- History of nationality in Gibraltar
Gibraltaris a juridically independent area in western Europe, and forms part of the Commonwealth of Nationsas a British overseas territory. Nationality in Gibraltar was invented in the 19th century as a result of various factors and events that led to the need for a definition of inclusiveness and exclusivity, the main concern being overcrowding.
As with rest of the
Iberian Peninsula, Gibraltar was inhabited by various groups, including Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, and Visigoths, until 711 when the Muslim conquest of the peninsula began with the invasion of Gibraltar. In 1492, with the "reconquest" of the peninsula, the Catholic Monarchstook control of the area.
Treaty of Utrecht
In 1704, during the
War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet seized Gibraltar from the Spanish crown. After the surrender, most of the Spaniards who inhabited Gibraltar left for the Spanish hinterland. [ [http://www.sanroque.es/tourism/san-roque-the-gibraltar-area-s-historical-centre/?searchterm=1704 The Gibraltar Area's Historical Centre] ] In 1713, Gibraltar was formally ceded by Spainto Britain in perpetuity under article X of the Treaty of Utrecht. [http://www.gibraltar.gi/history/ Gibraltar's Political History] ] In 1721, the number of civilians able to bear arms was 45 British, 96 Spaniards, 169 Genoese, for a total of 310.fact|date=June 2008 By 1753 the civilian population had grown to 1816 persons, the main elements in which 597 were Genoese, 575 Jews and 351 British inhabitants. [Census, 1970] These numbers show the heterogeneity of the small number of civilians considered official residents of The Rock in its early stages. The treaty of 1713 stipulated that in the event of any change in sovereignty, Spain would have first claim to the territory. [Gold, 68] With the treaty, Her Britannic Majestypromised the Catholic Kingof Spain that no Jews or Moors would be permitted to live in Gibraltar. However, Gibraltar was still open to commerce with Moors, and their ships would be permitted entry into the port. Furthermore, Roman Catholics would be granted the right to exercise their religion. [ [http://www.gibnet.com/texts/utrecht.htm Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht] ]
Gibraltar as British garrison
Gibraltar has been described as "probably the most fought over and densely fortified place in Europe, and probably, therefore, in the world". As a fortress it was most useful to the
British Empire, when the Royal Navywas internationally dominant. [Archer, 184]
Due to its conception as a
military base, the constitutional development of Gibraltar was retarded. In 1720, under letters patenta civil judiciary was authorized, and in 1739 criminal and civil jurisdiction was granted to Gibraltar. However, no courts were created and this jurisdiction was exercised by the military, headed by the Governor himself.
Great Siege of Gibraltar, (1779-1783) Gibraltar transformed from a small military town into a major centre for European and Mediterranean trade. There was a spike in the percentage of the civilian population of foreign origin, and immigration had a large role to in defining nationality.
