LeFlore Preparatory Academy

LeFlore Preparatory Academy

Infobox Education in the United States
name = John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts

imagesize = 180px
motto = "Striving for Excellence in Education"
streetaddress = 700 Donald St. 36617 Toulminville
Mobile, Alabama, United States
url = http://leflore.mcs.schoolinsites.com
district = Mobile County Public School System #4
principal = Mr. Thomas M. Reed
schooltype = Public Magnet
grades = 9–12
campus = Suburban
mascot = Rattlesnake
team name = Rattlers
colors = Orange and Kelly Green colorbox|#FF6600colorbox|#009900
established = 1968 (age 40)
bgcolor_section= #FF6600
bgcolor_label= #009900
bglabel_value= #FF6600
bglabel_address= #009900
bgcolor_url= #FF6600

John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts, also known as John L. LeFlore High School, is a historic public magnet preparatory academy located in Toulminville, Mobile, Alabama, United States. LeFlore offers advanced communication, academic, fine and performing art, and career technical programs. John L. LeFlore is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

Founded in 1968, John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts is one of the most astute, prestigious, secondary schools in Alabama. From 1968 through 1980, the school was known as Toulminville High School, offering secondary education to upper-middle class students within the Toulminville suburb. In 1981 the school was renamed John L. LeFlore High School in honor of Mr. John L. LeFlore, a Mobile NAACP leader who became the first African-American elected to the legislature in Mobile County. The renaming of the school brought about a move into an authentic, state of the art building with the amenities that would equip the institution for the upcoming magnet program. It wasn't until the mid 1980's that the learning institution gained a magnet program thus changing the name to John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts. Upon garnering the magnet title, LeFlore received students throughout the county of Mobile, AL. Students enrolled in LeFlore's Magnet Program come as far as Deer Park, AL to Grand Bay, AL. With a student-faculty ratio of 17 to 1, LeFlore's teachers are able to work more closely with students, encourage more ambition, and challenge students to better meet their academic success. Also preparatory academies are largely independent of state and local control for these controls are viewed by prep school proponents as an unacceptable burden on schooling, education and eventual university matriculation.

Curriculum and Instruction

with those students who may only be enrolled in honors and/or advanced placement courses and have also maintained a 4.0 grade point average makes certain that no child is overlooked for her/his academic achievements. Since incorporating this educational method, LeFlore has had up to ten representatives for the highest academic honors for one graduating class alone. With this number growing, LeFlore proves that two schools are better than one.

John L. LeFlore offers a broad curriculum including traditional high school academic subjects, honors academic courses, advanced placement academic courses, elective courses and advanced communication and fine performing art classes. All students attending John L. LeFlore take a basic academic core including English, Foreign Language, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies courses. Students may elect to take focus in areas including: Aerospace Science, Broadcasting, Business Education, Business Marketing, Engineering, Instrumental Performance, Photography, Pre-Law, Pre-Medicine, Theatre, and a host of other eclectic areas. John L. LeFlore Magnet High School awards four diploma endorsements indicating advanced study, offers college-level advanced placement courses and also access to courses at local colleges.


LeFlore, in conjunction with the Alabama YMCA Youth Judicial Program, has incorporated a unique study of the judiciary system into its curriculum. The program was initiated when the Mobile Bar Association chose to sponsor LeFlore students in the Alabama Youth Judicial Competition held in Montgomery, Alabama. The competition, held November 2007, was a three day mock trial for high school students that followed a step by step demonstration of an actual law case. The students were able to re-enact the lawsuit which presided in a courtroom while working with lawyers as coaches from the Bar Association. The students, led by Toulminville High School alumni Mrs. Bonita English of LeFlore Magnet High School, had taken several months to learn each procedure and role of the judiciary system from judge, jury, prosecuting and defense attorneys to witnesses. This event has been successful in encouraging student's interest in pursuing law as a career and the launch of LeFlore's Pre-Law Program.

