Timeline of AIDS

Timeline of AIDS

This is a timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980).

Pre-1980s

;1930s
* Researchers believe that sometime in the 1930s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus jumped to humans in central Africa. The mutated virus becomes HIV-1."Timeline: HIV & AIDS," John Pickrell, "New Scientist," September 4, 2006]

;1958
* A 25-year-old printer from England named David Carr, who had served in the Royal Navy between 1955 and 1957, contracts a series of mysterious ailments including Pneumocystis carinii. He dies early the next year (1959). In 1990, tests by a hospital in Manchester reveal HIV in Carr's tissue samples, and he is briefly recognized as the first known AIDS death. Subsequently, more sophisticated testing at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center at New York University Medical School reveals the HIV to have been a laboratory contaminant. The source reference for this item has been removed from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website. ["How scientists discovered false evidence on the world's "first AIDS victim","The Independent (INDT) - One Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5DL; Section: Home News, p. 2,3 - March 24, 1995]

;1959
* The first known case of HIV in a human occurs in a person who died in the Congo, seemingly later confirmed as having HIV infection from his preserved blood samples .cite journal | author = Zhu T, Korber BT, Nahmias AJ, Hooper E, Sharp PM, Ho DD | title = An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic | journal = Nature | volume = 391 | issue = 6667 | pages = 594–7 | year = 1998 | month = February | pmid = 9468138 | doi = 10.1038/35400] However, according to the authors of the 1959 discovery, they never found, nor alleged to have found, HIV, or anything like a full virus. According to these authors, even "attempts to amplify HIV-1 fragments of >300 base pairs (bp) were unsuccessful, . . . However, after numerous attempts, four shorter sequences were obtained" that only represented small portions of two of the six genes of the complete AIDS virus.
* In New York City, a 49-year-old American shipping clerk dies of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a disease closely associated with AIDS. Dr. Gordon Hennigar, who performed the postmortem examination of the man's body, has been quoted in numerous publications saying that he believes the man probably had AIDS. ["Strange Trip Back to the Future - The case of Robert R. spurs new questions about AIDS", "TIME Magazine," November 9, 1987]

;1960s
* HIV-2, a viral variant found in West Africa, is thought to have transferred to people from sooty mangabey monkeys in Guinea-Bissau during this period.

;1966
* Genetic studies of the virus indicate that, in or about 1966, HIV first left Africa, infecting a single person in US. At this time, many Americans were working in Congo, providing the opportunity for infection."Solved: the mystery of how AIDS left Africa," "New Scientist," November 3, 2007, p.20]

;1968
* A 2003 analysis of HIV types found in the United States, compared to known mutation rates, suggests that the virus may have first arrived in the United States in this year. The disease spread from the 1966 American strand, but remained unrecognized for another 12 years.

;1969
* A St. Louis teenager, identified only as Robert R., dies of an illness that baffles his doctors. Eighteen years later, molecular biologists at Tulane University in New Orleans test samples of his remains and find the virus that causes AIDS.cite news | first=Gina | last=Kolata | coauthors= | title=Boy's 1969 Death Suggests AIDS Invaded U.S. Several Times | date=1987-10-28 | publisher=The New York Times Company | url =http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DEFD6173AF93BA15753C1A961948260&sec=health&pagewanted=all | work =The New York Times | pages = | accessdate = 2008-07-05 | language = ]

;1975
* The first reports of wasting and other symptoms, later determined to be AIDS, are reported in residents of Africa. [ [http://www.stanford.edu/class/stat30/web1/aids2.html Did Modern Medicine Spread an Epidemic?/After decades, and millions of injections, scientists are asking the chilling question ] ]

;1976
* Norwegian sailor Arvid Noe dies; it is later determined that he contracted HIV/AIDS in Africa during the early 1960s.