immigrationto Gibraltar was discouraged. Gibraltar was one of the most densely populated areas in western Europe, and control of civilian population was the main concern of the British administration in the 19th century. [Burke and Sawchuck, 536] In 1720, the first permit system was introduced in Gibraltar, aimed at restricting foreign labourers, who were mainly Spanish. The object of the system was to "preserve peace, order and good government in Gibraltar, to add security to the fortress, and to promote the health of the garrison." [Burke and Sawchuk, 535] By 1891, the civilian population had grown to 19, 100, which was considered problematic due to overcrowding. However, there was a trend of families settling in La Línea de la Concepción, because of less expensive housing and due to the stagnation of trade in Gibraltar. [Census, 1891] The 1891 census divided the civilian population into British subjects and Foreigners. British Subjects were recorded as "native of" either Gibraltar, the UK, Malta, other parts of Her Majesty's dominions and foreign countries. Foreigners were recorded as natives from Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Morocco, or other nationalities. [Census, 1891]
Despite the growing civilian population, during the 18th and 19th centuries, civilians in Gibraltar were often considered as
second-class citizens, subordinate of the colonial regime without significant political authority. There was a visible ethnic difference between the Gibraltarians and the British colonisers, and politically the Gibraltarians were powerless. [Sawchuk, Padiak and Purcell, 120] The official citizens of Gibraltar were the garrison of soldiers and the hierarchy of colonial administrators. [Burke and Sawchuck, 532] Furthermore, as a garrison, between 1878 and 1945 adult males outnumbered their female counterparts ten to one, and infants and children made up less than 2% of the community at any point in time. [Sawchuk, Padiak, Purcell, 118.] British soldiers had preferential access to scarce resources such as housing, water, fresh and frozen meat, free medical care, and their own hospital. The troops lived in barracks with sanitary facilities. In contrast, most Gibraltarian dwellings did not have running water until after World War II. [Sawchuck, Padiak, Purcell, 121]
Emergence of civil society and social rights
One of the first manifestations of the will for a voice for civilians was the formation of the Exchange Committee. It was formed by "a few of the leading gentlemen of the three religious denominations — Hebrew, Protestant, Catholic". [Burke and Sawchuck,537] Their goals were to forward the interests of the prosperous merchant group which had developed in Gibraltar. Initially, they had no political objectives, and concentrated on matters of a social and economic nature insofar as they affected the merchants. In 1817 the Exchange and Commercial Library was founded, to rival the
Garrison Libraryfrom which civilians, however eminent, were excluded.
Gibraltar as a colony
In the 1830s, the status of Gibraltar evolved from "The Town and Garrison of Gibraltar" to the "Crown Colony of Gibraltar". Yet, civilian rights could still be suppressed in light of military order. [Burke and Sawchuck, 536] A Charter of Justice, Civilian Magistracy Supreme Court, and Civil Rights were created that same year. The Gibraltar Police Force was created at the same time, making it the first Police Force to be set up outside the UK. The changes of 1830 were important in recognizing the rights of civilian inhabitants. [ibid]
However, political advancements were largely dependent of the particular views of the Governor. For example, in 1848 the new Governor contended that the population of Gibraltar could not aspire to the political freedoms granted to other British Colonies because Gibraltar was primarily a fortress. In 1852 the Governor banned a meeting of merchants, landowners and other local inhabitants which had been arranged for the purpose of petitioning the
Secretary of State for the Coloniesto set up an inquiry into the civil administration of The Rock. In 1855, the governor went so far as to issue a press ordinance granting himself the power to control publications in Gibraltar. [ibid]
Gibraltar has been commonly referred to as 'the only remaining colony in Europe' up to the present. [Gold, 1994,2; Lambert 2005, 207] However, the
British Nationality Act 1981formally changed Gibraltar's status from a colony to a British overseas territory. Furthermore, in 2006 the term 'colony' was removed from the Gibraltar Constitution. [ [http://www.gibnet.com/texts/un_let.htm Letter from Emyr Jones Parry to the United Nations] ] [ [http://www.chronicle.gi/readarticle.php?id=000011616&title=The%20Gibraltar%20Chronicle The Gibraltar Chronicle - Liberating Words, For The Records] ]
Invention of Gibraltarian
It is of note that in 1767 the census divided the population into three religious categories: British and Protestant; Roman Catholic; and Jews. Being Protestant was explicitly recognized as being British, and the population was broken down into 567 British, 1460 Roman Catholics, and 783 Jews. By 1777, the census had become more complex in that it classified inhabitants as those of 'British Blood', 'Alien Blood', 'Natives', and 'Not natives'. The total number of civilians was 3201, of these 1832 were Roman Catholics, the rest were British Protestants. [Census, 1970] It is significant to note the appearance of this 'native' element in the registers of 1777, containing the implicit recognition of the birth of the Gibraltarian.
