- 2007 Burmese anti-government protests
The 2007 Burmese anti-government protests were a series of anti-government protests that started in
Burma(also known as Union of Myanmar) on August 15, 2007. (On the names Burma and Myanmar see Names of Burma.) The immediate cause of the protests was mainly the unannounced decision of the ruling junta, the State Peace and Development Council, to remove fuel subsidieswhich caused the price of dieseland petrol to suddenly rise as much as 100%, and the price of compressed natural gasfor buses to increase fivefold in less than a week. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6947251.stm Burma leaders double fuel prices] ]
Led by students and opposition political activists, including women, the protest demonstrations were at first dealt with quickly and harshly by the junta, with dozens of protesters arrested and detained. Starting
September 18, the protests had been led by thousands of Buddhist monks, and those protests had been allowed to proceed until a renewed government crackdown on September 26. [http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/4081D23F-F1A4-46AF-BA50-D47FA2B7A4AE.htm UN envoy warns of Myanmar crisis] ] During the crack-down, there were rumors of disagreement within the Burmese military, but none were confirmed. Some news reports referred to the protests as the Saffron Revolution. [cite web|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article2521951.ece|title=Military junta threatens monks in Burma] [cite web|url=http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=85644|title=100,000 Protestors Flood Streets of Rangoon in "Saffron Revolution"]
The phrase "Saffron Revolution" connects the protests against Myanmar’s military dictatorship to the saffron-colored robes widely associated with
Buddhistmonks, who were at the forefront of the demonstrations. [Cite news |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article2516773.ece |title=Nuns join monks in Burma's Saffron Revolution |publisher=Times Online |date=2007-09-24 |first=Richard |last=Lloyd Parry] While similar phrases had been used previously to describe the process of gradual or peaceful revolution in other nations, this seems to be the first time it has been associated with a particular protest as it is unfolding, and the international press seized upon it in reporting on the Burmese protests. [ [http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2006/11/fakhravar.html "Has Washington Found its Iranian Chalabi?"] , " Mother Jones", October 6, 2006] However, the idea that the monkhood is connected to [http://homepages.tesco.net/~ghoutman/chapter_11.htm#11.3 specifically Burmese ideas about revolution] has been argued by Gustaaf Houtman, partly in critique of an alternative view held by a political scientist, that Gen. Ne Win's revolution was the only successful revolution in Burma. Burmese concepts of "revolution," however, have a much longer history and are also employed in many but not all monastic ordinations.
Prior to the summer protests, there had been growing unease in the population regarding the economic distress of the country which has stagnant economic growth and is ranked among the 20 poorest countries in the world according to the
United Nations.Michael Casey, [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iofx72HB6-rwZnXsnhgbYbIpkVFQ Monks Put Myanmar Junta in Tight Spot] , Associated Press, September 21, 2007.] Many, including the United Nations have blamed the economic problems on the leadership of the military junta and the proportion of national income spent on the armed forces. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7023548.stm/ The hardship that sparked Burma's unrest] BBC, 02/10/07] In late 2006, the cost of basic commodities began rising sharply in Burma with rice, eggs, and cooking oil increasing by 30-40%. According to the UN, one in three children is chronically malnourished, government spending on health and education is among the lowest anywhere in the world, and the average income is below $300 a year. Living a privileged, parallel existence, Burma's military forces appear virtually a "state within a state", free from the economic insecurity that afflicts the rest of the country. Many of the high ranking army generals have become immensely rich; as witnessed in the video of the wedding of senior general Than Shwe's daughter, who is shown wearing diamonds worth many millions of dollars. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7023548.stm The hardship that sparked Burma's unrest] "BBC News" October 2, 2007] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6109356.stm Burma leader's lavish lifestyle aired] BBC, 02/11/2006]
According to the BBC, on
February 22, 2007, a small group of individuals protested the current state of consumer prices in the country. While the protest was small and careful not to be seen as directed at the military junta, officials jailed nine of the protesters. It was the first street protest seen in Rangoon for at least a decade.
August 15 - Removal of fuel subsidies
August 15, 2007the government removed subsidies on fuel causing a rapid and unannounced increase in prices. The government, which has a monopoly on fuel sales, raised prices from about $1.40 to $2.80 a gallon, and boosted the price of natural gas by about 500%. This increase in fuel prices led to an increase in food prices. Soon afterwards, protesters took to the streets to protest the current conditions.
IMFand World Bankhad been recommending the lifting of subsidies for some time to allow for a free marketto determine fuel prices, [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/IH24Ae03.html Fuel price policy explodes in Myanmar] ] [http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_report&report_id=688&language_id=1 The Economic Factors Behind the Myanmar Protests] ] these organizations did not recommend removing all of the subsidies unannounced. The fuel is sold by Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise, a state-owned fuel company.
In response to the increase in fuel prices, citizens protested in demonstrations beginning on August 19. In response to the protests, the government began arresting and beating demonstrators. The government arrested 13 prominent Burmese dissidents including
Min Ko Naing, Ko Ko Gyi, Min Zeya, Ko Jimmy, Ko Pyone Cho, Arnt Bwe Kyawand Ko Mya Aye.Glenn Kessler, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/22/AR2007082202488_pf.html U.S. Condemns Burmese Arrests Of 13 Dissidents: Sharp Increases in Prices Spur Protests] Washington Post, August 23, 2007] The government newspaper New Light of Myanmar reported that these individuals actions caused civil unrest that "was aimed at undermining peace and security of the State and disrupting the ongoing National Convention. The United States condemned the arrest of these dissidents on August 22 with the State Department's acting spokesman stating "The United States calls for the immediate release of these activists and for an end of the regime's blatant attempt to intimidate and silence those who are engaged in peaceful promotion of democracy and human rights in Burma...We call on the regime to engage in a meaningful dialogue with the leaders of Burma's democracy movement and ethnic minority groups and to make tangible steps toward a transition to civilian democratic rule."
September 5, 2007, Burmese troops forcibly broke up a peaceful demonstration in Pakokkuand injured three monks. The next day, younger monks in Pakokku briefly took several government officials hostage in retaliation. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7010202.stm Q&A: Protests in Burma] BBC, September 24, 2007] They demanded an apology by the deadline of September 17, but the military refused to apologize. This sparked protests involving increasing numbers of monks in conjunction with the withdrawal of religious services for the military. Their role in the protests was significant due to the reverence paid to them by the civilian population and the military. After these events, protests began spreading across Myanmar, including Yangon(also known as Rangoon), Sittwe, Pakokkuand Mandalay. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7009825.stm Monks lead largest Burma protest] BBC, September 24, 2007.]
September 22, around two thousand monks marched through Yangonand ten thousand through Mandalay, with other demonstrations in five townships across Myanmar. Those marching through the capital chanted the “ Metta Sutta” (the Buddha’s words on loving kindness) [http://www.burmanet.org/news/2007/09/22/irrawaddy-suu-kyi-greets-monks-at-her-home-10000-monks-demonstrate-in-mandalay-kywa-zwa-moe/#more-8971 Suu Kyi greets monks at her home; 10,000 monks demonstrate in Mandalay] BurmaNet News Retrieved 27/10/07] marching through a barricade on the street in front of Nobel Peace Prizelaureate Aung San Suu Kyi. [http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/09/23/myanmar.protest.ap/index.html 20,000 march in Myanmar protest] .] Although still under house arrest, Suu Kyi made a brief public appearance at the gate of her residence to accept the blessings of the Buddhist monks.cite web|url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20070922/wl_asia_afp/myanmarprotestmonks|title=AFP:Democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi greets Myanmar monks] In Mandalay, estimated to have 200 monasteries, monks were said to have told people not to join the protests, which ended peacefully.
September 23, 150 nuns joined the protests in Yangon. On that day, some 15,000 Buddhist monks and laymen marched through the streets of Yangon in the sixth day of escalating peaceful protests against the Burmese military regime. [ [http://www.bangkokpost.com/topstories/topstories.php?id=121953 Monks' protest swells] The Bangkok Post, September 23, 2007.] The Alliance of All Burmese Buddhist Monks vowed to continue the protests until the Burmese military junta is deposed. [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7009005.stm|title=Nuns in Burma anti-junta rallies]
September 24, eyewitnesses reported between 30,000 and 100,000 people demonstrating in Yangon, making the event the largest Burmese anti-government protest in twenty years. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/09/24/myanmar.protest.ap/index.html 100,000 protest Myanmar junta] CNN, September 24, 2007.] The BBC reported that two locally well-known actors, comedian Zarganaand film star Kyaw Thu, went to Yangon's golden Shwedagon Pagodaearly on Monday to offer food and water to the monks before they started their march. The marches occurred simultaneously in at least 25 cities across Myanmar, with columns of monks stretching up to 1 kilometer (0.6 miles). [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7011607.stm US to impose new Burma sanctions] BBC, September 24, 2007.] At the end of the march, approximately 1,000 monks arrived to greet Aung San Suu Kyi's home but were denied access by police. They chanted prayers before peacefully moving off. Later that day, the military junta's Minister for Religion, Brigadier General Thura Myint Maung, warned the Buddhist monks leading the protests not to go beyond their "rules and regulations". [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7010839.stm|title=Burmese military threatens monks]
Meanwhile, U.S. President
George W. Bushintroduced unilateral sanctions against the Burmese leaders during his speech to the UN General Assemblyand encouraged other countries to follow its lead. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7011607.stm US to impose new Burma sanctions] BBC, September 25, 2007.] The Dalai Lama also gave his blessing to the monks in their bid for greater freedom and democracy. [cite web|url=http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view_article.php?article_id=90451|title=Dalai Lama offers support to Myanmar monks]
September 25, the junta threatened demonstrators with military force and placed army trucks at Shwedagon Pagoda, the assembly point for monks leading the protests. Witnesses said 5,000 monks and laypeople marched into the Shwedagon. Civilians were forming a human shieldaround the monks; Reuters quotes one eyewitness: "They are marching down the streets, with the monks in the middle and ordinary people either side - they are shielding them, forming a human chain.". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7013638.stm "Burmese riot police attack monks"] BBC News, 09/10/07] Vehicles mounted with loudspeakers toured central Yangon, blaring warnings of military action. "People are not to follow, encourage or take part in these marches. Action will be taken against those who violate this order," the broadcasts said, invoking a law allowing the use of military force to break up illegal protests. [ [http://ca.today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=topNews&storyID=2007-09-25T063524Z_01_B588599_RTRIDST_0_NEWS-MYANMAR-COL.XML Myanmar junta threatens military force] Reuters, September 25, 2007.] Reuters reported that the detained democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi had been moved to the Insein prison on Sunday, a day after she appeared in front of her house to greet marching monks. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/wtMostRead/idUSB58859920070925 Myanmar junta sets curfew] Reuters, September 25, 2007.]