LeFlore's Drafting Program [cite web | title = LeFlore's Drafting Program| publisher = LeFlore | url = http://leflore.mcs.schoolinsites.com/?PageName='TeacherPage'&StaffID=8217 | accessdate = 2006-09-01] is certified and licensed through the America Design Drafting Association(ADDA) and is directly articulated with The Art Institutes, Bishop State Community College, and Jefferson Davis Community College. This program is beneficial to students as one high school and three college credits. Students completing the drafting courses of LeFlore's Drafting Program which include: Advanced Mechanical Design, Architectural Design I & II, Engineering Drafting, Intermediate Mechanical Design, Intro to Draft Design, Intro to Mechanical Design, or Mechanical Drawing are able to enter directly into these collegiate programs free of the entrance exam. The future of LeFlore 's Drafting Program will be to become articulated with various four-year institutions such as Auburn University and Tuskegee University.

Classes at John L. LeFlore Magnet High School are arranged in a combination block/alternative day schedule in which four 96-minute classes are offered each day. Some classes alternate every other day for one semester, while others alternate every other day for the whole year. [cite web | title = LeFLore Class Schedule - LeFlore | publisher = LeFlore | url = http://leflore.mcs.schoolinsites.com/?PageName='Schedule' | accessdate = 2007-09-01 ]


Where is LeFlore?

Toulminville is a district in Mobile, Alabama that began a small settlement on the property of Theophilus Toulmin, who served as sheriff of Mobile County in the 1830s. During the American Civil War, Toulminville was mapped along the Mobile and Ohio Railroad as a significant settlement northwest of Mobile. Toulminville remained a largely rural settlement until after the Civil War. Growth within the city of Mobile caused an overflow into Toulminville, which slowly took on the character of a suburb. Part of Toulminville was annexed into the city of Mobile in the 1920s and the whole of Toulminville in 1945. During World War II, Toulminville had become an upper-middle class suburb with many affluent neighborhoods built along Stanton and Summerville Streets. By the 1960s issues caused by desegregation and an upsurge of crime on Mobile's northside caused the district which was majority white to become nearly 80% black by 1975. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Toulminville had a serious crime problem; however, that trend has been tremendously reversed due to a concentrated effort by the Mobile Police Department, LeFlore Task Force, community leaders [cite web | title = Community Leaders of LeFlore| publisher = MCPSS | url = http://old.mcpss.com/Default.asp?PN='NewsStory'&DivisionID=&DepartmentID=&SubDepartmentID=&NewsID=602&ShowNav=&StoryGroup=&Keyword=leflore| accessdate = 2006-03-08] and residents to restore the standard and values of the community.Toulminville is the birthplace of Major General William Crawford Gorgas who takes on the status of Toulminville Community Hero, as several streets and an elementary school are named in his honor. leader, who became the first African-American elected to the legislature in Mobile County, and where LeFlore High School was established.

John L. LeFlore Magnet High School began as Toulminville High School which opened in 1968 as a public frontier school amid issues caused by desegregation and crime. Toulminville High School offered a complete secondary education to students living within the suburb; including modern languages, literature, mathematics, military science and musical arts at a high academic level. Along with being a great school academically, Toulminville gained popularity as a well-groomed, all-around high school. Principal Mr. Charles T. Rhodes, the Roundball Rattlers led by Coach J.D. Shellwood, the Mighty Marching Rattler Band directed by Mr. Marion Ward and the Football Squad led by athletic director and Coach Mr. William Jessie [cite web | title = Coach Jessie| publisher = LeFlore | url = http://leflore.mcs.schoolinsites.com/?PageName=LatestNews&Section=Highlights&ItemID=26913&ISrc=School&Itype=Highlights&SchoolID=101 | accessdate = 2008-05-21] were prominent forces within Toulminville High School and the Toulminville Community. Toulminville graduated its final class in 1980 before being renamed John L. LeFlore High School. Toulminville High School's yearbook is the TOUHIRA, Toulminville High Rattler.

Who is John L. LeFlore?