Gibraltarian as legal definition
1816 marked the creation of an actual legal definition of the term Gibraltarian. It was put forwards to distinguish who could be considered a
citizenand who an alien in Gibraltar. It was inclusive of the many foreigners who composed the population. However, only those who had resided permanently in Gibraltar for 10 years previous to the 1816 legislation were considered Gibraltarian. Those defined as Gibraltarian, were also legally British subjects. However, anyone immigrating after this point would be considered an alien. Anyone who did not fit the criteria of Gibraltarian had to apply for a temporary permit. [Don, G. 1816] The permit system following 1816 included penalties for aliens who did not abide by the system, and foreigners without permits or with expired permits were seen as "bad and suspicious characters" and liable for fines, imprisonment, or expulsion from Gibraltar. After the tightening of controls of permits, the 1830's saw a noticeable reduction in population growth. [Burke and Sawchuck, 535]
The need for this definition of Gibraltarian was rooted in the epidemic of 1804, where control of population density was seen as a major consideration. Epidemic disease, in the 1804 case,
yellow fever, put the military population at risk, and by extension Britain's ability to control the area. It was feared that civilian population had to be controlled to prevent pestilence. It is estimated that three fifths of the population was wiped out by the 1804 epidemic. [Census, 1981]
Circumvention of the tenet of "Jus Soli"
Birth of children from alien parentage became a problem nearing the end of the 19th century in controlling population. Gibraltar held the tenet of British law,
Jus soli, making children of aliens born in Gibraltar British by birth, and therefore they became an irremovable liability to the colony. [Burke and Sawchuck, 536] Residents with temporary work permits could have children in Gibraltar and upset the system of exclusion. [ibid] Therefore, the British administration devised unique methods to circumvent the tenet of "Jus Soli".
One way that Jus Soli of children of aliens was restricted occurred in marriage laws. Marriages in Gibraltar required approval from the Governor, who could refuse permits of marriage to alien men unless they consented to leave Gibraltar within 3 months of the date of their marriage. However, this principle was irregularly and ineffectually enforced. It also caused the reactions from the Catholic Vicar in 1837, who claimed having to receive approval from the governor for marriage was "an infringement on the free exercise of Catholic religion". [Burke and Sawchuck, 538]
In the 1830s a further principle was introduced to limit access to citizenship. Women who were married to aliens were ordered to leave Gibraltar for their accouchements. [ibid]
In 1850 any alien with a temporary permit who acted in a manner "inconsistent with temporary residence" could be refused a permit or have it withdrawn. [ibid] Actions inconsistent included childbirth and marriage. However, this, like other immigration laws, was not consistently enforced. [Burke and Sawchuck, 539] Bribery and coercion was commonly used to get around the laws, and in some cases the governor could be persuaded to make exceptions by the "dictation of the Vicar Apostolitic, the Governor of
Algeciras, and one of two foreign consuls". [Flood, 1871]
It is of note however, that the 1878 census notes that aliens were permitted into Gibraltar on 1st and 2nd class permits and with fishermen's badges. There was a Genoese population of fishermen who came to Gibraltar since 1840 for the fishing season and would build temporary shelters or live in caves, and by the 1878 census, they had established a permanent village at
Catalan Bay. [Census, 1981]
Role of epidemics in exclusion of nationality
In 1860 and 1865, devastating
choleraepidemics swept Gibraltar. Not only was sanitary reform necessary, but the epidemics were largely due to overpopulation. The floating population of Gibraltar was seen as a scapegoat for the blame of the epidemic. [Burke and Sawchuck, 541] There followed a crackdown on the floating population and civilian population. It was largely due to the opinions of a new police magistrate in 1865. He believed that the rise in population was due to inconsistent application of childbirth and marriage laws. He proceeded to fully enforce those laws, to ease population growth. [Burke and Sawchuck, 542] In 1869, he went so far as to enforce the principle that alien husbands leave Gibraltar upon their marriage to Gibraltarian women. [Burke and Sawchuck, 548]
Legal aspects of nationality
1844 Naturalization Act
Gibraltar adopted the 1844 British Naturalization Act which entailed that any woman would lose her nationality and adopt that of her husband. However, after only three years, in 1847, that system was abandoned, because it was decided that the act did not extend to the colonies. In 1859 the law in Gibraltar was clarified to state that alien wives did not become Gibraltarian British subjects. However, often the residence of alien women in the garrison had been tolerated. Yet the Police Office did hold the right of expulsion of women of "infamous character and conduct". [Burke and Sawchuck, 540; Airey, 1866] In 1870, the Naturalization Act was reintroduced in Gibraltar, causing Gibraltarian or British women to lose their nationality if they were to wed alien men. Once assuming alien status, they were forced to comply with the permit system or leave Gibraltar. [Burke and Sawchuck, 549]