September 26, Myanmar's junta imposed dusk-till-dawn curfews on the country's two largest cities of Yangonand Mandalay. Additionally, gatherings of more than five people were prohibited. Meanwhile, truckloads of armed soldiers and riot police were sent into Yangon. [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hXKLA7lM0A-IwwffmHhQfZDhT5UA Myanmar imposes curfews after mass protests] AFP, September 25, 2007.]
On 26 September pro-democracy figure Win Naing was arrested at his home in Yangon around 2:30 a.m. after being seen providing food and water to the protesting monks but was released from jail after one night, according to an anonymous friend and Western diplomat. He had been arrested on
March 8for holding a press conference with Burmese demonstrators against the national economic hardships. [cite web|url=http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gPUjdWUHQY4VeYAGG3zQfGIRAdng|title=Pro-democracy politician arrested in Myanmar] Prominent Burmese comedian Zargana was also arrested overnight. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7013638.stm Burma monks march as police act] BBC, September 26, 2007.] Troops barricaded Shwedagon Pagoda and attacked a group of 700 protesters with batons and tear gas. The police, beating their shields with batons, chased some of the monks and some 200 supporters, while others tried to remain in place near the eastern gate of the pagoda complex. Troops then sealed off the area around the pagoda, attempting to prevent the monks from making further protests. [cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/09/26/wburma526.xml|title=Burma troops charge monks with batons] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7013638.stm Burma riot police beat back monks] BBC, September 26, 2007.] This failed to stop the marches, with up to 5,000 monks progressing through Yangon; some wearing masks in anticipation of tear gas being used.
Later in the day there were reports of at least three Buddhist monks and one woman confirmed killed in the firing by security forces in Yangon when thousands of people led by Buddhist monks continued their protest against the military junta. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/Today-demonstration.html Over 100,000 people in Rangoon and parts of Burma protest] Mizzima News, September 26, 2007.] A doctor in Yangon's general hospital confirmed that three injured monks had been admitted to the hospital after they were beaten up severely by the riot police at Shwedagon pagoda. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/Today-demonstration.html Protesters in Rangoon have dispersed for the day.] Mizzima News, September 26, 2007.] The Swedish National Radio correspondent in Yangon reported that more than 300 people, many of whom are monks, were detained. He also reported a new sentiment in Yangon: "People come up to me quite spontaneously and voice their opinion in a way they never did before." ... "People feel great admiration for the brave monks" [ [http://www.sr.se/cgi-bin/ekot/artikel.asp?Artikel=1621861 Minst tre munkar dödade i Burma] Sveriges Radio, September 26, 2007.] The
Burma Campaign UKsaid its sources had reported the junta ordering large numbers of maroon monastic robes and telling soldiers to shave their heads, possibly to infiltrate the monks. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/09/25/news/myanmar.php Monks defy warnings to protest in Myanmar] International Herald Tribune, September 26, 2007]
September 27, the junta security forces began raiding monasteries across the country to quell the protests, arresting at least 200 monks in Yangon and 500 more in the northeast. Simultaneously, the army raided four other monasteries in parts of Yangon and arrested several monks. Sources confirmed that the army had raided the six storied Religious Science Monastery in Chaukhtatgyi Pagoda, Moe Kaung Monastery in Yan Kin township, Maggin Monastery in Thingankyun township, and Thein Phyu monastery in Thein Phyu area and arrested several monks. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/Today-demonstration.html Burmese junta raids monasteries, arrests over 200 monks] Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.] cite news|title=Myanmar junta raids monasteries, arrests hundreds of monks|publisher=The Globe and Mail|date=2007-09-26|url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070926.wjuntaraids0927/BNStory/International|accessdate=2007-09-27] cite news|last=Reuters|title=Myanmar junta raids monasteries|publisher=Reuters|date=2007-09-27|url=http://ca.today.reuters.com/news/NewsArticle.aspx?type=topNews&storyID=2007-09-27T021914Z_01_B588599_RTRIDST_0_NEWS-MYANMAR-COL.XML|accessdate=2007-09-26] cite news|title=Monks arrested in monastery raids|publisher=SKY News|date=2007-09-27|url=http://news.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30200-1285944,00.html|accessdate=2007-09-26] An anonymous diplomat also said the junta claimed soldiers now had the monks "under control" and "would now turn their attention to civilian protesters". [ [http://www.irrawaddy.org/headlines/sep28a.php Junta Declares No-go Zones at Buddhist Monasteries] The Irrawaddy, September 28, 2007.]
Up to 50,000 protesters took to the streets in Yangon. Protesters bleeding from beatings by security forces were seen scattering and fleeing in Sule. Security forces were reported to be preparing to use insect spray to crack down on protesters. Eyewitnesses said fire engines and insect spray carrier trucks were seen near Theingyi market in downtown Yangon. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/Today-demonstration.html Insect spray to be used for crackdown on protesters] Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.] The BBC received unconfirmed reports that fire crews were ordered to fill their machines with insecticide. [cite web|url=http://news.independent.co.uk/world/asia/article2998903.ece|title=Burma: The world watches]
According to several news media the armed forces gave the protesters 10 minutes to disperse or face extreme action. [cite news|title=70,000 protesters defy Burma troops|publisher=guardian.co.uk|date=2007-09-27|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/uklatest/story/0,,-6953108,00.html|accessdate=2007-09-27] [cite news|title=Burma troops issue 'extreme action' ultimatum|publisher=telegraph.co.uk|date=2007-09-27|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/09/27/nosplit/wburma727.xml|aceessdate=2007-09-27] The radio station
Democratic Voice of Burmareported that nine civilians, including Japanese photographer Kenji Nagai, had been shot and killed by the armed forces. Nagai was working for APF Tsushin, a media company based in Tokyo. The Japanese embassy in Myanmar later confirmed Nagai's death. [cite news|title=Soldater dræber ni i Myanmar|publisher= Politiken|date=2007-09-27|url=http://politiken.dk/udland/article386278.ece|accessdate=2007-09-27] [cite news|title=Japansk fotograf dræbt i Myanmar|publisher= TV2 (Denmark)|date=2007-09-27|url=http://nyhederne.tv2.dk/article.php/id-8769851.html?forside|accessdate=2007-09-27] [cite news|title=ミャンマーで邦人カメラマン死亡…デモ取材中の長井健司さん|publisher=Sankei Sports|date=2007-09-28|url=http://www.sanspo.com/shakai/top/sha200709/sha2007092801.html|accessdate=2007-09-28] Amateur video showing Nagai apparently being deliberately shot was aired on Japanese television. [cite news|title=Video shows Japanese journalist 'being shot deliberately'|publisher=timesonline.co.uk|date=2007-09-28|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article2550369.ece|accessdate=2007-09-28] Later footage also showed a Burmese soldier taking Nagai's video camera. [cite news|title=New footage of journalist shot in Burma shows soldier leaving scene with camera|publisher= Japan News Review|date=2007-10-08|url=http://www.japannewsreview.com/society/international/20071009page_id=2350|accessdate=2007-10-08]
Soldiers fired both into the air and directly at students marching toward a high school in Tamwe township in Yangon. Primary school children were inside the school at the time and were reportedly hit by bullets, as were parents arriving to pick up their children.Fact|date=October 2007 Unconfirmed eyewitness reports say 100 people were shot. [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/0d0623bc-6de4-11dc-b8ab-0000779fd2ac.html Fears of mounting death toll in Burma] Financial Times, September 28, 2007.] Up to 300 of the students outside were arrested after a military truck rammed into the crowd. [ [http://english.dvb.no/news.php?id=483 Security forces fire on school pupils] Democratic Voice of Burma, September 28, 2007.]
Some 50,000 protesters are reported to have demonstrated peacefully in Akyab while soldiers were stationed at seven key places, including government buildings, Lawkanada temple, and Akyi Tong Kong temple. [ [http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=1465 Army Reinforces Troops in Akyab with Rural Battalions] "Narinjara News" September 27, 2007]
In the evening, the Burmese state television reported that nine people had been killed in a force crackdown on pro-democracy protestors in Yangon. It added that eleven demonstrators and 31 soldiers had been injured. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/Today-demonstration.html At least nine dead, 10 injured] Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.]