John L. LeFlore's contributions to Mobile becoming a more prominent city in the south vary educationally, financially, personally, racially and socially. Mr. LeFlore served in leadership positions in many organizations ranging from the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters to the Mobile Committee for the Support of Public Education.Born May 17, 1903 in Mobile, Alabama to Dock and Clara LeFlore, John L. LeFlore's career as a community leader and a civil rights activist spanned fifty years. He was the most significant figure in the struggle for black equality in Mobile, throughout the southern part of Alabama and Mississippi, and along the Florida Gulf Coast. The John L. LeFlore Papers tell important stories about the civil rights movement in the urban south, document the development and early work of the NAACP in Mobile and provide insight into his life and aspirations. In December 1925, after graduating Owen Academy in 1920 and marrying Teah Beck in 1922, LeFlore began corresponding with the national office about the reorganization of the Mobile Branch of the NAACP that was organized in 1919 but became inactive in the early 1920s. By March 1926, Mr. LeFlore had mobilized enough people to apply for a new charter. LeFlore served as executive secretary for the branch from its inception to 1956. He also served as chairman of the organization's Regional Conference of Southern Branches from 1936 to 1945, a critical period in its development, and was vice-president of the Alabama Conference from 1945 to 1956. In 1956, when the NAACP was outlawed in Alabama, LeFlore and others in Mobile shifted their civil rights work to the Non-Partisan Voters League, where LeFlore served as director of case work from 1959 to 1975. LeFlore remained with the league even after the ban was lifted in 1964 and the Mobile branch of the NAACP was reorganized. The NAACP correspondence in the "LeFlore Papers" [cite web | title = A Guide to the Papers of John L. LeFlore| publisher = University of South Alabama | url = http://www.southalabama.edu/archives/html/manuscript/lefloreintro.htm | accessdate = 1976-01-01 ] do not begin until 1930, but information about the early years of the Mobile Branch and Regionals Conference may be found in the NAACP papers at the Library of Congress.

LeFlore participated in many organizations and served on various state committees. In addition to civil rights, these groups represent public work in areas such as prison reform, health and family planning, veterans' rights, labor unions, public education and general charity. In addition, he was a radio commentator for a public service program, "Today's World", for many years. He and Foley, of Spring Hill College, organized a committee for the support of public education in 1973. This committee received federal funds to mount an intensive ad campaign against racial disturbances in public schools. LeFlore was a news correspondent for the "Chicago Defender", the "Pittsburgh Courier" and the "Associated Negro Press" and covered many of the civil rights violations that occurred in the south. The "Chicago Defender" awarded LeFlore a citation for covering the lynching of four black people in Monroe, Georgia in 1946. LeFlore later became associate editor of the "Mobile Beacon" and wrote many editorials and features for this weekly newspaper.

From Toulminville to John L. LeFlore

In 1981, Toulminville High School was officially renamed John L. LeFlore High School. The school relocated from St. Stephens Rd. to Donald St. in a new, state of the art, learning facility on the same lot. The expansion brought about many amenities; some of which include: fully epuipped chemistry and photography labs, dance studio, swimming pool and weight room. LeFlore High School graduated its first class in 1981 under the vision, "to educate all students in a supportive, challenging, and disciplined environment to become lifelong learners whose performance is a credit to themselves and society", which would become the school's mission statement. Over the next decade, LeFlore High School developed an extracurricular face, vocational courses, career technical programs, a valuable education to offer, a magnet program and many other diversifying programs. After receiving the magnet certification, LeFlore High School received students throughout all of Mobile County, renamed the school John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts and as of the 1995-1996 school year began wearing uniforms which consisted of:

Dress Uniform - Young Ladies
*White Buttondown
*Uniform Crosstie
*Khaki/LeFlore Plaid Skirt
*Khaki Pants
*Brown Belt
*Brown Shoes
*White Socks
*Navy or Green Uniform Blazer and/or SweaterDress Uniform - Young Men
*White Buttondown
*Uniform Tie
*Khaki Pants
*Brown Belt
*Brown Shoes
*White Socks
*Navy or Green Uniform Blazer and/or SweaterCasual Uniform - Young Ladies
*White Polo with Crest
*Khaki/LeFlore Plaid Skirt
*Khaki Pants
*Brown Belt
*Brown Shoes
*White Socks
*Green OuterwearCasual Uniform - Young Men
*White Polo with Crest
*Khaki Pants
*Brown Belt
*Brown Shoes
*White Socks
*Green Outerwear

LeFlore Magnet High School

A School of Choice

The Mobile County Public School System's "School of Choice" offers students the choice of participating in specialized programs on all grade levels. LeFlore is designed to provide unique program offerings that will attract students voluntarily and meet a variety of individualized needs.

The LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts is a college and career bound preparatory program providing students with accelerated academic opportunities. Students learn in lab-based, instructional settings strengthening and expanding their educational foundation for college success. The program is designed to provide unique program offerings that attract students and meet a variety of individual needs. LeFlore is an accelerated magnet school with a program that follows established magnet guidelines. Students enrolling at LeFlore complete a four-year academic plan that will lead to a Regular Diploma, an Advanced Diploma, an Advanced Diploma with Academic Endorsements, or an Advanced Diploma with Honors. Students will be offered comprehensive, honors, and advanced placement classes. The advanced studies component of LeFlore emphasizes advanced placement courses in the areas of Art, English, Foreign Language, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. In addition to required core courses, students study three years of leadership, a wide variety of electives in Architecture, the Arts, Computer Technology, and Drafting and are offered a full range of exciting and innovative programs such as computer assisted music instruction, computer courses in 3-D imaging and animation, digital photography and software development, a music recording studio, a quality strings program, a year round symphonic band, and a short-range, on-campus, radio station used to produce quality programming to LeFlore students. To assure the success of every student, LeFlore may offer students who have the desire to go to college and the willingness to work hard to get there and that are capable of completing rigorous curriculum but are falling short of their potential, reasonable accommodations as apart of special educational services, but not a modified curriculum due to the accelerated design of its academic program. Students needing extra instructional support will be required to attend tutoring until their grades reach 70%(C). Faculty members also provide a reasonable amount of after school tutoring.LeFlore offers Alabama High School Graduation Exam(AHSGE) tutoring [cite web | title = AHSGE Tutoring| publisher = LeFlore | url = http://leflore.mcs.schoolinsites.com/?PageName=LatestNews&Section=Highlights&ItemID=23050&ISrc=School&Itype=Highlights&SchoolID=101 | accessdate = 2008-05-12] , ACT Prep, and an extensive course selection, allowing students to meet graduation requirements for all diploma types while maximizing their gain of priceless knowledge. Some of the unique course offerings include the following Advanced Placement, Honors, Comprehensive, and Elective Programs:

Advanced Placement Courses
*AP Art
*AP Biology
*AP Biology II
*AP Biology II Research & Design
*AP Calculus
*AP Chemistry
*AP Chemistry II
*AP Chemistry II Research & Design
*AP Economics
*AP English
*AP European History
*AP French I-IV
*AP U.S Government/Politics
*AP History & Geography
*AP Physics
*AP Physics Research & Design
*AP Studio Art
*AP Spanish I-IV
*AP U.S History

Honors Courses
*HR Algebra II
*HR Algebra II/Trigonometry
*HR Algebra III
*HR American Government
*HR Biology I
*HR Chemistry I
*HR Chemistry II
*HR Economics
*HR English
*HR French I-IV
*HR German
*HR History & Geography
*HR Marine Biology
*HR Precalculus
*HR Spanish I-IV
*HR U.S Government/Economics
*HR U.S History to 1900
*HR U.S History from 1900
*HR World History

Comprehensive Courses
*Algebra I
*Algebra II
*American Government
*Biology I
*Biology II
*English 9-12
*Physical Science
*U.S History to 1877
*U.S History from 1877