1873 Aliens Order-in-Council
Based on concerns of health and the security of the garrison, the governor in 1873 argued for the necessity of an alien
Orders-in-Councilto create solid legislation concerning a code of regulations surrounding the admission of aliens into Gibraltar and their temporary residence. His argument centred on the protection of the health and security of the garrison, but to the detriment of civil rights. However, by 1883 the AOC was amended to favour the desires of the civilian population.Burke and Sawchuck, 558] In 1886 the official revised version of the AOC was published, and gubernatorial discretion was instated. Many of the rights of local women and alien labourers were re-instated. For example, paragraph 21 of the 1885 AOC allowed local women married to aliens to remain in Gibraltar together with their husband, and paragraph 29 allowed flexibility for alien women to bear children in Gibraltar.
1889 Strangers Ordinance
This legislation stated that persons arriving at Gibraltar could be questioned by the police as to their status and purpose for wanting to enter. Later legislation confirmed that access and rights of residence were not automatically given to British Subjects and they too could be treated as aliens. [Archer, 69]
In contrast to earlier censuses, that of 1901 divided the civilian population was divided between "Natives of Gibraltar", "Natives of the UK", "Natives of Malta", "Other British subjects", and "Aliens". There was a rise in civilian population explained as due to the large number of English families who employed female domestic servants. It is of note that in 1901, the term foreigner is no longer used in the census as it was in 1891 and 1901, rather the term "Alien" appears after the 1886 AOC. [Census, 1901] Furthermore, the aliens were strictly classified according to their class of permit. There were three classes of permits: permits until further orders, temporary permits, and extended tickets. [Census, 1901] By the 1911 census, the term 'Alien' was no longer used, and was replaced by the term 'Foreign Subject'. [Census, 1911]
Aliens Order of 1948
During a particularly acute phase of overcrowding, this legislation was created to prevent "the increase of the alien civil inhabitants of the fortress and for regulating entry into Gibraltar and the increase therein of persons permanently resident therein". [Archer, 69] Furthermore, in 1955 the Aliens order was amended and the term Alien was replaced by the term "Non-Gibraltarian" and the terms "Native of Gibraltar" and "Resident of Gibraltar" became simply "Gibraltarian". [ibid]
1955 register of Gibraltarians
In 1955, the register of Gibraltarians was created and only British Subjects born in Gibraltar on or before 30 June, 1925 and to children whose father or paternal grandfather was born in Gibraltar could appear on the register. [Archer, 70]
Immigration Control Ordinance of 1962
The Immigration Control Ordinance dealt exclusively with all non-Gibraltarians seeking a permit to enter and reside in Gibraltar. This ordinance remained firmly in the Governor's area of jurisdiction, since immigration in Gibraltar was defined as a non-domestic matter. [ibid]
Gibraltarian status ordinance of 1962
This was a separate ordinance "to define and regulate
Gibraltarian statusand for matters incidental thereto and connected therewith". This ordinance was, unlike the other, defined as a domestic matter and concern of the Gibraltar elected government. [ibid]
Civil rights of Gibraltarians
The legislation makes clear who is Gibraltarian, and the names on the register are those eligible for inclusion in the Electoral Register for use during local elections to the House of Assembly and for the European elections held for the first time in Gibraltar in 2004. [ibid] Furthermore, the register was used to determine who could be included in the 1967 and 2002 referendum's regarding sovereignty issues. [ibid]
Post-World War I civil rights
First World War, Spain remained neutral and was not a danger to the security of the fortress. Yet Gibraltar was a crucial strategic point for British convoys and Mediterranean liners. Political life continued, and a City Councilwas created in Gibraltar in 1921 that replaced the Sanitary Commissioners. [Jackson, 268] The governor remained the executive and legislative authority, but he was advised by the new Executive Council and City Council. It was an important step in catering to the civilian population, which surpassed 18000 inhabitants. In 1921 the first elections were held on Gibraltar for City Council, and for the first time under British domination, the civilian inhabitants of Gibraltar had a right to elect their own representatives. Suffrage was limited to male tax payers yet the governor remained a military man, with all legislative and executive authority vested in him.
