A churl (etymologically the same name as Charles / Carl and Old High German karal), in its earliest Old English (Anglo-Saxon) meaning, was simply "a man", but the word soon came to mean "a non-servile peasant", still spelt ċeorl(e), and denoting the lowest rank of freemen. According to the Oxford English Dictionary it later came to mean the opposite of the nobility and royalty, "a common person". Says Chadwick:

from the time of Æthelstan the distinction between theġn and ċeorl was the broad line of demarcation between the classes of society.

This meaning held through the 15th century, but by then the word had taken on negative overtone, meaning "a country person" and then "a low fellow". By the 19th century, a new and pejorative meaning arose, "one inclined to uncivil or loutish behaviour".

The ċeorles of Anglo-Saxon times lived in a largely free society, and one in which their fealty was principally to their king. Their low status is shown by their werġild ("man-price"), which over a large part of England was fixed at 200 shillings (one-sixth that of a theġn). Agriculture was largely community-based and communal in open-field systems. This freedom was eventually eroded by the increase in power of feudal lords and the manorial system. Some scholars argue however that anterior to the encroachment of the manorial system the ċeorles owed various services and rents to local lords and powers.

In the North Germanic (Scandinavian) languages, the word Karl has the same root as churl and meant originally a "free man". As Housecarl, it came back to England. In German, Kerl is used to describe a somewhat rough and common man and is no longer in use as a synonym for a common soldier (die langen Kerls[1] of Frederick the Great of Prussia). Rígsþula, a poem in the Poetic Edda, explains the social classes as originating from the three sons of Ríg: Thrall, Karl and Earl (Þræl, Karl and Jarl). This story has been interpreted in the context of the proposed trifunctional hypothesis of Proto-Indo-European society.

The word ceorle in a corrupted form is frequently found in place names, throughout the Anglophone world, in towns such as Carlton and Charlton, meaning "the farm of the churls"[dubious ]. Names such as Carl and Charles are derived from cognates of churl or ċeorle.

While the word churl went down in the social scale, the first name derived from the same etymological source ("Karl" in German, "Charles" in French and English, "Carlos" in Spanish etc.) remained prestigious enough to be used frequently by many European royal families - owing originally to the fame of Charlemagne, to which was added that of later illustrious kings and emperors of the same name. Król, the Polish word for "king", is also derived from the same origin.

Current use

In the Dutch Low Saxon dialects Tweants, Sallaans and Achterhoeks, which evolved from Old Saxon, the word kearl ([kɛː(r)l]) is still commonly used to refer to man.

See also


  1. ^ The correct (modern) plural of Kerl being Kerle

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Churl — Churl, n. [AS. ceorl a freeman of the lowest rank, man, husband; akin to D. karel, kerel, G. kerl, Dan. & Sw. karl, Icel. karl, and to the E. proper name Charles (orig., man, male), and perh. to Skr. j[=a]ra lover. Cf. {Carl}, {Charles s Wain}.]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • churl — churl; churl·ish; churl·ish·ly; churl·ish·ness; …   English syllables

  • churl — (chûrl) n. 1) A rude, boorish person. See Synonyms at BOOR(Cf. ↑boor). 2) A miserly person. 3) a) A ceorl. b) A medieval English peasant. ╂ [Middle English, from Old English ceorl, peasant.] …   Word Histories

  • Churl — Churl, a. Churlish; rough; selfish. [Obs.] Ford. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • churl — O.E. ceorl peasant, freeman, man without rank, from P.Gmc. *kerlaz, *karlaz (Cf. O.Fris. zerl man, fellow, M.L.G. kerle, Du. kerel, Ger. Kerl man, husband, O.N. karl old man, man ). It had various meaning in early M.E., including man of the… …   Etymology dictionary

  • churl — n *boor, lout, clown, clodhopper, bumpkin, hick, yokel, rube Antonyms: *gentleman, aristocrat …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • churl — [n] rude and ill bred, a boor; person overly concerned with saving money beast, chuff, clodhopper*, miser, mucker*, niggard*, oaf, peasant, provincial, rustic, tightwad, yokel; concept 423 …   New thesaurus

  • churl — ► NOUN 1) an impolite and mean spirited person. 2) archaic a peasant. ORIGIN Old English …   English terms dictionary

  • churl — [chʉrl] n. [ME cherl < OE ceorl, peasant, freeman: for IE base see CORN1] 1. CEORL 2. a farm laborer; peasant 3. a surly, ill bred person; boor 4. a selfish or mean person …   English World dictionary

  • churl — /cherrl/, n. 1. a rude, boorish, or surly person. 2. a peasant; rustic. 3. a niggard; miser: He was a churl in his affections. 4. Eng. Hist. a freeman of the lowest rank. [bef. 900; ME cherl, OE ceorl man, freeman; c. D kerel, G Kerl; akin to… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”