At the end of the day, it was reported that the junta had formed new regiments to crackdown on protesters. According to sources close to the military, Senior General
Than Shwetook direct command after several commanders refused to use force to crackdown on protesters. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/Today-demonstration.html CPI condemns Burmese junta] Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.] UK newspaper " The Guardian" published a report of a letter received by Burmese exiles in ThailandCite news |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/burma/story/0,,2178428,00.html |title=Letter 'reveals dissent in Burmese army' |publisher=The Guardian |date=2007-09-27] , allegedly written by disgruntled military officers, expressing support for the protests and stating, "On behalf of the armed forces, we declare our support for the non-violent action of the Buddhist monks and members of the public and their peaceful expression...". [Cite web |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/photo/page/0,,2178384,00.html |title=Letter from the Public Patriot Army Association |publisher=The Guardian] The letter also announced the formation of a group called the Public Patriot Army Association. The "Guardian" was unable to confirm the authenticity of the letter itself before the story was published. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/burma/story/0,,2178428,00.html Letter 'reveals dissent in Burmese army'] The Guardian, September 27, 2007.]
There were unconfirmed reports that Than Shwe's family fled the country. A chartered
Air Baganflight carrying eight passengers landed in Vientiane, Laos, at 6 p.m. (local time). Air Bagan is owned by Than Shwe's ally Tay Za. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/98-Sep-2007.html Than Shwe's family in Laos] Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.]
United Nations' special envoy to Myanmar, Ibrahim Gambari, was allowed into the country after the Burmese authorities bowed to international pressure. He was sent to Myanmar after the Security Councilconvened in New York over the crisis to call for restraint. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7017369.stm Bush hits out at 'brutal' Burma] BBC News, September 27, 2007.] [ [http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view_article.php?article_id=91192 UN confirms its envoy to be allowed in Myanmar] Inquirer.net, September 27, 2007.]
September 28, Yangon was emptier than the previous days, as people were afraid of violent reprisals from the army, though many still took to the streets chanting such phrases as "wrongdoers who kill monks" as well as "the military science given by general Aung Sanis not supposed to kill the people" (ie. the military isn't supposed to kill the people). The President of the Philippines Gloria Macapagal-Arroyourged Myanmar to take steps toward democracy. The Philippine President warned Myanmar that the Philippines would stop its financial help to Myanmar if opposition leader opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi was not be released. U.S. envoys called on China to use its influence with Myanmar.
The Myanmar government attempted to dampen public awareness and communications around the protests by cutting Internet access. [cite web|url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/web/burma-cuts-web-access/2007/09/28/1190486554032.html|title=SMH.com.au - Burma cuts web access] Troops specifically targeted those caught carrying cameras and beat them. [cite web|url=http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8787|title=Two Shot in Clash with Troops; People with Cameras Singled Out The Irrawaddy Sept 28 2007] On
September 28, after the killing of Japanese photographer Kenji Nagaiby the junta, Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukudasaid he regretted the killing and demanded a full explanation of his death. The Association of Southeast Asian Nationswas urged to join the push for a UNmission to Myanmar, while the United Nations Security Councilurged restraint from the government.
There were reports that Burmese troops from central Myanmar had started to march towards Yangon. The troops were from the Central Command based in
Taungooand the South East Command. It was not clear if the troops were marching to reinforce or to challenge the troops in Yangon for shooting the Buddhist monks. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/Demon-28-Sep-%202007.html Troops marching to Rangoon] Mizzima News, September 28, 2007.]
Maung Aye, Than Shwe's second in command and the commander in chief of the army, "reportedly disagreed with the violent approach taken against protestors", and was scheduled to meet with Aung San Suu Kyi, who was reportedly taken to Yemon Military Camp on the outskirts of Yangon. [ [http://www.irrawaddy.org/ Breaking News] The Irrawaddy, September 28, 2007.] Another report claimed Maung Aye had staged a coup against Than Shwe, that his troops were guarding Aung San Suu Kyi's home, and that diplomatic sources said that Aung San Suu Kyi had been moved to a police academy compound outside Yangon; although no independent confirmation has been made on the report. [ [http://www.newsdeskspecial.co.uk/2007/09/coup-claimed-in.html ‘Coup’ claimed in Rangoon] "The First Post" Newsdesk special report]
Helfen ohne Grenzen (Help without Frontiers) reported that soldiers from the 66th LID (Light Infantry Division) had turned their weapons against other government troops and possibly police in North Okkalappa township in Yangon and were defending the protesters. While soldiers from 33rd LID in Mandalay were also reported to have refused orders to take actions against protesters, other reports state many soldiers remained in their barracks. Later reports stated that soldiers from the 99th LID were being sent in to confront them. [ [http://www.newsdeskspecial.co.uk/2007/09/army-mutiny-rep.html Rangoon: ‘army mutiny’ reported] "The First Post" Newsdesk special report.]
A report warned that the military would attempt to trick UN envoys by asking their followers to carry out a set-up protest - protesting against the genuine demonstrations, with SPDC followers forcing civilians to join in. The same source stated that attendance of one person per family in some parts of the town was being demanded. In view of the internet blackout, a group of "88-generation activists" urged the United Nations, along with the United States and United Kingdom embassies in Yangon, to open a one-page Web service via
Wi-Fiaccess to the general public just to submit news photos. The blog site confirmed from different sources that soldiers and police were officially ordered not to shoot at the crowd.
It was also reported that the UN envoys would meet Lieutenant Senior General Maung Aye, the second chief of the junta.cite web|url=http://burmamyanmargenocide.blogspot.com/|title=Burma-Myanmar Genocide] The BBC reported that several hundred people had gathered in Yangon and that eyewitness reports said demonstrators were surrounded by security forces and pro-military vigilante groups. United Nations Special Envoy Ibrahim Gambari arrived in Yangon and was due to fly immediately to
Naypyidawto talk with the junta generals. Eyewitnesses told the BBC that over 1,000 people were demonstrating against the government. There were fresh reports of new violence; the French news agency AFP stated that security forces charged a group of around 100 protesters on the Pansoedan bridge in central Yangon. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7019556.stm New protests on Rangoon streets] BBC News article.]
Approximately 5,000 people gathered to demonstrate in Mandalay. The military was reported to have put most monasteries under guard to prevent egress. People gathered at 80th, 84th, 35th, and 33rd Streets, before joining together; three military trucks followed them and tried to break up the demonstrators, arresting one student who attempted to cross the road in front of them. The military forced monks from outside Mandalay to return to their native towns, the military keeping the homes of NLD Party leaders under guard. Peaceful demonstrations were reported in Mandalay. The Ngwe Kyar Yan Monastery in South Okkalarpa which was subject to a raid some days earlier was under repair, some suggested, in an effort to eliminate evidence. A dedicated group of anti-riot troops was reported to have been formed within Brigate-77 led by Col. Thein Han under Minister Aung Thaung and General Htay Oo's supervision. Agricultural Minister General Maung Oo and Minister of Information Brig. General Kyaw Hsan was said to be in charge of arresting monks at night.
Only an hour after his scheduled arrival at Yangon, it was reported that
Ibrahim Gambari, the UN Secretary-General's special adviser on Myanmar, had arrived in Naypyidaw to talk with the junta leaders. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/today-demonstration.html Mr. Gambari arrives in Nay Pi Daw] Mizzina News, September 29, 2007.] White HouseNational Security Council Spokesman Gordon Johndroestated "We have concerns that Mr. Gambari was swiftly moved from Rangoon (Yangon) to the new capital in the interior, far from population centres" and urged the junta to allow Gambari wide access to people, religious leaders and Aung San Suu Kyi. When asked if he expected to meet Suu Kyi, Gambari said: "I expect to meet all the people that I need to meet." [ [http://in.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idINIndia-29780320070929?sp=true U.N. envoy flies into Myanmar maelstrom] Reuters, India.]
An early report indicated that the junta denied Gambari a meeting with Aung San Suu Kyi. [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/global/article2556453.ece Burma junta blocks UN meeting] Times Online, September 29, 2007.] In addition, the army, late at night, set up a machine-gun nest outside her house. [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article2558553.ece Burma junta divided over Suu Kyi talks] Times Online, September 30, 2007.]
An audio message from inside Myanmar said that crying crematorium workers claimed that they were forced by soldiers to burn injured protesters and civilians to death in YaeWay crematorium on the outskirts of Yangon. [ [http://www.uscampaignforburma.org/index2.html Audio file describing atrocities committed by the military regime, in Burmese with English translation]
U.S. Campaign for Burmawebsite, September 29, 2007.] The "Times Online" later reported that it was "widely accepted that the cremations began on the night of Friday, September 28", but the reports of people being burned alive were being "treated with extreme caution by independent observers and have not been verified". [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article2604151.ece Secret cremations hide Burma killings] "Times Online" October 7, 2007] In Yangon, soldiers rerouted the Sule bus stop to Thamada Cinema in an effort to keep people away from Sule pagoda. Some bus drivers were not informed of this change, and passengers getting off at the old stop were beaten upon dismounting. [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/today-demonstration.html/ Mizzima News breaking news] Mizzima News, September 29, 2007.] In Mandalay, non-monk prisoners were taken to a field and a barber was asked to shave their heads so that they could be dressed as monks and forced to create confusion and mistrust of real monks.
