- Zoledronic acid
IUPAC_name = (1-hydroxy-2-imidazol-1-yl-1-phosphono-ethyl)phosphonic acid
width = 180px
CAS_number = 118072-93-8
ATC_prefix = M05
ATC_suffix = BA08
PubChem = 68740
DrugBank = APRD01294
C = 5 |H = 10 |N = 2 |O = 7 |P = 2
molecular_weight = 272.09 g/mol
protein_bound = 22%
metabolism = Nil
elimination_half-life = 146 hours
excretion = Renal (partial)
licence_EU = Reclast
licence_US = Zoledronic_acid
pregnancy_category = D (U.S.)
legal_status = ℞-only (U.S.)
routes_of_administration = Intravenous
Zoledronic acid (INN) or zoledronate (marketed by
Novartisunder the trade names Zometa, Zomera, Aclasta and Reclast) is a bisphosphonate. Zometa is used to prevent skeletal fractures in patients with cancers such as multiple myelomaand prostate cancer. It can also be used to treat hypercalcemiaof malignancy and can be helpful for treating pain from bone metastases.
An annual dose of zoledrinic acid may also prevent recurring fractures in patients with a previous hip fracture. [cite journal |author= Lyles K, et al.|title=Zoledronic Acid and Clinical Fractures and Mortality after Hip Fracture |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume= 357|issue= |pages= 1799|year=2007 |pmid=17878149|doi=10.1056/NEJMoa074941]
Reclast is a single 5 mg infusion for the treatment of
Paget's disease of bone. In 2007, the FDAalso approved Reclast for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
The standard dose for zoledronate is 4 mg to be infused
intravenously over 15 min every 3–4 weeks in cancer patients. For Reclast a single dose of 5 mg is used for the treatment of Paget's disease.
Zoledronate has been approved as a once-yearly 5 mg infusion for treatment of osteoporosis and shown significant benefits versus placebo over three years, with a reduced number of
vertebral fractures and improved markers of bone density. [cite journal |author=Reid IR, Brown JP, Burckhardt P, Horowitz Z, Richardson P, Trechsel U, Widmer A, Devogelaer JP, Kaufman JM, Jaeger P, Body JJ, Brandi ML, Broell J, Di Micco R, Genazzani AR, Felsenberg D, Happ J, Hooper MJ, Ittner J, Leb G, Mallmin H, Murray T, Ortolani S, Rubinacci A, Saaf M, Samsioe G, Verbruggen L, Meunier PJ |title=Intravenous zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=346 |issue=9 |pages=653–61 |year=2002 |pmid=11870242 |doi=10.1056/NEJMoa011807] [Black et al.. Once-Yearly Zoledronic Acid for Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. NEJM 2007;356;18;1809-1822. [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/356/18/1809 Abstract] ]
Side effects can include fatigue,
anemia, muscle aches, fever, and/or swelling in the feet or legs. Flu-like symptoms are commonly experienced after the first zoledronate infusion, although not subsequent infusions, and are thought to occur because of its potential to activate human γδ T cells.
Zoledronate is rapidly processed via the
kidneys; consequently its administration is not recommended for patients with reduced renal functionor kidney disease.Fact|date=April 2008
A rare complication that has been recently observed in cancer patients being treated with bisphosphonates is
osteonecrosis of the jaw. This has mainly been seen in patients with multiple myeloma treated with zoledronate who have had dental extractions. [cite journal |author=Durie BG, Katz M, Crowley J |title=Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=353 |issue=1 |pages=99–102; discussion 99–102 |year=2005 |pmid=16000365 |doi=10.1056/NEJM200507073530120]
*Poor renal function (e.g.
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