- Linear
The word

**linear**comes from theLatin word "linearis", which means "created by lines".In advancedmathematics , a linear map or function "f"("x") is a function which satisfies the following two properties:* Additivity (also called the superposition property): "f"("x" + "y") = "f"("x") + "f"("y"). This says that "f" is a

group homomorphism with respect to addition.

* Homogeneity of degree 1: "f"(α"x") = α"f"("x") for all α. It turns out that homogeneity follows from the additivity property in all cases where α is rational. In that case, provided that the function is continuous, it becomes useless to establish the condition of homogeneity as an additional axiom.In this definition, "x" is not necessarily a

real number , but can in general be a member of anyvector space . A less restrictive definition of linear function, not coinciding with the definition of linear map, is used in elementary mathematics.The concept of linearity can be extended to linear

operator s. Important examples of linear operators include thederivative considered as adifferential operator , and many constructed from it, such asdel and theLaplacian . When adifferential equation can be expressed in linear form, it is particularly easy to solve by breaking the equation up into smaller pieces, solving each of those pieces, and adding the solutions up.Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (or linear spaces), linear transformations (or linear maps), and systems of linear equations.Nonlinear equations and functions are of interest tophysicist s andmathematician s because they can be used to represent many natural phenomena, including chaos.**Integral linearity**For a device that converts a quantity to another quantity there are three basic definitions for integral linearity in common use: independent linearity, zero-based linearity, and terminal, or end-point, linearity. In each case, linearity defines how well the device's actual performance across a specified operating range approximates a straight line. Linearity is usually measured in terms of a deviation, or non-linearity, from an ideal straight line and it is typically expressed in terms of percent of

full scale , or in ppm (parts per million) of full scale. Typically, the straight line is obtained by performing a least-squares fit of the data. The three definitions vary in the manner in which the straight line is positioned relative to the actual device's performance. Also, all three of these definitions ignore any gain, or offset errors that may be present in the actual device's performance characteristics.Many times a device's specifications will simply refer to linearity, with no other explanation as to which type of linearity is intended. In cases where a specification is expressed simply as linearity, it is assumed to imply independent linearity.

Independent linearity is probably the most commonly-used linearity definition and is often found in the specifications for DMMs and ADCs, as well as devices like

potentiometer s. Independent linearity is defined as the maximum deviation of actual performance relative to a straight line, located such that it minimizes the maximum deviation. In that case there are no constraints placed upon the positioning of the straight line and it may be wherever necessary to minimize the deviations between it and the device's actual performance characteristic.Zero-based linearity forces the lower range value of the straight line to be equal to the actual lower range value of the device's characteristic, but it does allow the line to be rotated to minimize the maximum deviation. In this case, since the positioning of the straight line is constrained by the requirement that the lower range values of the line and the device's characteristic be coincident, the non-linearity based on this definition will generally be larger than for independent linearity.

For terminal linearity, there is no flexibility allowed in the placement of the straight line in order to minimize the deviations. The straight line must be located such that each of its end-points coincides with the device's actual upper and lower range values. This means that the non-linearity measured by this definition will typically be larger than that measured by the independent, or the zero-based linearity definitions. This definition of linearity is often associated with ADCs, DACs and various sensors.

A fourth linearity definition, absolute linearity, is sometimes also encountered. Absolute linearity is a variation of terminal linearity, in that it allows no flexibility in the placement of the straight line, however in this case the gain and offset errors of the actual device are included in the linearity measurement, making this the most difficult measure of a device's performance. For absolute linearity the end points of the straight line are defined by the ideal upper and lower range values for the device, rather than the actual values. The linearity error in this instance is the maximum deviation of the actual device's performance from ideal.