;1977
* Danish physician Grethe Rask dies of AIDS contracted in Africa.
* A San Francisco prostitute gives birth to the first of three children who would later be diagnosed with AIDS, and whose blood, when tested after their deaths, would reveal HIV infection. The mother would herself die of AIDS in May 1987. She was clearly infected by 1977 and perhaps earlier. ["And the Band Played On", Randy Shilts, p.512-513]

;1978
* A Portuguese man known as Senhor Jose dies; he will later be confirmed as the first known infection of HIV-2. He was believed to have been exposed to the disease in Guinea-Bissau in 1966.

1980s

;1980
* April 24, San Francisco resident Ken Horne, the first AIDS case in the United States to be recognized at the time, is reported to Center for Disease Control with Kaposi's sarcoma(KS). He was also suffering from "Cryptococcus" at the time. [ [http://www.kqed.org/topics/history/heritage/lgbt/timeline.jsp#1980 KQED LGBT Timeline] ]
* On October 31, French-Canadian flight attendant Gaëtan Dugas pays his first known visit to New York City bathhouses. He would later be deemed "Patient Zero" for his apparent connection to many early cases of AIDS in the United States. [http://nymag.com/news/features/17158/ AIDS in New York, a Biography] ]
*Rick Wellikoff, a Brooklyn schoolteacher, dies of AIDS in New York City on December 23. He is the 4th American to have died from the new disease.

;1981
* January 15, Nick Rock becomes the first known AIDS death in New York City.
* May 18, Dr. Lawrence Mass becomes the first journalist in the world to write about the epidemic, in the "New York Native," a gay newspaper. A gay tipster overheard his physician mention that some gay men were being treated in intensive-care units in New York City for a strange pneumonia. "Disease Rumors Largely Unfounded" was the headline on Mass's article. Mass repeated a New York City public-health official's claims that there was no wave of disease sweeping through the gay community. At this point, however, the CDC had been gathering information for about a month on the outbreak that Mass's source was dismissing.
* June 5, The CDC reports a cluster of "Pneumocystis" pneumonia in five gay male drug users in Los Angeles. cite journal|title=Pneumocycstis Pneumonia - Los Angeles|journal=Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report|date=1981-06-05|first=|last=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |coauthors=|volume=30|issue=|pages=250–2|id= |url=http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/reports/mmwr/pdf/mmwr05jun81.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2008-05-10 ]
* July 4, CDC reports clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and "Pneumocystis" pneumonia among gay men in California and New York City. cite journal|title=Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocycstis Pneumonia Among Homosexual Men - New York City and California|journal=Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report|date=1981-07-04|first=|last=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |coauthors=|volume=30|issue=|pages=305–8|id= |url=http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/reports/mmwr/pdf/mmwr04jul81.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2008-05-10 ]
* By the end of the year, 121 people are known to have died from the disease.
* First known case in the United Kingdom. [Dubois, R.M., Braitwaite, M.A., Mikhail, J.R. et al., (1981) 'Primary Pneumocystis Carinii and Cytomegalovirus Infections', the Lancet, ii, 1339]

;1982
* June 18, CDC MMWR 1982 31(23);305-7: "Exposure to some substance (rather than an infectious agent) may eventually lead to immunodeficiency among a subset of the homosexual male population that shares a particular style of life." cite journal|title=A Cluster of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia among Homosexual Male Residents of Los Angeles and range Counties, California|journal=Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report|year=1982|first=|last=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|coauthors=|volume=31|issue=23|pages=305–7|id= |url=http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001114.htm|format=|accessdate=2008-05-11 ] For example, Marmor et al. recently reported that exposure to amyl nitrite was associated with an increased risk of KS in New York City.cite journal |author=Marmor M, Friedman-Kien AE, Laubenstein L, "et al" |title=Risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men |journal=Lancet |volume=1 |issue=8281 |pages=1083–7 |year=1982 |month=May |pmid=6122889 |doi= 10.1016/S0140-6736(82)92275-9|url= |accessdate=] Exposure to inhalant sexual stimulants, central-nervous-system stimulants, and a variety of other "street" drugs was common among males belonging to the cluster of cases of KS and PCP in Los Angeles and Orange counties."
* July 9, CDC reports a cluster of opportunistic infections (OOI) and Kaposi's sarcoma among Haitians recently entering the United States. ref|CDCJuly1982
* July 27, The term AIDS (for "acquired immune deficiency syndrome") is proposed at a meeting in Washington of gay-community leaders, federal bureaucrats and the CDC. [ [http://www.time.com/time/80days/820727.html TIME] ]
* Summer, First known case in Italy [from: Bruno de Michelis, Remo Modica, Giorgio Re "et al.":Trattato di Clinica Odontostomatologica, Turin 1992, 3rd edition; " [the patient was] a homosexual subject that has been many times in United States; ... in 1983 were reported other 4 cases about homosexuals that travelled to USA, when in 1984 AIDS cases [in Italy] were 18; among these, was described in Milan the first case about a drug addicted subject that never had been in the exterior".]
* September 24, Current Trends Update on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) - United States [ [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001163.htm http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001163.htm] ]