Monks and civilians were reported to have called diplomats to state that troops had arrived at three monasteries but had been prevented from entering by local residents who had massed outside. Making threats of returning in larger numbers, the soldiers then departed. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2007/09/30/burma_protesters_call_for_help_from_outside_world/ Burma protesters call for help from outside world] "Boston Globe" September 30, 2007.]
Mizzima news reported that in Mandalay, the NLD divisional organising committee member Win Mya Mya was arrested by police sub-Inspector Tun Lwin Naung at 11 p.m. last night at her home. "She seemed to know in advance of her imminent arrest. She is prepared and took her clothes with her," her sister Tin Win Yee, told reporters, "I am worried about her. This month is the period of Ramadan and she is being treated for her injury sustained in the Depayin incident". [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/105-Sep-2007.html Daw Win Mya Mya arrested] "Mizzima News" September 29, 2007.] Citizens in Myitkyina and other townships in northern Myanmar were coerced into joining pro-government rallies designed to manufacture a show of support for a national convention, though most of the speeches were simply condemnations from junta leaders of the uprisings. Two people from each household were required to attend. "We were warned that we would be punished if we didn't come to the rally. So we attended it because we were afraid," said one resident. [ [http://english.dvb.no/news.php?id=488 USDA slams public protests at rally] 'Democratic Voice of Burma" September 30, 2007.]
Ngwe Kyar Yan Monastery in Rangoon, where some 200 monks were detained in the early morning two days earlier, was reported to have been looted by soldiers. Everything of value was said to have been removed, including forty or more Buddha statues and the head of one of the largest Buddhas which contains valuable jewels. [http://www.irrawaddy.org/news/news_sept29_05.php Monks Sentenced to Six Years Imprisonment; Rangoon, Mandalay Locked Down by Troops] "Irrawady News" September 29, 2007]
The largest demonstration in the country at
Kyaukpadaung, Mandalay Division, numbered about 30,000 and was led by around 1,000 monks. The demonstrators marched peacefully despite heavy presence by security forces and military troops.
Some 10,000 farmers in Wra Ma, 30 miles north of Taungup, southern Rakhine State, were reported to have joined hands to protest against the government. The demonstrators were said to have been angry at the government's action against monks in Yangon. The report stated that the authorities in Taungup sent a platoon of police to the village soon after they received the information about the demonstration. [ [http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=1469 10,000 Farmers in Arakan Join Hands in Anti-Government Protest] "Narinjara News" September 30, 2007]
Contrary to earlier reports, UN envoy
Ibrahim Gambariwas allowed to meet with Aung San Suu Kyi. The two spoke for ninety minutes at the State guest house in Yangon after Gambari returned from talks with the junta in Naypyidaw. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/today-demonstration.html Breaking News - Gambari meets Daw Aung San Suu Kyi] "Mizzima News" September 30, 2007.] Gambari met with acting Prime Minister Thein Sein, Culture Minister Khin Aung Myintand Information Minister Kyaw Hsan, but was not been given an audience with senior general Than Shwe. [ [http://abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/09/30/2047362.htm?section=world UN envoy meet detained Burma Opposition leader: diplomats] "Australian Broadcasting Corporation", September 30, 2007.]
Premier of the People's Republic of China, Wen Jiabao, annonunced: "China hopes all parties concerned in Myanmar show restraint, resume stability through peaceful means as soon as possible, promote domestic reconciliation and achieve democracy and development". Javier Solana, the European Union's foreign policy chief, urged China to lean harder on Myanmar. Mark Canning, the United Kingdom's ambassador in Myanmar, told the BBC of the deep underlying political and economic reasons for the demonstrations, which he said would not go away easily; "The cork has been put in the bottle, but the pressures are still there." [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7020399.stm China appeals for calm in Burma] "BBC News", September 30, 2007.]
Meanwhile, the former US ambassador to the United Nations
John Boltontold BBC television that China is the key to political change in Burma.
Hla Win, a central member of the military junta, was reportedly seeking political asylum in Norway. The colonel was said to be in hiding in the jungle with rebels of the Karen people. [ [http://www.norwaypost.no/cgi-bin/norwaypost/imaker?id=104499 Burma: - Colonel to seek asylum in Norway] The Norway Post, September 30, 2007.] The colonel defected after being ordered to raid two monasteries and detain hundreds of monks. According to the colonel, these monks were to be killed and dumped in the jungle. [ [http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=148&a=698776 Avhoppare vägrade döda munkar] NTB (via Dagens Nyheter), September 30, 2007.]
An eyewitness in Yangon says a monastery on Wei-za-yan-tar Road was raided early in the morning. Monks studying inside were ordered out, and one by one had their heads bashed against the brick wall of the monastery. Their robes were torn off and they were thrown into trucks and driven away. The head monk is confirmed to have died later that day. Only 10 of 200 remained afterwards, hiding inside, and the ground was covered with blood. Many civilians who had gathered to help were held back by the military with bayonets. [ [http://www.ko-htike.blogspot.com/ Sept 30] ko htike's prosaic collection), September 30, 2007.]
The Japanese Deputy Foreign Minister
Mitoji Yabunaka, in Myanmar because of the death of Kenji Nagai, arrived in Naypyidaw to speak to government leaders. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2007/s2048164.htm UN envoy waits for talks with Burmese junta] "ABC News" October 1, 2007]
The barricades around the Shwedagon Pagoda were removed, witnesses told
Reuters, but soldiers were still stationed at the four entrances. Monks said that at least five of their number had been killed during the clashes with security forces. Eye witnesses said that troops and police were still positioned at many street corners and key locations around Yangon, making it impossible for demonstrators to gather. [ [http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-29796020071001 Army barricades lifted around key Myanmar temple] "Reuters, India" October 1, 2007.]
Mark Canning, the British ambassador to Myanmar, said that China was pushing hard for Gambari's mission to be as long and as far-reaching as possible. [ [http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/latest/200710011840/un_envoy_still_waiting_to_see_myanmars_military_chief UN envoy still waiting to see Myanmar's military chief] "Radio New Zealand News" October 1, 2007.]
Thousands of heavily armed soldiers were reported to be patrolling the streets of Yangon, and there were no signs of protests against the junta. The troops were stopping pedestrians and car drivers and searching them for cameras. The internet and mobile phone networks were still largely disrupted. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7021402.stm Heavy army presence in Burma city] "BBC News" October 1, 2007]
Around 4,000 monks were said to have been rounded up by the military during the previous week in an attempt to stamp out the protests. They were being held at a disused race course. A BBC report said that sources from a government-sponsored militia stated they would soon be moved away from Yangon, and that the monks have been disrobed and shackled. The
Democratic Voice of Burma, the banned opposition broadcaster, published a photograph which they said showed the body of a monk floating near the mouth of the Yangon river. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7022437.stm Burmese monks 'to be sent away'] "BBC News" October 1, 2007]
5,000 protesters were reported to have gathered in the town of Man Aung,
Rakhine State, in the morning. They marched while holding two banners displaying their demands; for the release of all political prisoners, a reduction in commodity prices, and national reconciliation. [ [http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=1471 New Protests in Arakan] "Narinjara News" October 1, 2007]
Three people were arrested at a protest in Sanchaung Township in Yangon a report in "The Irrawaddy" stated. [ [http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8853 UN Envoy Meets Top Generals amid More Arrests by Soldiers] "Irrawaddy News" October 2, 2007]
Ibrahim Gambarimet with Aung San Suu Kyifor a second time, just hours after returning from talks with Than Shwein Naypyidaw, where he conveyed concerns over the violent crackdown. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7023344.stm UN envoy holds key Burmese talks] "BBC News" October 2, 2007]
A report about imprisoned monks in Myanmar stated they were refusing to touch food given them by the military, and by doing so symbolically maintain their boycott of the regime. [ [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20071003.MYANMAR03/TPStory/TPInternational/Asia/ Myanmar's monks keep up protests from prison] "Globe and Mail" October 3, 2007]
Myanmar prime minister General Soe Win, reportedly died of
leukemiain Rangoon Defense Hospital, Mingladon, Yangon. [cite web|url=http://mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Oct/today-demonstration.html|title=Burmese Prime Minister pass away] But other sources claimed the rumours were false. [cite web|url=http://www.nationmultimedia.com/2007/10/04/headlines/headlines_30051328.php|title=Burma PM enters intensive care unit]
The United Nations
Human Rights Councilmet and discussed the situation in Myanmar during a special session, [cite press release|url=http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/view01/6F686D230293EC91C12573680072F75A?opendocument|title=Human Rights Council Strongly Deplores Continued Violent Repression of Peaceful Demonstrations in Myanmar|date= 2 October 2007|publisher=Human Rights Council] and passed a resolution deploring the violent repression of peaceful demonstrations, and urging the release of all those arrested during the demonstrations. [cite web|url=http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/specialsession/A.HRC.RES.S.5-1.pdf|title=Resolution S-5/1: Situation of human rights in Myanmar|date= 2 October 2007|publisher=Human Rights Council|format=PDF]
BBCreport stated that Gambari was in Singapore for a meeting with Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, but had not spoken with journalists. He was to prepare a report on his talks with Burma's leaders and brief the UN Security Councillater in the week. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7025357.stm Gambari prepares key Burma report] "BBC News" October 3, 2007]
Reports from Yangon stated that some 25 monks were arrested by security forces in a raid on a temple overnight. As a result of the military crackdown on anti-government protests, "scores of monks" were said to be trying to leave Yangon, although some bus drivers refused to carry them as passengers, fearing they would not be allowed petrol. Military vehicles fitted with loudspeakers patrolled Rangoon's streets blaring: "We have photographs. We are going to make arrests." Some 80 monks and 149 women thought to be nuns, who had been detained during part of the military's crackdown on protesters, were freed, Reuters reported. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7025357.stm Monks trying to escape Rangoon] "BBC News" October 3, 2007]
Riot police and soldiers were reported to be scouring Yangon with photographs to identify and arrest participants in last week's protests. [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Oct/14-Oct-2007.html Security forces search for protesters photographs in hand] "Mizzima News" October 3, 2007]
