- Charles Richard Crane
Charles Richard Crane (1858–1939) was a wealthy American businessman, heir to a large industrial fortune and connoisseur of Arab culture, a noted Arabist. His widespread business interests gave him entree into domestic and international political affairs where he enjoyed privileged access to many influential power brokers at the top levels of government. His special arena of interest was Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
Biography and diplomatic activity
He was the eldest son of plumbing parts mogul, Chicago manufacturer, Richard T. Crane. In the 1900s, he brought Thomas Masaryk, Maksim Kovalevsky and Pavel Milyukov to lecture at the University of Chicago. After meeting Masaryk, he became interested in Slavic nationalism and sponsored The Slav Epic paintings by Alphonse Mucha When Mucha designed the Czechoslovak bills, he used a previous portrait of Josephine Crane Bradley as Slavia for the 100 koruna bill.
President William Howard Taft appointed Crane minister to China on July 16, 1909, but on the eve of his departure to his post on October 4, 1909 , he was recalled to Washington and forced to resign under pressure by then U.S. Secretary of State Philander C. Knox. He was forced to resign after being held responsible for the publication in a Chicago newspaper, objections held by the U.S. government over two recently signed treaties by Japan and China, and further, speculated war with Japan, opening the potential of an unwanted diplomatic row.
Crane contributed heavily to Woodrow Wilson's 1912 election campaign. Wilson rewarded Crane with appointments to the 1917 Special Diplomatic Commission to Russia, known as the Root Commission, as a member of the American Section of the Paris Peace Conference, and to the 1919 Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey that became known as the (King-Crane Commission). While the commission was originally proposed by the U.S. to develop an international consensus on the future make up and status of post-WWI Middle East nations, the commission was quickly became a U.S.-only sponsored effort. With the appointment of Crane as co-head of the commission, it set about to issue a report to inform U.S. policy makers. In respect to the creation of a Jewish state in the Middle East, the report cautioned "Not only you as president but the American people as a whole should realize that if the American government decided to support the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, they are committing the American people to the use of force in that area, since only by force can a Jewish state in Palestine be established or maintained." Crane opposed the establishment of a Jewish state in the Middle East, but was as a passionate spokesman for the independence of the Arab states.
Crane was appointed U.S. Minister to China by President Wilson and served from March 22, 1920, to July 2, 1921.
In 1925 Crane founded the New York-based Institute of Current World Affairs. The institute employed field representatives in Mexico, Jerusalem, and occasionally Moscow, who representatives compiled regular reports on developments in their regions, and shared their expertise during ICWA-sponsored lecture tours of major U.S. universities. The reports were also made available to the U.S. State Department.
Crane was virulently anti-Semitic. He expressed his animosity towards Jews in meetings with his business and diplomatic contacts as well as in social situations. When Franklin Roosevelt appointed William E. Dodd American ambassador to Germany in 1933, Crane wrote Dodd a letter of congratulation that told him:The Jews, after winning the war, galloping along at a swift pace, getting Russia, England and Palestine, being in the act of trying to seize Germany, too, and meeting their first real rebuff, have gone plumb crazy and are deluging the world—particularly easy America—with anti-German propaganda. I strongly advise you to resist every social invitation.
Crane admired Adolph Hitler and had no objection to how the Nazis were treating Germany's Jews. He told Dodd: "Let Hitler have his way."
On April 24, 2006 Crane's art collection was sold at Christie's auction house.
- ^ a b An Introduction to the Work of Alphonse Mucha and Art Nouveau, lecture by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, British Columbia (March 2004).
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ David Philipson, My Life as an American Jew: An Autobiography (1941), 32-33, wrote that President Taft told him in November 1909 that he asked for Crane's resignation after hearing Crane's responded to his election by saying: "Well, now that Taft is President, I suppose that Jake Schiff and his Jew crowd will have a great deal to say in our national affairs."
- ^ "The King-Crane Commission Report, August 28, 1919". Hellenic Resources Network. http://www.hri.org/docs/king-crane. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- ^ F.W. Brecher, "Charles R. Crane's Crusade for the Arabs, 1919-39," Middle Eastern Studies, XXIV, January 1988; pp 46-47. Elliott A Green, "The Curious Careers of Two Advocates of Arab Nationalism," Crossroads no. 33 
- ^ Beecher, Frank W. Reluctant Ally: United States Foreign Policy toward the Jews from Wilson to Roosevelt (NY: Green-wood Press, 1991), pp. ??
- ^ a b Larson, Erik, In The Garden of Beasts (Crown Publishers, 2011), 38-9
- Charles R. Crane
- Institute of World Affairs Crane-Rogers Foundation
- King-Crane Commission Report
- Crane Family Papers 1875-1980
United States Ambassadors to China Envoys to the Qing Empire
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plentipotentiary to the Qing Empire
John Elliott Ward 1858-60 · Anson Burlingame 1861-67 · John Ross Browne 1868-69 · Frederick F. Low 1869-73 · Benjamin Avery 1874-75 · George Seward 1876-80 · James Burrill Angell 1880-81 · John Russell Young 1882-85 · Charles Harvey Denby 1885-98 · Edwin H. Conger 1898-05 · William Woodville Rockhill 1905-09 · William James Calhoun 1909-13
Envoy to the Republic of China
Ambassador to the Republic of China
Chiefs of the U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing
Ambassador to the People's Republic of China
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.