World War II: Stalling of civil rights
Stalling of the process towards civil rights was due to the
Second World War, which made military considerations paramount over civilian rights. Gibraltar was correctly judged to have been in acute danger from invasion from Hitler. (The Nazi blitzkriegattack plan was called Operation Felix. [Andrews, 175] ) Although the British press carried stories about the possibility of a Spanish invasion, British intelligence was mostly worried about the Nazis. [Packard, 125] At the beginning of 1941, the governor assumed all the powers of the City Council and the Executive Councilwas suspended.
In 1939, there were 21,000 people on Gibraltar, mostly civilians. In 1941, approximately 16700 civilians, women, children and other non-combatants, judged to be a hindrance to a fortress at war, were evacuated. [Census, 1971] Destinations included
Jamaica, Madeira, Northern Irelandand London. [ibid] The repatriationof the civilians began in 1944, and continued until 1951. Approximately 2,000 persons did not return and settled down in Britain. [Census, 1971]
In 1908, the decision was taken by Britain to erect a fence along the British side of the
neutral territoryat Gibraltar to reduce sentryduty. The fence was to "be constructed of steel, and of an unclimbable pattern, about seven feet high and topped with three strands of barbbed wire, thus bringing the total height up to nine feet". [Letter fom His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador in Madrid Mr. De Bunsen to the Minister of Sate, Senor Allende Salazar august 5th, 1908. In "Documents on Gibraltar". Document 56, 279] A gap would be permitted across the eastern road for cattle crossing, and a further gap would be placed near the Western Beach, for the passage of people possessing Beach Passes. [ibid]
Despite the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain never gave up its claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar. Under
Franco, Spain brought the issue of " decolonisation" before the United Nationsin the 1960s. In 1963 and 1964 the question of the Rock's decolonisation was placed on the agenda of the United Nations special committee. After listening to Britain, Spain, and petitioners from Gibraltar, the committee took a line which favoured the Spanish point of view. [Lambert, 207] Spain interpreted the decision of the United Nations as a reason to impose a series of borderrestrictions and tensions between Spain and Gibraltar mounted. On 8 June 1969, Spain fully closed its land border with Gibraltar.
After the frontier closure, there was a vacuum in the labour pool which had resulted from the removal of the Spanish work-force, which constituted about one third of the entire work-force. About 4666 men who previously commuted daily across the border from Spain were now cut off. [Census, 1970 and 1981] The governments of the blockade period undertook ambitious regeneration programs aimed not only at meeting the demand for improved housing and services, but also at maintaining high employment levels. [http://www.gib.gi/museum/HMag%20V1%20I2%20P6.htm The Frontier Closure: A Pivotal Moment] ]
Once the border closed, there was a harsh reaction against the Spanish. Speaking Spanish was restricted in many schools and public areas, as well as British leisure and work areas. "To speak Spanish was either to display membership of a lower social order or, worse still, some link to the evils of the Franco regime". [http://www.gibnet.com/texts/ds01.htm Gibraltarians and Spaniards] ]
The census of 1970 came one year early in the decennial system of census taking. Difficulty was expressed in determining who was a permanent resident in Gibraltar and who was not. For example, wives and families of servicemen were considered temporary residents, and because a person who has lived in Gibraltar for many years may have considered themselves a permanent resident even though in law, they could be asked to leave on a moment's notice. [Census, 1971]
With the closing of the border Gibraltar received its own Constitution. During the 16 years of closure, Gibraltar developed the political system still in place today. Gibraltar obtained not only greater
self-governmentbut furthermore, Gibraltarians began to replace British expatriates in the administration. The border was fully re-opened in 1985.
