Laminin, alpha 4

Laminin, alpha 4

Laminin, alpha 4, also known as LAMA4, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: LAMA4 laminin, alpha 4| url =| accessdate = ]

section_title =
summary_text = Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively) and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the alpha chain isoform laminin, alpha 4. The domain structure of alpha 4 is similar to that of alpha 3, both of which resemble truncated versions of alpha 1 and alpha 2, in that approximately 1,200 residues at the N-terminus (domains IV, V and VI) have been lost. Laminin, alpha 4 contains the C-terminal G domain which distinguishes all alpha chains from the beta and gamma chains. The RNA analysis from adult and fetal tissues revealed developmental regulation of expression, however, the exact function of laminin, alpha 4 is not known. Tissue-specific utilization of alternative polyA-signal has been described in literature. Also, alternative splicing involving the first intron in the 5' UTR, and laminin alpha 4 like isoforms have been noted, however, the full-length nature of these products is not known.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: LAMA4 laminin, alpha 4| url =| accessdate = ]


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Ljubimova JY, Fujita M, Khazenzon NM, "et al." |title=Changes in laminin isoforms associated with brain tumor invasion and angiogenesis. |journal=Front. Biosci. |volume=11 |issue= |pages= 81–8 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16146715 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Iivanainen A, Sainio K, Sariola H, Tryggvason K |title=Primary structure and expression of a novel human laminin alpha 4 chain. |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=365 |issue= 2-3 |pages= 183–8 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7781776 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Burgeson RE, Chiquet M, Deutzmann R, "et al." |title=A new nomenclature for the laminins. |journal=Matrix Biol. |volume=14 |issue= 3 |pages= 209–11 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7921537 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Richards AJ, al-Imara L, Carter NP, "et al." |title=Localization of the gene (LAMA4) to chromosome 6q21 and isolation of a partial cDNA encoding a variant laminin A chain. |journal=Genomics |volume=22 |issue= 1 |pages= 237–9 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7959779 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1994.1372
*cite journal | author=Ryan MC, Tizard R, VanDevanter DR, Carter WG |title=Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=269 |issue= 36 |pages= 22779–87 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8077230 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Richards A, Al-Imara L, Pope FM |title=The complete cDNA sequence of laminin alpha 4 and its relationship to the other human laminin alpha chains. |journal=Eur. J. Biochem. |volume=238 |issue= 3 |pages= 813–21 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8706685 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Xiao S, Lux ML, Reeves R, "et al." |title=HMGI(Y) activation by chromosome 6p21 rearrangements in multilineage mesenchymal cells from pulmonary hamartoma. |journal=Am. J. Pathol. |volume=150 |issue= 3 |pages= 901–10 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9060828 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Durkin ME, Loechel F, Mattei MG, "et al." |title=Tissue-specific expression of the human laminin alpha5-chain, and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 20q13.2-13.3 and to distal mouse chromosome 2 near the locus for the ragged (Ra) mutation. |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=411 |issue= 2-3 |pages= 296–300 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9271224 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Richards A, Luccarini C, Pope FM |title=The structural organisation of LAMA4, the gene encoding laminin alpha4. |journal=Eur. J. Biochem. |volume=248 |issue= 1 |pages= 15–23 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9310354 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A |title=HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium. |journal=Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.) |volume=45 |issue= 2-3 |pages= 255–9 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9597096 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Talts JF, Sasaki T, Miosge N, "et al." |title=Structural and functional analysis of the recombinant G domain of the laminin alpha4 chain and its proteolytic processing in tissues. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=275 |issue= 45 |pages= 35192–9 |year= 2001 |pmid= 10934193 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M003261200
*cite journal | author=Fleischmajer R, Kuroda K, Utani A, "et al." |title=Differential expression of laminin alpha chains during proliferative and differentiation stages in a model for skin morphogenesis. |journal=Matrix Biol. |volume=19 |issue= 7 |pages= 637–47 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11102753 |doi=
*cite journal | author=McArthur CP, Wang Y, Heruth D, Gustafson S |title=Amplification of extracellular matrix and oncogenes in tat-transfected human salivary gland cell lines with expression of laminin, fibronectin, collagens I, III, IV, c-myc and p53. |journal=Arch. Oral Biol. |volume=46 |issue= 6 |pages= 545–55 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11311202 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Petäjäniemi N, Korhonen M, Kortesmaa J, "et al." |title=Localization of laminin alpha4-chain in developing and adult human tissues. |journal=J. Histochem. Cytochem. |volume=50 |issue= 8 |pages= 1113–30 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12133914 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gu YC, Kortesmaa J, Tryggvason K, "et al." |title=Laminin isoform-specific promotion of adhesion and migration of human bone marrow progenitor cells. |journal=Blood |volume=101 |issue= 3 |pages= 877–85 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12393739 |doi= 10.1182/blood-2002-03-0796
*cite journal | author=Hayashi Y, Kim KH, Fujiwara H, "et al." |title=Identification and recombinant production of human laminin alpha4 subunit splice variants. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=299 |issue= 3 |pages= 498–504 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12445830 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gonzalez AM, Gonzales M, Herron GS, "et al." |title=Complex interactions between the laminin alpha 4 subunit and integrins regulate endothelial cell behavior in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 25 |pages= 16075–80 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12454288 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.252649399
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, "et al." |title=The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. |journal=Nature |volume=425 |issue= 6960 |pages= 805–11 |year= 2003 |pmid= 14574404 |doi= 10.1038/nature02055
*cite journal | author=DeHahn KC, Gonzales M, Gonzalez AM, "et al." |title=The alpha4 laminin subunit regulates endothelial cell survival. |journal=Exp. Cell Res. |volume=294 |issue= 1 |pages= 281–9 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14980521 |doi= 10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.11.006

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