: CDC defines a case of AIDS as a disease, at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known cause for diminished resistance to that disease. Such diseases include KS, PCP, and serious OOI. [...] Diagnoses are considered to fit the case definition only if based on sufficiently reliable methods (generally histology or culture). Some patients who are considered AIDS cases on the basis of diseases only moderately predictive of cellular immunodeficiency may not actually be immunodeficient and may not be part of the current epidemic.
* December 10, a baby in California becomes ill in the first known case of AIDS from a blood transfusion.
* First known case in Brazil. [ [http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm HIV & AIDS in Brazil] ]
* First known case in Canada. [cite news | url = http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/aids/index.html | title = AIDS: The global epidemic | publisher = Canadian Broadcasting Corporation | date = 2008-07-02 | accessdate = 2008-07-14]

;1983
* In January, Dr. Françoise Barre, at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, isolates a retrovirus that kills T-cells from the lymph system of a gay AIDS patient. In the following months, she would find it in additional gay and hemophiliac sufferers. This retrovirus would be called by several names, including LAV and HTLV-III before being named HIV in 1986. ["And The Band Played On," Randy Shilts, p.227]
* CDC National AIDS Hotline established.
* March, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues donor screening guidelines. AIDS high-risk groups should "not" donate blood/plasma products.
* Australia has first death from AIDS in Melbourne, the Hawke Labor government invests in a significant campaign that ultimately gives Australia one of the lowest infection rates in the world.
* AIDS is diagnosed in Mexico for the first time. HIV can be traced in the country back to 1981. [ [http://www.thebody.com/content/world/art12264.html AIDS in Mexico] , November, 1998]

;1984
* April 23, U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler announces at a press conference that an American scientist, Dr. Robert Gallo, has discovered the "probable cause" of AIDS: the retrovirus subsequently named "human immunodeficiency virus" or HIV in 1986. She also declares that a vaccine will be available within two years.
* September 6, first performance at Theatre Rhinoceros in San Francisco of The AIDS Show which runs for two years and is the subject of a 1986 documentary film of the same name.
* December 17, Ryan White was diagnosed with AIDS by a doctor performing a partial lung removal. White became infected with HIV from a blood product, known as Factor VIII, as part of his treatment for hemophilia which was given to him on a regular basis. When the public school that he attended, Western Middle School in Russiaville, Indiana, learned of his disease there was enormous pressure from parents and faculty to bar him from school premises. Due to the widespread fear of AIDS and lack of medical knowledge, principal Ron Colby and the schoolboard assented. His family filed a lawsuit, seeking to overturn the ban.

