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net S 250 | accessmonthday=15 August | accessyear = 2007.] Æthelheard's succession to the throne was disputed by an ætheling, Oswald, and it may be that Mercian support for Æthelheard in the unsettled aftermath of Ine's abdication both helped establish Æthelheard as king and also brought him into the sphere of influence of Æthelbald, the king of Mercia.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 131.] His brother Ingild, who died 718, is given as ancestor of king Egbert of Wessexand the subsequent kings of England. [Garmonsway, G.N. ed., "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", London, J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., pp. xxxii,2,4,42,66]
House of Wessex family tree
*cite book |last= Bede|authorlink= Bede|title= Ecclesiastical History of the English People|others= Translated by Leo Sherley-Price, revised R.E. Latham, ed. D.H. Farmer|location= London|publisher= Penguin|year= 1991|isbn= 0-14-044565-X
*cite book |last= Swanton|first= Michael|title= The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle|year= 1996| location=New York|publisher= Routledge|isbn=0-415-92129-5
* [http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=find&type=charter&page=&archive=&kingdom=&king=Ine+%28of+Wessex%29&sawyer=&text=&display=JUST_BLURB Ine's charters] at Anglo-Saxons.net
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*cite book |last= Kirby|first= D.P.|title= The Earliest English Kings|year= 1992|location=London|publisher= Routledge|isbn=0-415-09086-5
*cite book |last=Lapidge|first=Michael|title=The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England|year=1999|location=Oxford|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|isbn=0-631-22492-0
*cite book |last= Stenton|first= Frank M.| authorlink = Frank Stenton|title= Anglo-Saxon England|year= 1971| location=Oxford|publisher= Clarendon Press|isbn=0-19-821716-1
*cite book |last= Todd|first= Malcolm|coauthors= Andrew Fleming|title= The South West to AD 1000|year= 1987|publisher= Longman|location=London|isbn=0584492734
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*cite book |last= Yorke|first=Barbara|title= Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England|year= 1990|location=London|publisher= Seaby|isbn=1-85264-027-8
NAME = Ine of Wessex
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = King of Wessex
DATE OF BIRTH =
PLACE OF BIRTH =
DATE OF DEATH = after 726
PLACE OF DEATH =
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