Laminin, beta 2

Laminin, beta 2

Laminin, beta 2 (laminin S), also known as LAMB2, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: LAMB2 laminin, beta 2 (laminin S)| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3913| accessdate = ]

PBB_Summary
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summary_text = Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively) and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the beta chain isoform laminin, beta 2. The beta 2 chain contains the 7 structural domains typical of beta chains of laminin, including the short alpha region. However, unlike beta 1 chain, beta 2 has a more restricted tissue distribution. It is enriched in the basement membrane of muscles at the neuromuscular junctions, kidney glomerulus and vascular smooth muscle. Transgenic mice in which the beta 2 chain gene was inactivated by homologous recombination, showed defects in the maturation of neuromuscular junctions and impairment of glomerular filtration. Alternative splicing involving a non consensus 5' splice site (gc) in the 5' UTR of this gene has been reported. It was suggested that inefficient splicing of this first intron, which does not change the protein sequence, results in a greater abundance of the uncite web | title = Entrez Gene: LAMB2 laminin, beta 2 (laminin S)| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3913| accessdate = ]

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Ljubimova JY, Fujita M, Khazenzon NM, "et al." |title=Changes in laminin isoforms associated with brain tumor invasion and angiogenesis. |journal=Front. Biosci. |volume=11 |issue= |pages= 81–8 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16146715 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hunter DD, Shah V, Merlie JP, Sanes JR |title=A laminin-like adhesive protein concentrated in the synaptic cleft of the neuromuscular junction. |journal=Nature |volume=338 |issue= 6212 |pages= 229–34 |year= 1989 |pmid= 2922051 |doi= 10.1038/338229a0
*cite journal | author=Wewer UM, Gerecke DR, Durkin ME, "et al." |title=Human beta 2 chain of laminin (formerly S chain): cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in carcinomas. |journal=Genomics |volume=24 |issue= 2 |pages= 243–52 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7698745 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1994.1612
*cite journal | author=Iivanainen A, Vuolteenaho R, Sainio K, "et al." |title=The human laminin beta 2 chain (S-laminin): structure, expression in fetal tissues and chromosomal assignment of the LAMB2 gene. |journal=Matrix Biol. |volume=14 |issue= 6 |pages= 489–97 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7795887 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Burgeson RE, Chiquet M, Deutzmann R, "et al." |title=A new nomenclature for the laminins. |journal=Matrix Biol. |volume=14 |issue= 3 |pages= 209–11 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7921537 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Wewer UM, Wayner EA, Hoffstrom BG, "et al." |title=Selective assembly of laminin variants by human carcinoma cells. |journal=Lab. Invest. |volume=71 |issue= 5 |pages= 719–30 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7967523 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Durkin ME, Gautam M, Loechel F, "et al." |title=Structural organization of the human and mouse laminin beta2 chain genes, and alternative splicing at the 5' end of the human transcript. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=271 |issue= 23 |pages= 13407–16 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8662701 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Durkin ME, Jäger AC, Khurana TS, "et al." |title=Characterization of the human laminin beta2 chain locus (LAMB2): linkage to a gene containing a nonprocessed, transcribed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L) and to the gene encoding glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QARS). |journal=Cytogenet. Cell Genet. |volume=84 |issue= 3-4 |pages= 173–8 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10393422 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Vogel W, Kanz L, Brugger W, "et al." |title=Expression of laminin beta2 chain in normal human bone marrow. |journal=Blood |volume=94 |issue= 3 |pages= 1143–5 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10454804 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kikkawa Y, Sanzen N, Fujiwara H, "et al." |title=Integrin binding specificity of laminin-10/11: laminin-10/11 are recognized by alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 4 integrins. |journal=J. Cell. Sci. |volume=113 ( Pt 5) |issue= |pages= 869–76 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10671376 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Champliaud MF, Virtanen I, Tiger CF, "et al." |title=Posttranslational modifications and beta/gamma chain associations of human laminin alpha1 and laminin alpha5 chains: purification of laminin-3 from placenta. |journal=Exp. Cell Res. |volume=259 |issue= 2 |pages= 326–35 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10964500 |doi= 10.1006/excr.2000.4980
*cite journal | author=McArthur CP, Wang Y, Heruth D, Gustafson S |title=Amplification of extracellular matrix and oncogenes in tat-transfected human salivary gland cell lines with expression of laminin, fibronectin, collagens I, III, IV, c-myc and p53. |journal=Arch. Oral Biol. |volume=46 |issue= 6 |pages= 545–55 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11311202 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gu J, Fujibayashi A, Yamada KM, Sekiguchi K |title=Laminin-10/11 and fibronectin differentially prevent apoptosis induced by serum removal via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- and MEK1/ERK-dependent pathways. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 22 |pages= 19922–8 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11891225 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M200383200
*cite journal | author=Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, "et al." |title=Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=36 |issue= 1 |pages= 40–5 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14702039 |doi= 10.1038/ng1285
*cite journal | author=Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, "et al." |title=Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation. |journal=Nat. Biotechnol. |volume=22 |issue= 6 |pages= 707–16 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15146197 |doi= 10.1038/nbt971
*cite journal | author=Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, "et al." |title=Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions. |journal=Genome Res. |volume=14 |issue= 9 |pages= 1711–8 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15342556 |doi= 10.1101/gr.2435604
*cite journal | author=Zenker M, Aigner T, Wendler O, "et al." |title=Human laminin beta2 deficiency causes congenital nephrosis with mesangial sclerosis and distinct eye abnormalities. |journal=Hum. Mol. Genet. |volume=13 |issue= 21 |pages= 2625–32 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15367484 |doi= 10.1093/hmg/ddh284
*cite journal | author=Fukuda Y, Yotsuyanagi H, Ooka S, "et al." |title=Identification of a new autoantibody in patients with chronic hepatitis. |journal=Hum. Immunol. |volume=65 |issue= 12 |pages= 1530–8 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15603881 |doi= 10.1016/j.humimm.2004.08.186
*cite journal | author=Zurowska A, Załuska-Leśniewska I, Zenker M |title= [LAMB2 gene mutation as a cause of congenital nephrotic syndrome with distinct eye abnormalities and hypotonia] |journal=Prz. Lek. |volume=63 Suppl 3 |issue= |pages= 37–9 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16898484 |doi=

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