A report about nightly actions against demonstrators quoted one resident who said: "The repression is continuing every night. When there are no more witnesses, they drive through the suburbs at night and kill the people." The report stated that there is hunger and misery, many of the monks who demonstrated last week came from Okalapa Township and after suppressing Yangon centre on September 29, troops turned their attention to that township the following day. [ [http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,509232,00.html 'They Come at Night and Murder the Monks'] "Spiegel Online" October 03, 2007]
The body of the Japanese journalist, Kenji Nagai, was returned to Japan. An autopsy would be carried out; Japanese officials said that he was not shot accidentally as Burmese authorities have said, but was shot at close range. APF News, who employed Nagai, demanded that the camera he held when he was killed be returned; to that date only his second camera, thought to be a back-up, had been returned. Toru Yamaji, the head of APF News, said: "Our biggest task now is to confirm and report on what's in his camera and what he wanted to tell the people on his last day". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7027237.stm Reporter's body returned to Japan] "BBC News" October 4, 2007]
Another report stated that up to 10,000 people, many of them monks who led the protests, had been "rounded up for interrogation in recent days". United States diplomats who visited 15 monasteries found them empty, while others were being barricaded and guarded by soldiers, the report said. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7027493.stm More arrests in Burma crackdown] "BBC News" October 4, 2007]
The opposition rejected the junta's conditional offer of talks with Aung San Suu Kyi. [cite web|url=http://www.radionetherlands.nl/news/international/5462047/Myanmar-opposition-rejects-junta-offer|title=Myanmar opposition rejects junta offer]
Shari Villarosa, the United States top diplomat in Myanmar, was invited to talk with the military leaders. The envoy was to 'clearly convey Washington's condemnation of last week's bloody repression' a US spokesperson said. The invitation followed a state television broadcast stating that nearly 2,100 people had been arrested over the last week and some 700 had been freed. [ [http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,22538614-5012752,00.html US envoy heads for talks with Burma junta] "Herald Sun" October 05, 2007]
Reuters reported that protesters who applauded the demonstrations could face two to five years in jail, while the leaders could face 20 years. The Democratic Voice of Burma forwarded reports of some 50 students who demonstrated in Mandalay who had been sentenced to five years
hard labor. [ [http://ca.today.reuters.com/news/NewsArticle.aspx?type=topNews&storyID=uri:2007-10-05T170206Z_01_GOR228436_RTRIDST_0_NEWS-MYANMAR-COL.XML&pageNumber=1&summit= U.N. envoy warns Myanmar; opposition rejects talk offer] "Reuters" Canada October 5, 2007]
Some 60 troops from a battalion based in Akyab were reported to have been sent to the town of Man Aung, on Man Aung Island, to deal with demonstrations that continued for three days, ending on October 2. [ [http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=1474 Troops Dispatched to Man Aung to Crack Down on Demonstration] "Narinjara News" October 5, 2007]
After meeting with many of the parties involved
Ibrahim Gambarireturned to New York and briefed the Security Councilabout his visit. [ UN document |docid=S-PV-5753 |body=Security Council |type=Verbotim Report |meeting=5753 |page=3 |anchor=pg003-bk02 |date= 5 October 2007|meetingtime=10:00 |speakername=Mr. Gambari | speakernation=Special Envoy of the Secretary-General |accessdate=2007-10-09 ] The ambassador from Myanmar said of his country that had it had "indeed experienced a daunting challenge. However, we have been able to restore stability. The situation has now returned to normalcy. Currently, people all over the country are holding peaceful rallies within the bounds of the law to welcome the successful conclusion of the national convention, which has laid down the fundamental principles for a new constitution, and to demonstrate their aversion to recent provocative demonstrations." [ UN document |docid=S-PV-5753 |body=Security Council |type=Verbotim Report |meeting=5753 |page=17 |anchor=pg017-bk02-pa04 |date= 5 October 2007|meetingtime=10:00 |speakername=Mr. Swe | speakernation=Myanmar |accessdate=2007-10-09 ]
Yangon residents were reported to be "keeping up a low-key resistance", harassing troops by tossing rocks at them. In response, security forces detained some of the rock throwers. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6979677,00.html Resistance to Myanmar Soldiers Continues] "Guardian Unlimited" October 8, 2007] The retired General,
U Aung Kyi, currently serving as Deputy Minister of Labor, was appointed as an official go-between for talks between Aung San Suu Kyi and the military junta on 8 October 2007. [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7034190.stm|title=Burmese junta appoints go-between] [cite web|url=http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6278988.html|title=Myanmar gov't appoints minister to get link with Aung San Suu Kyi]
Ye Min Tun, a foreign ministry official for ten years, told the BBC how "appalling" treatment of Buddhist monks during the previous month's protests had forced him to resign from the military regime. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7035049.stm Diplomat resigns over Burma monks] "BBC News" October 9, 2007] Asked whether he thought the pro-democracy movement was now finished, the diplomat said: "I think it's not the end. I think it's just the beginning of the revolution." [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/10/09/europe/EU-GEN-Britain-Myanmar-Diplomat.php Report: Myanmar diplomat resigns over suppression of monks' protest] "International Herald Tribune October 9, 2007. Retrieved 10/10/07] ]
South African president
Nelson Mandelawithdrew an invitation to Gary Playerto host a fundraising golf tournamentbecause of the former British Openchampion's business links with Burma. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/10/10/nburma110.xml Burmese diplomat quits London Embassy] "Telegraph" October 10, 2007. Retrieved 10/10/07] ]
There were reports that a Win Shwe, a member of the
National League for Democracy, died during interrogationin the central Myanmar region of Sagaing. He and five colleagues had been arrested on September 26. White House foreign affairsspokesman Gordon Johndroesaid "The United States strongly condemns the atrocities committed by the junta and calls for a full investigation into the death of Win Shwe during his detention in Burma. The junta must stop the brutal treatment of its people and peacefully transition to democracy or face new sanctions from the United States." Witnesses claim that security forces were raiding houses in search of anyone whom they suspected of having been involved in the protests. [ [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iy-MfhLN9Q7MwtQ1VlrvexLjr2dAD8S6DQO80 Myanmar Dissident Dies Under Questioning] Associated Press, 10/10/07] The body of Win Shwe was not released, Thailand-based Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (AAPP) said. "His body was not sent to his family and the interrogators indicated that they had cremated it instead." Fears were expressed for others still held in police custody. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7038921.stm Burma activist dies in custody] BBC World News, 11/10/07]
Sources claimed that five
military generals and more than 400 soldiers of Sikai Divisionnear Mandalayhad been jailed for refusing to shoot and beat monks and civilians during the protests. Many civil servants were also staying away from work to show their disapproval of the junta's action. [ [http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20071010.B06&irec=5 Generals, soldiers jailed for refusing to shoot monks] Jakarta Post, 10/10/07]
Rolls Royce also made an official statement that it was ceasing all business dealings with the junta. It said it would cease aircraft engine repair work and terminate a contract involving the lease of an aircraft to a Burmese airline. A spokesman said "At that point, Rolls-Royce will have no further involvement in Burma." [Cite news |url=http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/world-news/article3053264.ece |title=Junta told that UN 'deplores' Burmese violence |publisher=Belfast Telegraph |date=2007-10-11]
The Security Council met and issued a statement and reaffirmed its "strong and unwavering support for the Secretary-General's good offices mission", especially the work by
Ibrahim GambariUN document |docid=S-PV-5757 |type=Verbatim Report |body=Security Council |meeting=5757 |accessdate=2007-10-15|date= 11 October 2007] . It also "strongly deplored the use of violence against peaceful demonstrations in Myanmar", welcomed the Human Rights Councilof 2 October 2007, and emphasized the importance of the early release of all political prisoners and remaining detainees", as well as urging the junta to prepare for a "genuine dialogue" with democratically elected leader Aung San Suu Kyi. Although a statement does not have the power of a resolution, it requires the consent of all its members and has been seen as a shift in position of China. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7040371.stm|title=UN Security Council rebukes Burma|date= 11 October 2007|publisher=BBC News] Official media in Burma called the UN statement "regrettable," and stated that more than half of those arrested during the protests have since been released. [ [http://abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/10/13/2058912.htm?section=world Burma junta 'arrests' top student dissident] "ABC News" AU, October 13, 2007]
Military rulers arrested what was thought to be the last four known leaders, part of the "88 Students Generation" activists of the 1988 pro-democracy uprising. Those detained included prominent woman activist
Thin Thin Aye(also known as Mie Mie), Aung Htooand Htay Kywe. Amnesty Internationalissued a statement expressing grave concern for their safety and for others still being held. [Cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7042885.stm |title=Key activists arrested in Burma |publisher=BBC News |date=2007-10-12]
Thousands attended a "pro-government" rally in Rangoon organised by the junta, many allegedly under coercion. Burmese dissident groups claimed that the numbers who attended the rally was much smaller than the government's figures. They also claimed that people were bussed to the rallies by the junta. AFP news agency also reported that every factory in the city's industrial zone had each been obliged to send 50 participants to the rally. [Cite news |title=Pro-junta rally to be held in Rangoon |url=http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Oct/52-Oct-2007.html |publisher=Mizzima |date=2007-10-12]
Amnesty International issued a revised statement saying that six dissidents had been arrested in Yangon over the weekend. They said: "Continued arrests fly in the face of the promises made this week by the Myanmar authorities to cooperate with the United Nations." [Cite news |url=http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=95791 |title=UN envoy heads to Asia as Myanmar junta rounds up activists |author=AFP |publisher=CBS |date=2007-10-14]
Gambari arrived in Thailand and issued a statement describing the latest arrests in Yangon as "extremely disturbing" [and] "counter to the spirit of mutual engagement" between the UN and Burma. The UN hoped that his meeting with military officials in Burma scheduled in mid November could be brought forward. Meanwhile, United Kingdom PM Gordon Brown urged the EU to propose tougher sanctions on Burma ahead of an EU meeting in
Luxembourgat which the banning of imports of gemstones, timber and metals was already proposed for discussion. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7044412.stm] BBC, 15/10/07]