;1985
* March 2, FDA approves first AIDS antibody screening tests for use on all donated blood and plasma intended for transfusion.
* October 2, Rock Hudson, the first American celebrity to publicly admit having AIDS, dies of the disease.
* October, a conference of public health officials including representatives of the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organisation meet in Bangui and define AIDS in Africa as "prolonged fevers for a month or more, weight loss of over 10% and prolonged diarrhoea".
* First officially reported cases in China. [ [http://www.avert.org/aidschina.htm HIV & AIDS in China] ]

;1986
* HIV ("human immunodeficiency virus") is adopted as name of the retrovirus that was first proposed as the cause of AIDS by Luc Montagnier of France, who named it "LAV" ("lymphadenopathy associated virus") and Robert Gallo of the United States, who named it HTLV-III ("human T-lymphotropic virus type III")
* January 14, "...one million Americans have already been infected with the virus and that this number will jump to at least 2 million or 3 million within 5 to 10 years..." - NIAID Director Anthony Fauci, New York Times.cite news | first=Philip | last=Boffey | coauthors= | title=AIDS IN THE FUTURE: EXPERTS SAY DEATHS WILL CLIMB SHARPLY | date=1986-01-14 | publisher=The New York Times Company | url =http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9A0DE4D81338F937A25752C0A960948260&scp=31&sq=AIDS&st=nyt | work =The New York Times | pages = | accessdate = 2008-05-04 | language = ]
* Model Gia Marie Carangi dies of AIDS related illness on November 18th.
* First officially known cases in the U.S.S.R. [ [http://www.spiral.com/infoshare/Article1.html AIDS in Russia] ] and India [ [http://www.avert.org/aidsindia.htm Overview of HIV and AIDS in India] ] .

;1987
* AZT (zidovudine), the first antiretroviral drug, becomes available to treat HIV sufferers.
* Charles Ludlam dies of PCP pneumonia due to AIDS on May 28, 1987.

;1989
* The television movie "The Ryan White Story" aired. It starred Judith Light as Jeanne, Lukas Haas as Ryan and Nikki Cox as sister Andrea. Ryan White had a small cameo appearance as Chad, a young patient with AIDS.

1990s

;1990
*Ryan White - Dies on April 8, 1990 at the age of 18 from pneumonia caused by AIDS complications.
* Congress enacted The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act or Ryan White Care Act, the United States' largest federally funded health related program (excluding Medicaid and Medicare).

;1991
* A little over 24 hours after issuing the statement confirming that he has been tested HIV positive and had AIDS, Freddie Mercury (Singer of the British band "Queen") dies on November 24, 1991 at the age of 45. The official cause of death was bronchial pneumonia resulting from AIDS.
* NBA star Magic Johnson publicly announces that he is HIV-positive.

;1992
* In the US, AIDS becomes the leading cause of death for 24 to 44 year old men
* The first combination drug therapies for HIV are introduced. Such "cocktails" are more effective than AZT alone and slow down the development of drug resistance.
* American actor Anthony Perkins, known for his role as Norman Bates in the "Psycho" movies, dies from AIDS.
*Australian singer Peter Allen dies from complications due to AIDS on June 18, 1992

;1993
* The PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique is developed by Kary Mullis, improving the researches on microbiology and genetics, also widely used in AIDS research.

;1995
* Saquinavir, a new type of protease inhibitor drug, becomes available to treat HIV. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) becomes possible. Within two years, death rates due to AIDS will have plummeted in the developed world.

;1996
* Robert Gallo's discovery that some natural compounds known as chemokines can block HIV and halt the progression of AIDS is hailed by Science magazine as one of that year's most important scientific breakthroughs.

;1997
* September 2, "The most recent estimate of the number of Americans infected (with HIV), 750,000, is only half the total that government officials used to cite over a decade ago, at a time when experts believed that as many as 1.5 million people carried the virus." article in the Washington Post
* Based on the Bangui definition the WHO's cumulative number of reported AIDS cases from 1980 through 1997 for all of Africa is 620,000.cite book | last = Shisana | first = O | authorlink = | coauthors = South Africa. Dept. of Health.; Human Sciences Research Council. Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health.; Medical University of Southern Africa.; South African Medical Research Council.; et al | title = The impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector : national survey of health personnel, ambulatory and hospitalised patients and health facilities, 2002 | publisher = Human Sciences Research Council | year = 2003 | location = Pretoria | pages = 146 | url = http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/product.php?productid=1986&cat=8&page= | doi = | oclc = 54406814| isbn = 9781875017850 ] For comparison, the cumulative total of AIDS cases in the USA through 1997 is 641,087.

