Fermented milk products

Fermented milk products

Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. The fermentation process increases the shelf-life of the product, as well as adds to the taste and improves the digestibility of milk. There is evidence that fermented milk products have been produced since around 10,000 BC.[1] A range of different Lactobacilli strains has been grown in laboratories allowing for a wide range of cultured milk products with different tastes.



Many different types of cultured milk products can be found around the world.

Soured milk

Origin Product(s)
acidophilus milk
 Brittany laezh-ribod
 Bulgaria kiselo mlyako
Caucasus kefir
Central Asia chal & kumis
 Denmark kærnemælk, tykmælk, and ymer
 Estonia hapupiim and kefir
 Finland piimä and viili
 Georgia matsoni
 Germany Sauermilch or Dickmilch
 Greece Xynogalo or Xynogala
 Iceland skyr and súrmjólk
 India Lassi
 Indonesia dadiah
 Iran doogh
 Israel leben
 Japan Calpis[2]
 Kazakhstan kumis
 Macedonia kiselo mleko
 Netherlands karnemelk (buttermilk)
 Norway surmelk or kulturmelk, kefir, and tjukkmjølk[3]
 Pakistan Lassi
 Poland kwaśne mleko or zsiadłe mleko
 Romania lapte bătut and lapte acru
 Russia kefir, ryazhenka and prostokvasha
 Scotland blaand
 Serbia kiselo mleko
 Slovakia kefir or acidofilne mlieko
 South Africa amasi ("maas" in Afrikaans)
 Sweden filmjölk, långfil and A-fil (fil is the short form of filmjölk)
 USA clabber
 Bosnia and Herzegovina kiselo mlijeko and kefir

Soured cream

Origin Product(s)
sour cream
Central & Eastern Europe smetana
 Croatia mileram/kiselo vrhnje
 Finland kermaviili
 France crème fraîche
 Iceland sýrður rjómi
 Mexico crema/cream espesa
 Norway rømme
 Serbia kisela pavlaka
 Sweden gräddfil

Comparison chart

Product Alternative names Typical milkfat content Typical shelf life at 4°C Fermentation agent Description
Cheese 1-75% varies a variety of bacteria and/or mold Any number of solid fermented milk products.
Crème fraîche creme fraiche 30-40% 10 days[1] naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria in cream Mesophilic fermented cream, originally from France; higher-fat variant of sour cream.
Cultured sour cream sour cream[4] 14–18%[4] 4 weeks[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*[4] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized cream with an acidity of at least 0.5%. Rennet extract may be added to make a thicker product.[4] Lower fat variant of crème fraîche.
Filmjölk fil 0.1-4.5% 10–14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis* and Leuconostoc[5][6] Mesophilic fermented milk, originally from Scandinavia.
Yogurt yoghurt, yoghourt, yogourt, yogurt 0.5–4% 35–40 days[1] Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus[4] Thermophilic fermented milk, cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Kefir kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, milkkefir, búlgaros 0-4% 10–14 days[1] Kefir grains, a mixture of bacteria and yeasts A fermented beverage, originally from the Caucasus region, made with kefir grains. Can be made with any sugary liquid, such as milk from mammals, soy milk, or fruit juices.
Kumis koumiss, kumiss, kymys, kymyz, airag, chigee 4%? 10–14 days[1] Lactobacilli and yeasts A carbonated fermented milk beverage traditionally made from horse milk.
Viili filbunke 0.1-3.5% 14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis* biovar. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Geotrichum candidum[7] Mesophilic fermented milk that may or may not contain fungus on the surface. Originally from Sweden but today is a Finnish specialty.[7]
Cultured buttermilk 1–2% 10 days[1] Lactococcus lactis*[4] (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris)[1] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized milk.
Acidophilus milk acidophilus cultured milk 0.5-2% 2 weeks[1] Lactobacillus acidophilus[1][4] Thermophilic fermented milk, often lowfat (2%, 1.5%) or nonfat (0.5%), cultured with Lactobacillus acidophilus.

* Streptococcus lactis has been renamed to Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis[8]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Fermented Milk Products". Canadian Dairy Commission. 2007-06-06. http://www.milkingredients.ca/dcp/article_e.asp?catid=145&page=2568. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  2. ^ "Caplis". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calpis. 
  3. ^ "From local food to terroir product ? - Some views about Tjukkmjølk, the traditional thick sour milk from Røros, Norway". 2005-05-04. http://aof.revues.org/document211.html. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g pavlaka "Newer Knowledge of Dairy Foods: Other: Kinds of Other Dairy Foods". National Dairy Council. http://www.nationaldairycouncil.org/NationalDairyCouncil/Nutrition/Products/otherPage1.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-30. [dead link]
  5. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. http://www.arla.se/Default____17791.aspx?SelectedMenuItem=17372. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  6. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. http://storkok.arla.se/Sites/Storkok/Templates/Product____997.aspx. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  7. ^ a b "Viili: the Finnish speciality" (PDF). Valio Foods & Functionals (Valio) 2003 (2): 4–5. 2003. http://www.valio.fi/portal/page/portal/valiocom/Valio_Today/Publications/valio_foods___functionals05102006130335/2003.pdf#page=4. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  8. ^ Schleifer, K.H.; Kraus J, Dvorak C, Kilpper-Balz R, Collins MD, Fischer W (1985). "Transfer of Streptococcus lactis and related streptococci to the. genus Lactococcus gen. nov.". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 183–195. ISSN 0723-2020. 

See also

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