**Linear polynomials**In a different usage to the above, a

polynomial of degree 1 is said to be linear, because thegraph of a function of that form is a line.Over the reals, a

linear function is one of the form:: "f"("x") = "m" "x" + "b"

"m" is often called the

slope orgradient ; "b" they-intercept , which gives the point of intersection between the graph of the function and the "y"-axis.Note that this usage of the term "linear" is not the same as the above, because linear polynomials over the real numbers do not in general satisfy either additivity or homogeneity. In fact, they do so

if and only if "b" = 0. Hence, if "b" ≠ 0, the function is often called an**affine function**(see in greater generalityaffine transformation ).**Boolean functions**In Boolean algebra, a linear function is one such that:

If there exists $a\_0,\; a\_1,\; ldots,\; a\_n\; in\; \{0,1\}$ such that $f(b\_1,\; ldots,\; b\_n)\; =\; a\_0\; oplus\; (a\_1\; land\; b\_1)\; oplus\; ldots\; oplus\; (a\_n\; land\; b\_n),\; forall\; b\_1,\; ldots,\; b\_n\; in\; \{0,1\}$

A Boolean function is linear if A) In every row of the

truth table in which the value of the function is 'T', there are an even number of 'T's assigned to the arguments of the function; and in every row in which the truth value of the function is 'F', there are an odd number of 'T's assigned to arguments; or B) In every row in which the truth value of the function is 'T', there are an odd number of 'T's assigned to the arguments and in every row in which the function is 'F' there is an even number of 'T's assigned to arguments.Another way to express this is that each variable always makes a difference in the truth-value of the operation or it never makes a difference.

Negation ,Logical biconditional ,exclusive or ,tautology , andcontradiction are linear binary functions.**Physics**In

physics , "linearity" is a property of thedifferential equations governing a lot of systems (like, for instanceMaxwell equations or thediffusion equation ).Namely, linearity of a

differential equation means that if two functions "f" and "g" are solution of the equation, then their sum "f+g" is also a solution of the equation.**Electronics**In

electronics , the linear operating region of atransistor is where thecollector-emitter current is related to thebase current by a simple scale factor, enabling the transistor to be used as anamplifier that preserves the fidelity of analog signals. Linear is similarly used to describe regions of any function, mathematical or physical, that follow a straight line with arbitrary slope.**Military tactical formations**In military tactical formations, "linear formations" were adapted from phalanx-like formations of pike protected by handgunners towards shallow formations of handgunners protected by progressively fewer pikes. This kind of formation would get thinner until its extreme in the age of Wellington with the 'Thin Red Line'. It would eventually be replaced by skirmish order at the time of the invention of the breech-loading rifle that allowed soldiers to move and fire independently of the large scale formations and fight in small, mobile units.

**Art****Linear**is one of the five categories proposed by Swissart historian Heinrich Wölfflin to distinguish "Classic", orRenaissance art , from theBaroque . According to Wölfflin, painters of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries (Leonardo da Vinci ,Raphael orAlbrecht Dürer ) are more linear than "painterly " Baroque painters of the seventeenth (Peter Paul Rubens ,Rembrandt , and Velázquez) because they primarily use outline to createform . [*Heinrich Wölfflin, "Principles of Art History: the Problem of the Development of Style in Later Art", M. D. Hottinger (trans.), Mineola, N.Y.: Dover (1950): pp. 18-72.*]**Music**In music the

**linear**aspect issuccession , either intervals or melody, as opposed tosimultaneity or the vertical aspect.**Measurement**In measurement, the term "linear foot" refers to the number of feet in a straight line of material (such as lumber or fabric) generally without regard to the width. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "lineal feet"; however, "lineal" is typically reserved for usage when referring to ancestry or heredity. [

*http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/dictL.html*] The words "linear" [*http://www.yourdictionary.com/ahd/l/l0180100.html*] & "lineal" [*http://www.yourdictionary.com/ahd/l/l0180300.html*] both descend from the same root meaning, theLatin word for line, which is "linea".**References****ee also***

Linear element

*Linear system

*Linear equation

*Nonlinear

*Linear medium

*Linear programming

*Bilinear

*Multilinear

*Linear motor

*Linear A andLinear B scripts.

*Linear interpolation "'

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