- Tick-borne disease
Name = PAGENAME
eMedicineSubj = emerg
eMedicineTopic = 584
MeshID = D017282
Tick-borne diseases are
diseases or illnesses transmitted by ticks. As the incidence of tick-borne illnesses increases and the geographic areas in which they are found expand, it becomes increasingly important that health professionals be able to distinguish the diverse, and often overlapping, clinical presentations of these diseases.
Tick-borne illnesses are caused by infection with a variety of
pathogens, including rickettsiaand other types of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Because ticks can harbor more than one disease-causing agent, patients can be infected with more than one pathogen at the same time, compounding the difficulty in diagnosis and treatment.
Diagnosis and treatment
In general, specific laboratory tests are not available to rapidly diagnose tick-borne diseases. Due to their seriousness,
antibiotictreatment is often justified based on clinical presentation alone.
Major tick-borne diseases include:
**Organism: "Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato" (bacterium)
**Vector: deer tick ("Ixodes scapularis" (="I. dammini"), "I. pacificus", "I. ricinus" (Europe), "I. persulcatus" (Asia))
**Endemic to: North America and Eurasia
TBEVaka FSME virus, a flavivirus
**Vector: deer tick ("Ixodes scapularis"), "I. ricinus" (Europe), "I. persulcatus" (Russia + Asia))
**Endemic to: Europe and Northern Asia
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
**Organism: "Rickettsia rickettsii"
**Vector: wood tick ("Dermacentor variabilis"), "D. andersoni"
**Region (US): East, South West
**Vector: "Amblyomma cajennense"
**Region (Brazil): São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,
**Organism: "Babesia microti", "B. equi"
**Vector: "I. scapularis", "I. pacificus"
**Region (US): Northeast West Coast
Ehrlichiosis anaplasmosis(formerly human granulocytic ehrlichiosis or HGE)
**Organism: "Ehrlichia chaffeensis", "E. equi" (renamed to
**Vector: lone star tick ("Amblyomma americanum"), "I. scapularis"
**Region (US): "South-Atlantic South-Central"
**Vector: "Ornithodoros species"
**Region (US): West
Colorado tick fever
**Vector: "D. andersoni"
**Region (US): West
**Organism: "Francisella tularensis", "A. americanum"
**Organism: "D. andersoni", "D. variabilis"
**Region (US): Southeast, South-Central, West, Widespread
**Vector: "D. andersoni", "D. variabilis West"
**Region (US): East
**Organism: "C. felis"
**Vector: "D. variabilis" (American Dog Tick)
**Region (US): South, Southeast
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
**Organism: "Rhipicephalus bursa"
**Organism: "Hyalomma marginatum marginatum"
* [http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/list_tickborne.htm Tickborne Diseases] - National Center for Infectious Diseases (CDC)
* [http://www.mass.gov/dph/cdc/epii/lyme/lymehp.htm Tickborne Disease Website] - Massachusetts Department of Public Health
* [http://www.health24.com/medical/Condition_centres/777-792-824-1855,14021.asp Tick bite fever] - Health 24
* [http://chppm-www.apgea.army.mil/3d/tick/Xyber-tick.html Ixodes Scapularis] - 3D animation of Deer or Blacklegged Tick from US Army site
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