Canada, New France

Canada, New France

Infobox Former Subdivision
conventional_long_name = Canada
common_name = Canada
subdivision = Colony
nation = New France

image_map_caption = Map of New France around 1750.
national_anthem =
religion = Roman Catholicism
currency = New France livre
capital = Quebec
stat_area1 =
stat_year1 =
stat_pop1 =
p1 =
image_p1 =
s1 = Province of Quebec (1763-1791)
flag_s1 = Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg
year_start = 1534
event_end = Ceded to Britain
year_end = 1763
date_end = 10 February
political_subdiv = Quebec City Montreal Trois-Rivières

Canada was the name of the French colony that once stretched along the St. Lawrence River; the other colonies of New France were Acadia, Louisiana and Newfoundland. [MCC. " [ Le territoire] ", in "La Nouvelle-France. Ressources françaises", Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication (France), 1998, retrieved August 2, 2008] Canada, the most developed colony of New France, was divided in three districts named "Québec", "Trois-Rivières", and "Montréal". Each section of the colony had its own particular government. The governor of the district of "Québec" was also the governor general of all of New France. [Ibid., retrieved August 2, 2008]

Because of the level of development of Canada compared to the other colonies, the terms "Canada" and "New France" were often used interchangeably. After the Treaty of Paris of 1763, when France ceded Canada and its dependencies to Great Britain, the colony was renamed the Province of Quebec. ["his Most Christian Majesty cedes and guaranties to his said Britannick Majesty, in full right, Canada, with all its dependencies, as well as the island of Cape Breton, and all the other islands and coasts in the gulph and river of St. Lawrence, and in general, every thing that depends on the said countries, lands, islands, and coasts" "", 1763]

Settled country

In 1740, a survey of the population of the St. Lawrence River valley counted about 44,000 colonists, the majority born in Canada. Of those, 18,000 lived under the government of "Québec", 4,000 under the government of "Trois-Rivières" and 22,000 under the government of "Montréal". The population was mostly rural, cities having populations of 4600 for "Québec", 378 for "Trois-Rivières" and 4200 for "Montréal". [NRC. " [ New France circa 1740] ", in "The Atlas of Canada", Natural Resources Canada, 2003-10-06, retrieved August 2, 2008]

Pays d'en Haut

Dependent upon Canada were the "Pays d'en Haut" (upper countries), a vast territory north and west of Montreal, covering the whole of the Great Lakes and stretching as far into the North American continent as the French had explored. [Ibid., retrieved August 2, 2008] North of the Great Lakes, a mission, "Sainte-Marie" among the Hurons, was established in 1639. Following the destruction of the Huron homeland in 1649, the French destroyed the mission themselves and left the area. In what are today Ontario and the western prairies, various trading posts and forts were built such as Fort "Kaministiquia" (1679), Fort Frontenac (1673), Fort St. Pierre (1731), Fort St. Charles (1732) and Fort "Rouillé" (1750).

The only French settlements in the "Pays d'en Haut" were located south of the Great Lakes, around the Fort "Pontchartrain du Détroit" (1701), Fort "Michilimackinac" (1715), Fort "de Chartres" (1720) and Fort "Ticonderoga" (1755). That part of the "Pays d'en Haut", named the "Pays des Illinois" (Illinois countries), was eventually annexed to Louisiana around 1717.

Today, the "Les Pays-d'en-Haut" is a regional county municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, north of Montreal.

In ways such as law, customs and the cultural aspects of the population, the modern successor of Canada is the province of Quebec, which can create confusion with the current Canadian federation of the same name, or the historical Province of Canada, whose territory comprise both that of early Ontario and early Quebec. Also, distinction from English Canada has been historically important for Quebecers, notably since the advent of contemporary Quebec nationalism in the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. For these reason, nowadays, Quebecers often use the term "New France" when referring to Canada, New France.Fact|date=August 2008


ee also

* Name of Canada
* Quebec
* New France
* Timeline of Quebec history
* History of Quebec
* History of New France
* Monarchs of Canadian territories

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