*Accounting Principles
*Administrative Principles
*Advanced Accounting
*Advanced Art II-VI
*Advanced Chorus I-IV
*Advanced Lifesaving
*Advanced Mechanical Design
*Advanced Strings/Orchestra
*Advanced Television Productions
*Advanced Weight Training
*Aerospace Science
*African-American Literature
*Algebra I
*Algebraic Connection
*American Government
*Applications of Reading
*Architectural Design I & II
*Art I-IV
*Band Flag/Rifle
*Beginning Chorus
*Business Law in Society
*Business Technology
*Chemistry I & II
*Clothing Design
*Concert Band I-IV
*Creative Writing I & II
*Data Processing
*Discrete Math
*Drama I & II
*Driver's Education
*Earth & Space Science
*Emergency Medical Training
*Environmental Science
*Entrepreneurship & Management
*Fashion Design
*Forensic Science
*French I-IV
*German I-III
*Health Education
*Human Anatomy & Physiology
*Humanities I-IV
*Integrated Computer Technology
*Interactive Multimedia Design
*Intermediate Chorus
*Intermediate Mechanical Design
*Intermediate Swimming
*Intro to Architectural Design
*Intro to Photography
*Intro to Draft Design
*Intro to Mechanical Design
*Intro to Speech
*Intro to Television Productions
*Jazz Band
*Journalism I & VII
*JROTC Health Education
*JROTC Leadership & Foundations
*Large Format & Digital Photography
*Law and Society
*Local Area Network
*Marching Band I-IV
*Marine Biology
*Marketing Dynamics
*Mechanical Drawing
*Media Management 1-4
*Medium Format & Digital Photography
*Personal Finance
*Physical Education 9-12
*Physical Science
*Piano Lab
*Pre-Marching Band
*Progressive Gymnastics
*Sculpting & Pottery I & II
*Spanish I-IV
*Symphonic Band I-IV
*Television Productions
*Television Productions-Performing/Producing/Writing
*Television Productions-Photography/Editing
*Television Productions-Studio Operations
*Theatre Experience I
*U.S Government/Economics
*U.S History to 1877
*Tumbling Gymnastics
*Varsity Baseball
*Varsity Basketball I & II
*Varsity Football
*Varsity Golf
*Varsity Soccer
*Varsity Softball
*Varsity Swimming
*Varsity Tennis
*Varsity Track I & II
*Varsity Volleyball
*Varsity Powerlifting
*Visual Arts
*Weight Training
*Wide Area Network
*Women In Literature

The faculty members at LeFlore Magnet High School are carefully selected applicants with unique skills and professional expertise suited to the school's philosophy. The faculty and staff strive to meet not only the academic needs but the social and emotional needs of the student body. Whether assisting students through after-school enrichment programs or sponsoring extracurricular activities, the LeFlore Staff has the best interest of the student in mind. The academic coaches, administrators, bus drivers, cafeteria workers, counselors, custodians, librarians, nurses, secretaries, and teachers want students to succeed and respond in a positive manner.

LeFlore High School abides by magnet promotion standards which are as follows: Students receiving a yearly average of 60% or above in all regular or advanced subjects are promoted to the next grade at LeFlore Magnet High School. Students achieving a yearly average of 50-59% in any comprehensive, honors, or advanced level subject at LeFlore may remain at LeFlore and be retained in the current grade. A student failing to achieve a 60% or above yearly average for two years is ineligible to remain at LeFlore. A student may not attend summer school for promotion at LeFlore and to assure students a safe and orderly learning environment, LeFlore will strictly adhere to the magnet discipline standard.

"A student may not be suspended more than twice or have been found guilty of a C, D, or E offense as outlined in the MCPSS Student Code of Conduct to enter or continue at LeFlore Magnet high School."

Students are required to follow a code of conduct and dress that is suitable to the classroom and program-related activities at LeFlore. Uniforms are required and students are expected to be in proper uniform while at school or at school sponsored functions at all times. Parents desiring a structured, formal environment suitable for educating America's youth will find LeFlore to be the "School of Choice." Students desiring a structured, formal school environment will thrive at LeFlore . This program best suits the needs of students that meet the following criteria:
*respect authority, themselves, and others
*have good work habits
*complete homework assignments regularly
*achieve at or above grade level
*are well disciplined
*desire a rigorous academic program
*are interested in unique course offerings not available at other schools
*have parents that support LeFlore Magnet High School's philosophy, dress code, and code of conduct


LeFlore 's campus is situated between Allison St., Clinton Ave., Donald St., and St. Stephens Rd. in the eastern part of Toulminville. The school is designed on an open campus-style setting with two detached buildings separated by outdoor walkways covering 25% of the campus area leaving a bright future for LeFlore to expand over a greater portion of the campus and build more academic buildings and classrooms. The campus is located at the corner of Clinton Avenue and Donald Street. Bishop State Community College's Carver Campus is located approximately one mile (1.6 km) southwest of the school and USA Medical Center is located approximately half a mile (0.8 km) west of the school.

LeFlore Magnet High School was constructed in 1980 and consists of two buildings: the L building and the athletic facility. The L building contains the cafeteria, computer labs, counselors' offices, courtyards, dance studio, engineering classrooms, greenhouse, JROTC classrooms, library, locker rooms, locker wells, mini-gym, music and vocational classrooms, nurse's office, photography classroom and darkroom, piano lab, portrait studio, Rattlers' Den gymnasium, science labs, showers, swimming pool, theatre, tv production studio, and weightroom. The rattler athletic facility contains a large classroom, individual showers, equipment storage rooms, laundry room, lockers, lounge, offices, training room, weightroom, and whirpool.