Legacy of British imperialism
Gibraltar was of interest to the British Empire because of its value as a strategic military outpost and also for its economic value. Imperialism entailed political domination enforced by military power. As independence and autonomy slowly developed in Gibraltar, a significant imperial heritage remained. [Archer, 183] Because Gibraltar has kept so close to British institutions, and because institutional practices in law, government and education are in a sense integrated with those of the U.K., Gibraltar is in part a reflection of the British state, and can readily be labeled 'offspring of Empire' and 'offspring of Britain'. [Archer, 197] Gibraltarians are holders of full British
passports, which is further testimony to their connection to Britain. [ibid, 196]
Historically, the role of Gibraltar has been reciprocally important to British identity. For example, in 1783, a civilian observer noted "'Tis Gibraltar alone which gives us the importance we want there [in the Mediterranean] . Our Flag and our passport would sink with the loss of that place to a level with those of other nations". [Conn, 257]
Current Gibraltarian citizenship
biometric passport, issued since 2007. Passports issued since 1988 have a similar format, but until 1997 had the words " European Community" written in place of " European Union" (" Crown copyright").]
The citizens of Gibraltar, although
British Overseas Territories citizens, may apply for registration as a British citizen(an entitlement that cannot be refused) under section 5 of the 1981 Act and are considered UK Nationals for EUCommunity purposes with all consequential rights and entitlements. [ [http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/topical_speeches/status_in_eu.htm Gibraltar's Status in the EU] ]
Gibraltar is within the EU for some purposes, including free movement of persons. Since joining the EU, individuals from member states can seek employment and reside in Gibraltar without the need for a work or residence permit. Non EU citizens need both a work and resident permit, and are only likely to get these if they already have a job offer and their employer satisfies Government that their skills are unique. However, special arrangements can be made for high net worth individuals.
Offshore financial services
In the early years of the 20th century, wealthy individuals started choosing to reside in low-tax jurisdictions to escape punitive taxation elsewhere, Gibraltar being a low-tax jurisdiction attracted these wealthy individuals. In the 1930s
refugees of extreme political regimes sought sanctuary for their goods and assets in Gibraltar. Asset holding and protection still continues in Gibraltar and usually involves trust companies with low or nil taxation. Gibraltar functions as an offshore financial centre. Offshore companies in Gibraltar became popular during the blockade and provided business for lawyers and accountants. Gibraltar offered offshore companies a 25-year guarantee against income and estate taxes. [Archer, 68-69] This aspect of Gibraltar influences nationality in that it allowed high net-worth individuals to be granted residence on a discretionary basis. [ [http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/gov_depts/finance/presentations/GibraltarLondonSeminars2008/GibraltarPrivateClientsSeminar2008/Melo%20TriayHIGH%20NET%20WORTH%20INDIVIDUAL%20TAX%20STATUS%20Presentation.pdf Conditions for residence] ]
British Overseas Territories citizen
British Overseas Territories Act 2002
History of British nationality law
British nationality law
*Airey, R. (1866, July 20) Correspondence to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, the Earl of Derby. Gibraltar. CO 91/370. Public Records Office, England (PRO). In Burke and Sawchuck "Alien Encounters". Sir Richard Airey was the new Governor of Gibraltar in 1866.
*Andrews, Allen. "Proud fortress: the fighting story of Gibraltar". London, Evans Bros., 1958.
*Archer, Edward G. "Gibraltar, identity and empire". London; New York:Routledge,2006.
*Burke, Stacie D.A.; Sawchuk, Lawrence A. "Alien encounters: The jus soli and reproductive politics in the 19th-century fortress and colony of Gibraltar". "History of the Family", 2001, Vol. 6 Issue 4, p531, 31p, 1 chart, 2 graphs.