;1998
* December 10, International Human Rights Day, Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) is launched to campaign for greater access to HIV treatment for all South Africans, by raising public awareness and understanding about issues surrounding the availability, affordability and use of HIV treatments. TAC campaigns against the view that AIDS is a "death sentence".

;1999
* January 31, studies suggest that a retrovirus, "SIVcpz" (simian immunodeficiency virus) from the common chimpanzee "Pan troglodytes", may have passed to human populations in west equatorial Africa during the twentieth century and developed into various types of HIV.cite journal |author=Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL, "et al" |title=Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes |journal=Nature |volume=397 |issue=6718 |pages=436–41 |year=1999 |month=February |pmid=9989410 |doi=10.1038/17130 |accessdate=] cite journal |author=Weiss RA, Wrangham RW |title=From Pan to pandemic |journal=Nature |volume=397 |issue=6718 |pages=385–6 |year=1999 |month=February |pmid=9989400 |doi=10.1038/17008 |accessdate=]
* Edward Hooper releases a book called "The River", which accuses doctors who tested a polio vaccine in 1950s Africa of unintentionally starting the AIDS epidemic. The theory receives a great deal of publicity.

2000s

;2000
* WHO estimates between 15% and 20% of new HIV infections worldwide are the result of blood transfusions, where the donors were not screened or inadequately screened for HIV.

;2001
* September 21, FDA licenses the first nucleic acid test (NAT) systems intended for screening of blood and plasma donors.

;2004
* January 5, "Individual risk of acquiring HIV and experiencing rapid disease progression is not uniform within populations", says Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of NIAID. [cite news | first= | last=US National Institutes of Health | coauthors= | title=Scientists Discover Key Genetic Factor in Determining HIV/AIDS Risk | date=2005-01-06 | publisher= | url =http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2005/ccl3l1.htm | work =US National Institutes of Health | pages = | accessdate = 2008-05-10 | language = ] ref|NIAID2005

;2005
*January 21, CDC recommends anti-retroviral post-exposure prophylaxis for people exposed to HIV from rapes, accidents or occasional unsafe sex or drug use. This treatment should start no more than 72 hours after a person has been exposed to the virus, and the drugs should be used by patients for 28 days. This emergency drug treatment has been recommended since 1996 for health-care workers accidentally stuck with a needle, splashed in the eye with blood, or exposed in some other way on the job. [ [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5402a1.htm Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis After Sexual, Injection-Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV in the United States Recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ] ]
* A highly resistant strain of HIV linked to rapid progression to AIDS is identified in New York City.

;2006
* November 9, SIV found in Gorillascite journal | author = Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Neel C, "et al" | title = Human immunodeficiency viruses: SIV infection in wild gorillas | journal = Nature | volume = 444 | issue = 7116 | pages = 164 | year = 2006 | month = November | pmid = 17093443 | doi = 10.1038/444164a]

References

*]
* cite journal |author= Garzino-Demo A, Moss R, Margolick J, Cleghorn F, Sill A, Blattner W, Cocchi F, Carlo D, DeVico A, and Gallo R
title=Spontaneous and antigen-induced production of HIV-inhibitory beta-chemokines are associated with AIDS-free status |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=96 |issue=21 |pages=11986–91 |year=1999 |month=October |pmid=10518563 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.96.21.11986|url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10518563 |accessdate=2008-05-09

*
*
*

External links

* [http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/other/PDF/TimeLine%202006.pdf Important milestones in the U.S. HIV/AIDS epidemic]
* [http://www.kff.org/hivaids/timeline/hivtimeline.cfm Flash Global HIV/AIDS Timeline] from the Kaiser Family Foundation


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