The EU announced an agreement for further sanctions against the military junta but some have conceded that its leverage with Burma is limited and sanctions have so far controversially steered clear of its energy sector of which French oil giant Total is a major investor. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL15606056] Reuters 15/10/07]
Japan has cancelled funding of more than $4.7 m for a
human resourcescentre based in Rangoon University. Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimurasaid that the decision was made in response to the military action in Burma. A White House spokesman said that the US was considering toughening its own existing sanctions. Meanwhile ASEANsaid it will not consider suspending Myanmar as a member, and rejected any proposal for economic sanctions. [ [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iy-MfhLN9Q7MwtQ1VlrvexLjr2dAD8SA9CS00] AFP, 16/10/07] Burma said it had arrested approximately 100 monks in the protests and that only 10 people had died, but widespread opinion held the real figures to be higher. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7046267.stm] BBC 16/10/07]
Three high profile demonstrators were released by the Burmese government;
Zagana, a prominent comedian, along with actor Kyaw Thu, and his wife. In a published statement the junta stated: "Those who led, got involved in and supported the unrest which broke out in September are being interrogated" and "Some are still being called in for questioning and those who should be released will be." Officials claimed that a total of 2,927 people had been detained and nearly 500 were still being held, an increase of almost 800 since the previous official figures released on October 8. Those released had been asked to sign a "pledge" first. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7050018.stm] BBC news, 18/10/07] [http://www.guardian.co.uk/burma/story/0,,2193088,00.html Guardian UK, 17/10/07]
Reports in the "
Democratic Voice of Burma" claimed that the NLD party chairman U Kyaw Khine, and secretary Ko Min Aung, have both been sentenced to seven and a half years imprisonment. U Htun Kyiand U Than Pe, two members of the NLD organising committee in Sandowaytownship, were sentenced to four and half years, while another party member from Gwa township, U Sein Kyaw, is standing trial. A total of around 280 party members were arrested, including 50 members in Kyauksetownship in Mandalay Division, while others are reportedly on the run. [ [http://english.dvb.no/news.php?id=566 Arakan NLD members jailed] "Democratic Voice of Burma" October 18, 2007] Whilst reporting the same news, " The Irrawaddy" added a report about U Indriya, a monk from Sait-Ta-Thuka monastery, who is said to be one of the leaders of a peaceful demonstration in Sittwe. As a result, he has been sentenced to seven and a half years imprisonment. [ [http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=9047 Five NLD Members, One Monk Sentenced to Prison] "The Irrawaddy" October 18, 2007]
Two former schoolteachers, Tin Maung Oo and Ni Ni Mai, appeared in court after they spoke out against a pro-government rally in Paung Tal township, Bago division. On October 16 at about 5am, a pro-government group were marching past the teachers house, shouting slogans denouncing the monk-led demonstrations and supporting the National Convention. The protestors stopped at seeing a sign hung outside by Maung Oo, which denounced those who tortured and killed monks and civilians. Ni Ni Mai stood in the doorway and asked the protestors if 'they really agreed with the killing of monks and civilians in Rangoon' at which the protestors stopped chanting slogans and some of them dropped their placards. A leader of the government protest is reported to have taken photographs of the couple and their house; later that day the township police chief and two female police officers came to arrest them. The couple are due to appear in court for sentencing on October 30. [ [http://english.dvb.no/news.php?id=580 Bago couple arrested for challenging government protests] "Democratic Voice of Burma" October 19, 2007]
President Bush has announced further sanctions against the Burmese military. He has tightened export controls and frozen more financial assets held by the junta and urged China and India to apply more pressure. In a White House statement he said: "Monks have been beaten and killed. "Thousands of pro-democracy protesters have been arrested". "Burma's rulers continue to defy the world's just demand to stop their vicious persecution". "We are confident that the day is coming when freedom's tide will reach the shores of Burma."
A senior British diplomat told the BBC that some 2,500 people are still being held by the military. British officials also received first-hand accounts of grim conditions under which many detainees are still being held. Night raids are said to be continuing with hundreds being arrested. ["Bush ramps up sanctions on Burma" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7053000.stm] BBC 19/10/07, Retrieved 20/10/07]
Burma's military announced the lifting of a curfew in two main cities,
Mandalayand Rangoon. The statement is being widely seen as a sign that the government is confident that it has now gained control of the recent dissent. However it is unclear whether the recent government ban on assemblies of more than five people had also been lifted. ["Burma lifts curfew on main cities" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7054370.stm] BBC 20/10/07, Retrieved 20/10/07]
It has been announced that the UN
special rapporteurfor human rights in Burma Paulo Sérgio Pinheirois to be allowed to visit Burma. Burmese Foreign Minister Nyan Win wrote to the UN stating that Pinheiro could arrive before mid-November. This will be the first visit by Pinheiro in four years; previously the military junta has refused to give their permission. Pinheiro welcomed news of his invitation, telling Reutersnews agency that it was "an important sign that the government wants to engage again in constructive dialogue with the UN and the Human Rights Council". The BBC's Laura Trevelyanreports from the UN that the timing of the invitation is significant, a summit of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (Asean) is due to open on 17 November. The regime may believe that the move could reduce further criticism from members of Asean. [ [http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7057425.stm] BBC, Burma allows human rights visit, Retrieved 24/10/07]
Rights groups report that hundreds of ethnic minority tribespeople are fleeing Burma into the border state of
Mizoram, Indiato escape the military regime. They claim that they are being forced to join pro-government rallies, in some cases at gunpoint, and if they refuse they face fines of up to 10,000 kyats [$7] ; while others have been arrested including Christian pastors. Many of the exodus are from the Christianminority ethnic Chin peoplewho say they have been persecuted by the junta for being Christians and non-ethnic Burmese. Although they were initially welcomed in Mizoram after the 1988 military crackdown they now face threats of a pushback, as the Mizos, (who are ethnic cousins of Chins), are now strongly opposing "unrestricted migration from the Chin State" for fear that they may one day be outnumbered by them. [ [http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7058007.stm] BBC, Burma minority 'fleeing to India' Retrieved 24/10/07] [ [http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=76871] The International News (Pakistan) Retrieved 24/10/07]
Meanwhile India has been accused of allowing its strategic and business interests to prevail in Burma, and for failing to put pressure on the generals. [ [http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/oct2007/gb20071019_332887.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index_global+business] Business Week, India's Role in Burma's Crisis, Retrieved 24/10/07]
riot policeand government troops armed with rifles and teargas launchers [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/burma/story/0,,2199811,00.html/ One month on, Burmese regime stages show of strength] Guardian Newspaper online (UK), Retrieved 26/10/07] are said to be back on the streets of Rangoon (Yangon). They have surrounded the Shwedagon and Sule Pagodas, the two main focal points of peaceful demonstrations led by Buddhist monks in September. There are also said to be large coils of barbed wire present, in readiness to block streets. The troop presence coincides with the end of Buddhist Lent, and is thought to be aimed at preventing new protests, though according to Reuters there are no new protest developments. It also comes a day after detained pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi met with a military officer for talks. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7063168.stm/ Soldiers back on Rangoon streets] BBC online, Retrieved 26/10/07] State Councilor for China Tang Jiaxuantold Gambari of the UN, who is expected to return to Burma in early November, that words were the way forward. "The Myanmar issue, after all, has to be appropriately resolved by its own people and government through their own efforts of dialogue and consultation." [ [http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-30169320071026?pageNumber=3/ Armed police back in Yangon as "Buddhist Lent" ends] Reuters (India), Retrieved 26/10/07]
More than 100
buddhist monksmarched through the central town of Pakokku, 370 miles (600 km) northwest of Yangon. This was the first time they have returned to the streets since the crack-down by the juntain September. [http://uk.news.yahoo.com/rtrs/20071031/tpl-uk-myanmar-monks-43a8d4f_4.html] One monk who was on the march told the Democratic Voice of Burma, a Norway-based radio stationrun by dissident journalists: "We are continuing our protest from last month as we have not yet achieved any of the demands we asked for. "Our demands are for lower commodity prices, national reconciliation and immediate release of [pro-democracy leader] Aung San Suu Kyiand all the political prisoners." Thai-based director of the Human RightsEducation Institute of Burma, Aung Nyo Min said "This is very significant... we are very encouraged to see the monks are taking up action and taking up peaceful demonstrations in Burma." [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7070551.stm Monks return to streets of Burma] BBC, accessed 02/11/07]
The Burma government is to expel the
United Nations' top diplomat in the country, UN officials have said. The military regime told UN's Burma country chief, Charles Petrie his mandate was not going to be renewed. It is not clear when he will have to leave. Mr Petrie is known to have voiced concerns over the junta's violent break up of peaceful demonstrations in September: "The events clearly demonstrated the everyday struggle to meet basic needs and the urgent necessity to address the deteriorating humanitarian situation in the country," Mr Petrie's statement said, 24 October, United Nations Day. The U.S. called the expulsion an outrage and an insult. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7075294.stm Burma to expel UN's top diplomat] BBC, accessed 02/11/07]
Burma's military rulers have given a date for United Nations human rights envoy
Paulo Sergio Pinheiroto begin a 5-day visit on 11 and 15 November. Pinheiro known officially as the UN's special rapporteur on human rights in Burma has warned: "If they don't give me full co-operation, I'll go to the plane, and I'll go out." Pinheiro had been refused entry since 2003. His visit comes before a meeting of the Association of South-East Asian Nations ( Asean). [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7080732.stm UN rights chief given Burma date] BBC, accessed 07/11/07]
One year after the protests started, small acts of defiance continue. In particular a 'stop sign' (the palm of a raised hand inside a circle) is being stamped onto banknotes and other places as a reminder of the protests. [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article4828978.ece 'In tiny acts of defiance, a revolution still fickers] ,
The Times, 26 September 2008.]