* Conn, Stetson. "Gibraltar in British Diplomacy in the Eighteenth Century". New Haven, Yale University Press; London, H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1942.
*Don, G. (1816) Proclamation by his excellency Sir George Don, given at Gibraltar this 29th day of June, Section A. CO 91/285. PRO. In Burke and Sawchuck "Alien Encounters".
*Flood, F.S. Correspondence from Her Majesty's Attorney General to Sir Fenwick Williams, Governor, Gibraltar. GGA. (1871, May 12) Frederick Solly Flood was the new police magistrate of Gibraltar in 1866.
*Gold, Peter. "Is Gibraltar a Nation?". "International Journal of Iberian Studies", 2001, Vol. 14 Issue 2, p68, 12p.
* Jackson, Sir G.F William. "The Rock of the Gibraltarians: A History of Gibraltar". Associated University Presses, London, England, 1987.
*Lambert, David. " 'As Solid as the Rock?' Place, belonging, and the local appropriation of imperial discourses in Gibraltar". " transactions of the Institute of British geographers. June 2005. 2:30. pp. 206-220.
*Packard, Jerrold M. "Neither friend nor foe: the European neutrals in World War II". Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY, 1992. p. 125.
*Sawchuck, L.A; Padiack, Janet; Purcell, John D. "Quantifying the Colonized/Colonist Relationship: Suicide as a Comparative Measure of stress in Gibraltar". "Current Anthropology", February 2004, 45:1, pp. 118-124.
* International Population Census. pre-1945, Europe [microform] . Woodbridge, Connecticut. Research Publications, 1985. The Census of Gibraltar taken on the 5th April, 1891. Printed on Command. Cavendish Boyle, Colonial Secretary.
* International Population Census. pre-1945, Europe [microform] . Woodbridge, Connecticut. Research Publications, 1985. The Census of Gibraltar taken on the 31st of March, 1901.
* International Population Census. pre-1945, Europe [microform] . Woodbridge, Connecticut. Research Publications, 1985. The Census of Gibraltar,
April 2, 1911.
* International Population Census. pre-1945, Europe [microform] . Woodbridge, Connecticut. Research Publications, 1985. The Census of Gibraltar, 19th June, 1921.
* International Population Census. post-1967, Europe [microform] . Woodbridge, Connecticut. Research Publications, 1985. Report on the Census of Gibraltar, 1970.
* International Population Census. post-1967, Europe [microform] . Woodbridge, Connecticut. Research Publications, 1985. The Census of Gibraltar, 1981.
* Documents on Gibraltar presented to the Spanish Cortes by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Madrid, 1965. Chapter 2, The Gibraltar Fence.
* [http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/ Gibraltar Government website]
* [http://www.gib.gi/museum/HMag%20V1%20I1%20P1.htm The Magazine of the Gibraltar Government Heritage Division]
* [http://www.gibnet.com/texts/utrecht.htm Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht, 13 July, 1713. The secession of Gibraltar to Britain]
* [http://www.gibnet.com/texts/ds01.htm Lecture delivered at the University of Seville 15th September 2004 by Dominique Searle]
* [http://www.gibraltar.gi/history/ The history of the territory of Gibraltar and frontier controls]
* [http://www.llrx.com/features/microstates.htm Website describing law practices in micro-states]
* [http://www.sanroque.es/tourism/history-heritage Official website of Town Council of San Roque, Cádiz, offering a historical account of the alleged Spanish Gibraltarians who founded the city]
* [http://www.chronicle.gi/readarticle.php?id=000011616&title=The%20Gibraltar%20Chronicle Gibraltar Chronicle article detailing the disuse of the term "colony" in the 2006 constitution]
* [http://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/decolonization/main.htm United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization]
* [http://www.xsorbit3.com/users/discuss/Printpage.cgi?board=general&num=1094277852 A discussion page about Passports in Gibraltar]
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