The number of casualties is not yet clear. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071001/ap_on_re_as/myanmar_dead___missing_1;_ylt=AsArorhaU7exPZMmVHFsc5SROrgF Groups struggle to tally Myanmar's dead] Yahoo News, October 1 2007] According to ABC, the military crackdown claimed hundreds of lives. The official toll remains at 13 killed. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/09/28/2046819.htm More Burma protesters arrested as curfew orders ignored] "ABC News" Australia]
Kenji Nagai, the Japanese photo journalist, is believed to currently be the only foreign casualty of the unrest. However, it is possible that the death toll may be many times greater than officially reported. [ [http://www.forbes.com/afxnewslimited/feeds/afx/2007/09/28/afx4165836.html Death Toll may be higher than reported] "Forbes"]
Speaking before the UN General Assembly, the UN Human Rights Council’s Special Rapporteur Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro said that independent sources reported 30 to 40 monks and 50 to 70 civilians killed as well as 200 beaten. [cite press release | title = Myanmar: UN rights expert to probe allegations of abuses during crackdown | publisher = UN News Centre | date =
25 October 2007| url = http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=24405&Cr=myanmar&Cr1= | accessdate = 2007-10-25] Democratic Voice of Burmaputs the number of deaths at 138, basing their figure on a list compiled by the 88 Student Generation group in Myanmar. The Executive Director of the DVB, Aye Chan Naing, told the Associated Press that " [t] his 138 figure is quite credible because it's based on names of victims, I also think the figure is accurate because of the pictures coming from inside Burma. The way they were shooting into the crowds with machine guns means dozens of people could have died." [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071001/ap_on_re_as/myanmar_dead___missing_1;_ylt=AsArorhaU7exPZMmVHFsc5SROrgF Groups struggle to tally Myanmar's dead] "Yahoo News", October 1 2007]
A report in the "
Daily Mail" states that " [t] housands of protesters are dead and the bodies of hundreds of executed monks have been dumped in the jungle", the report is based on information provided by Colonel Hla Win, who defected from the army some days prior to the report, he is quoted as having said "Many more people have been killed in recent days than you've heard about. The bodies can be counted in several thousand.". [ [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/worldnews.html?in_article_id=484903&in_page_id=1811&ct=5 Burma: Thousands dead in massacre of the monks dumped in the jungle] "Daily Mail", October 1, 2007]
The Age" reports that, after two non-protestors were shot in northwest Yangon, "the army came back, gave the families 20,000 kyat (~$20) each and took away the corpses." [ [http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/as-burmas-junta-reclaims-streets-locals-stand-up-for-monks/2007/10/01/1191091027787.html As Burma's junta reclaims streets, locals stand up for monks] "The Age", October 2, 2007]
Reports forwarded by "Times Online" stated that the abbot of Ngwe Kyar Yan monastery in north west Yangon was so severely beaten by soldiers "that he died on the spot"; the soldiers had been lining monks up against a wall and smashing each of their heads against the wall in succession before throwing them into trucks.
The final death toll still remained 31 confirmed by the UN human right envoy to Burma,
Paulo Sergio Pinheiro. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7133239.stm Burma Toll at least 31 UN say] "BBC News", December 7, 2007]
Arrests and releases
October 7, Al JazeeraNews reported that at least 1,000 people had been arrested. This figure was provided by Burma's state-run media, the New Light of Myanmar. On October 11, state media reported new figures - that 2,100 people have been arrested and 700 already released.cite news | title = US Diplomat Meets Burma Leader | author = Associated Press | publisher = Time | date = 2007-10-12| url = http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1670854,00.html] In contrast, foreign sources claim that more than 6,000 people are being held. [ [http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/29937688-3110-44F7-A642-502D905F8542.htm] Aljazeera News, More protesters held in Myanmar.] London-based business news agency Reutersreported about 80 monks and 149 women (believed to be Buddhist nuns) were released by the junta on October 3, 2007. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7025357.stm] BBC News, More monk escape ]
The government attempts to block all websites and services that carry news or information about Myanmar, including barring access to web-based
blogs almost as soon as the protests happen. Many of these images have been picked up by mainstream news organizations, because bloggers have managed to capture images that no one else can get. When Aung San Suu Kyi stepped outside her home in Yangon to greet marching monks and supporters on Saturday, the only pictures of the landmark moment were posted on blogs. Mizzima News, [ [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/News/2007/Sep/92-Sep-2007.html Over 100,000 people in Rangoon and parts of Burma protest] (Third to last paragraph) Mizzima News] an India-based news group run by exiled dissidents, picked up one of the photos of Aung San Suu Kyi and said more than 50,000 people accessed their website that day. [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h3-DlPnM6ukmpclQXvMbK3506Rcw Yangon bloggers outsmart Myanmar censors] AFP, September 25, 2007.] Some Burmese internet users are trying to use internet forums to obtain outside information uncontrolled by the government about their situation. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7012984.stm Burma cyber-dissidents crack censorship] BBC, September 26, 2007] On September 28it was reported that the government had blocked all access to the Internet. The official explanation is that maintenance is being carried out but Sky Newsreports that all Internet cafés have also been closed. [ [http://www.bangkokpost.com/breaking_news/breakingnews.php?id=122120 Burma 'cuts all Internet links'] Bangkok Post, September 28, 2007] [ [http://news.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30200-1286124,00.html Warning Shots Fired At Protesters] Sky News, September 28, 2007]
By at least midnight local time on
6 October, internet access had been restored to Yangon. Fact|date=October 2007 Sources in Burma said on 6 October that the internet seems to be working from 22:00 to 05:00 local time.
While most countries expressed support for protests and urged the Junta to implement far-reaching reforms, some key countries, such as the
People's Republic of Chinaand Indiamaintained commitment to the notion of noninterference and even showed tacit support to the regime. [ [http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view_article.php?article_id=90622 Faced with Myanmar protests, China reaffirms nonintervention] Inquierer.net, September 25, 2007.] [ [http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view_article.php?article_id=90444 World urges restraint amid Myanmar protests] AFP, September 25, 2007.]
United States, European Union, and Canadahave imposed a number of sanctions on the junta, including a freeze on bank accounts and restrictions on imports of gems and timber. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7011607.stm personal sanctions] BBC News, 10/10/07] There is no sign that China, Indiaand ASEAN nations are willing to participate in personal sanctions, though the ASEAN asked that it be made by the United Nations.Fact|date=September 2007
United States Department of the Treasuryannounced sanctions against 14 senior officials of Myanmar. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,298298,00.html] Fox News] Among those targeted for the sanctions are the junta leader, Senior Gen. Than Shwe, and Deputy Senior Gen. Maung Aye. The action by Treasury will freeze any assets that the individuals targeted have in U.S. banks or other financial institutions under U.S. jurisdiction. The order also prohibits any U.S. citizens from doing business with the designated individuals. [ [http://www.monywa.org/witmone/mizzima_news_singapore30Sept2007.htm] Missima News]
September 27, the European Unionbegan considering "targeted reinforced sanctions" against the military junta, with current sanctions already including an arms embargo, asset freezes, and visa and trade bans. Their aim was to back sanctions that did not harm the population. [ [http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aLXL8X4IobaI&refer=home Pressure Builds on Myanmar as Protesters Are Shot At (Update)] Bloomberg, September 27, 2007.]
John Howardof Australia, confirmed reports that the Australian Government would deliver targeted financial sanctions against members of the military junta, as well as possibly introducing other measures to further restrict the military leaders. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/09/27/2045323.htm Howard flags sanctions against Burma] Australian Broadcasting Corporation News, September 27, 2007.] [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/pm-launches-sanctions-against-junta/2007/09/27/1190486462513.html PM launches sanctions against junta] Sydney Morning Herald, September 27, 2007.] Nobel Peace Prizelaureate Desmond Tutuurged China to intervene in the ongoing protests in Myanmar. "China, you have leverage - tell those brutal men to stop their brutality," Tutu said at the Goteborg Book Fairin Sweden. Archbishop Emeritus Tutu said that if China did not take a stance against the military rulers in Myanmar he would "join a campaign to boycott the Beijing Olympics" next year. [ [http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=148&a=698244 Desmond Tutu vädjar till Burmas ledare] Dagens Nyheter, September 28, 2007.] Calls for a boycott of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games grow around the world, as more people began to say that increased pressure on the Chinese government was the best way to support the Burmese people. The British Broadcasting World News TV service aired interviews, e-mails and text messages from many parts of the world supporting the idea and also calling on people to cancel tickets, airline bookings and hotel reservations in Beijing.
Activists and campaign organizations worldwide, including the
Burma Global Action Network, Burma Campaign UKand the U.S. Campaign for Burma, called for October 6to be designated a
An online petition to the Chinese President, Hu Jintao, and the UN Security Council, urging them to "oppose a violent crackdown on the demonstrators" and "support genuine reconciliation and democracy" is being hosted by
Avaaz.org. The petition includes a pledge to hold them "accountable for any further bloodshed". Initially it aimed to receive 500,000 signatures, having achieved that, a new target of 1,000,000 has been set.
International Bloggers' Day for Burma, a campaign for bloggers to not post to their blogs, was to be on October 4. Instead they are being asked to put up a banner, underlined with the words "Free Burma!". [ [http://www2.free-burma.org/index.php#attend International Bloggers' Day for Burma on the 4th of October] Free Burma!]
A worldwide action by
bloggers originating in Italywill set a signpost for peace and support the people of Myanmar through the internet. On October 4, 2007all bloggers and website owners worldwide were called upon to support the "free Burma" campaign by adding a graphic to their website frontdoors and blog only about Myanmar related topics. An internet action likewise has not been reported so far [http://www.dariosalvelli.com/2007/09/appello-per-la-birmania-stop-blogging-for-birmania] .
October 9. The group, now formed into an official organization called Burma Global Action Networkjoined the call for a Global Day of Action for Burmathrough public demonstrations on October 6in cities and towns worldwide.
Wired magazine noted the significance of the grassroots effort in an article asking whether Facebook has given birth to 'open-source politics.' [ [http://www.wired.com/politics/onlinerights/news/2007/10/myanmarfacebook 'Open-Source Politics' Taps Facebook for Myanmar Protests ] ]
A campaign labelled "
Panties for Peace" began on October 16; focussing on the superstitions of Burma’s generals, particularly junta chief Than Shwe, that views contact with any item of women’s wear as depriving them of their power, women throughout the world have been sending packages to Burmese embassies containing panties; the campaign has spread to Australia, Europe, Singapore and Thailand. [ [http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=9048 "Panties for Peace" Campaign Wins Wide Support] "The Irrawady" October 18, 2007]
James Mathisonfrom Australian Idolhas lent his support, hosting a Free Burma rally on [http://www.aucampaignforburma.org/UpcomingEvents.htm 10 November] in Sydney.
While local protests at French oil giant
Total Oil's garages were taking place from October on [ [http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=24957770200&topic=3131 "Protest at Total Oil garages" discussion at Facebook] ] [ [http://totaloutofburma.blogspot.com "Total Out of Burma" blog] ] , the first global consumers' boycott of Total Oil(which also owns ELF and FINA) and U.S.-based Chevron (which also owns Texaco, Caltexand Unocal) was called for on November 16 2007 because the corporations to be able to exploit Yadana natural gas pipeline in southern Burmaare paying to the junta an estimated $450million/year and are now lobbying in the U.S. and Europe against government measures to support a democratic transition in Burma. In order to protect Total's interests, the French government has become an obstacle to any serious strengthening of EUmeasures against Burma. The French government has pushed for the junta to be admitted into international associations, defending Total's investments. The global online initiative hosted by Avaaz.org"to refuse to buy fuel from any Total, Chevron, ELF, FINA, Texaco or Caltex station in our home countries and wherever we travel" was signed by 20,255 people with the aim of delivering 40,000 signatures to the top management of the corporations. [ [http://www.avaaz.org/en/burma_corporate] Avaaz's "No Fuel For Burmese Junta" Campaign] Although Chevron and Total Oilclaim that their presence benefits the Burmese population, Aung San Suu Kyisaid in Le Mondethat "Total has become the main supporter of the Burmese military regime." already in 2005. [ [http://www.soros.org/initiatives/bpsai/articles_publications/publications/totalbcuk_2005/total_report.pdf "TOTALitarian Oil" Report, The Burma Campaign UK, 2005, PDF] ]
8888 Uprising- the national uprising demanding democracy that took place on August 8, 1988in Myanmar
Theravada- the predominant Buddhist school in Myanmar
Buddhism in Myanmar
Internal conflict in Myanmar- the long conflict between the Myanmar government and anti-government rebels and supporters since 1948, currently the longest ongoing conflict in the world (as of 2007)
Kenji Nagai- the Japanese journalist who was killed by a Burmese soldier while filming the protest.
* [http://blog.goo.ne.jp/nagaikenji20070927/e/2f627ce42b5fbd7466f1506a50ac3b3d The Group Protesting the Murder of Mr. Nagai by the Army of Myanmar]
* [http://www.mizzima.com/ Mizzima News] Award-winning India-based news group run by exiled dissidents. "See also:
* [http://www.dvb.no/ Democratic Voice of Burma] Norwegian-based radio station committed to providing accurate and unbiased news to the people of Myanmar
* [http://jotman.blogspot.com/ Jotman] Presently blogging from Bangkok, bringing updates from Myanmar. Fairly up to date on current events.
* [http://www.ko-htike.blogspot.com/ Ko Htike's Prosaic Collection] , photo blog of the protests, cited on
* [http://burmamyanmargenocide.blogspot.com/ Burma-Myanmar Genocide 2007] , aggregating news about current ongoing events, providing translations into English from Burmese blogs from within the country
* [http://www.bnionline.net/ Burma News International]
* [http://www.seapabkk.org/ Southest Asian Press Alliance]
* [http://www.ifex.org/ International Freedom of Expression eXchange]
* [http://www.irrawaddy.org/ The Irrawaddy] Thailand-based magazine run by Burmese exiles
* [http://sacredmediacow.com/?cat=67 Burma Archive] : an aggregation effort by SOAS academics, UK.
* [http://www.maetaoclinic.org/] The Mae Tao Clinic provides medical care in a Burmese refuge camp across the border in Thailand to 150,000 refuges, it trains medics to return to Burma to provide health care and it treats injured or sick Burmese refugees searching for health care.
* [http://www.onpointradio.org/shows/2007/10/20071001_a_main.asp Myanmar and the World] from
* [http://uscampaignforburma.org/ U.S. Campaign for Burma]
* [http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/4629 Myanmar, Minorities, and the Military] David I. Steinberg, "Foreign Policy in Focus," October 10, 2007
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7015799.stm In pictures: Burma protests] (
* [http://picasaweb.google.com/burmamyanmargenocide Burma-Myanmar Genocide] (
* [http://ratchasima.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/20070924-rangoon-mmed-2.jpgMonks march with citizens holding hands next to them, 24 Sept. Rangoon] (http://ratchasima.net/saffron-revolution/)
* [http://bp1.blogger.com/_63uOqYlI5Kk/RwCQFzU0SkI/AAAAAAAAAko/wr1M6qMEl4E/s1600-h/monk+1.jpgMonk's body badly beaten and dumped in river (Warning: graphic!)] (http://www.ko-htike.blogspot.com/)
* [http://www.freeburma.org.au/ Free Burma Australian Campaign] Pictures and news from Protests in Australia.
* [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/Others/25.9.07(2).wmv Demonstration (video)] (WMV) Mizzima News
* [http://www.mizzima.com/MizzimaNews/Others/25.9.07(4).wmv Protests, September 26 (video)] (WMV) Mizzima News
*youtube|ceemxl-LFAk|Monks demonstrating on September 24 (video)
*youtube|f3EarhS5ysA|Monks leading a demonstaration of 100,000 on September 24 (video)
*youtube|Z0GTF44phZE|Monks defy warnings to protest on September 25 (video)
*youtube|ZRmOibAEDGQ|Police Clash with Protesters on September 26 (video)
*youtube|sppRRqYWBP4|Shots fired as protests continue on September 27 (video)
*youtube|CU6myf-lJ6k|Soldiers shoot into crowds on September 27 (video)
*youtube|BUUQi1ooEAs|Video shows Japanese journalist 'being shot deliberately' September 27 (video)
*youtube|OU6HRIH56dA|Protesters clash with Troops on September 28 (video)
*youtube|u0Q2aeLQNpA|Aljazeera: Deserters leave Myanmar army (video)
*youtube|xH_ZqfTOrxk|Aljazeera: On the ground in Yangon, September 28 (video)
*youtube|64vkuN1Ssb8|FREE BURMA - International Bloggers' Day 4-10-07 (video)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.