The campus contains 93 academic classrooms, Gorgas Park, Just 4 Preschool Developmental Laboratory (Toulminville High School), the LeFlore Football Squad's practice field, the Mighty Marching Rattler Band's practice field, the Mobile Police Department's 3rd Precinct, four tennis courts, the William "Bill" Jessie Rattler Athletic Facility, the Satchel Paige Baseball Field, and Toulminville-Warren Street United Methodist Church. Also located on campus is the Michael A. Figures Community Center named for a Mobile attorney who was widely recognized as a skilled debator and his work to involve the African-American community in the political process during the aftermath of the Civil Rights Era. Having been re-elected four times and becoming the President Pro Tempore of the State Senate in 1994, Figures was the attorney in the lawsuit against two Ku Klux Klan members convicted in the 1981 lynching of Michael Donald of Mobile which led to the jury returning the 7 million judgement that bankrupted the United Klans of America. Survived by his wife Vivian Figures, Michael A. Figures is the third African-American to serve in the Alabama State Senate.

Off-campus athletic facilities include the 40,646-seat Ladd-Peebles Stadium, home of the Alabama-Mississippi High School All-Star Classic, GMAC Bowl, Gulf Coast Classic, and the Under Armour Senior Bowl.

Extracurricular Organizations

In attending LeFlore Magnet High School, students are highly encouraged and instructed to get involved. LeFlore is a community within itself with much allowance for students, just as Mr. LeFlore, to become engaged in leadership, motivational, and team roles. Studies have shown that extracurricular activities aid in students remaining in school. Students engaging in any performing art at LeFlore must possess and show passion for what they do. Teachers have stated that you would not know that you were in a school surrounding when observing them hard at work. LeFlore offers the following academic clubs, athletic teams, fine and performing art groups, and service organizations:
*Azalea Trail Maids
*BBSST-Building Based Student Support Team
*Big Man on Campus
*Band Booster
*Basketball Booster
*Cheerleader Booster
*Chess Team
*Christian Club
*Color Guard
*Drill Team
*FBLA-Future Business Leaders of America
*French Club
*Freshmen Academy
*Football Booster
*HOBY Ambassador
*Honor Band
*Honor Guard
*Imperial Knights Service Club
*Jack and Jill LeBeautillion Militaire Program
*JROTC Scholar's Bowl
*Junior Civitan
*Kappa League
*Key Club
*Kimberly-Clark Hi-Q
*La Culebra Yearbook Staff
*LeFlore Chorus
*LeFlore Rattler Baseball Team
*LeFlore Cross Country Team
*LeFlore Football Squad
*LeFlore Golf Team
*LeFlore Lady Roundball Rattlers
*LeFlore Lady Rattler Softball Team
*LeFlore Rattler Gymnastics Team
*LeFlore Orange and Green Swim Team
*LeFlore Tennis Team
*LeFlore Track and Field Team
*LeFlore Rattler Volleyball Squad
*Mighty Marching Rattler Band
*Moving Images Dance Company
*National Honor Society
*Pep Band
*Pep Squad
*Photography Club
*Principal's Scholar
*Rattler of Distinction
*Rattler Television Network-WLHS
*Rattlers' Outloud Newspaper Staff
*Renaissance Rattler
*Scholar's Bowl Team
*SECME-Southeastern Consortium for Minorities in Engineering
*SGA Representatives
*Sigma Phi Ness Service Club
*Sigma Phi Nu Service Club
*Sophisticated Ladies
*Spanish Club
*Student Government Association
*SWAT-Students Working Against Tobacco
*World Language Club
*Youth Judicial Team

Azalea Trail Maids

Consisting of fifty outstanding seniors from select high schools in Mobile and chosen by a panel of prominent judges, the Azalea Trail Maids of LeFlore have the privilege to serve as official hostesses while competing for college scholarships, don antebellum costumes of pastel colors, graciously inform visitors of the many Mobile attractions and act as goodwill ambassadors of the city. Being in nationwide demand, the Azalea Trail Maids, traveling throughout the U.S laden with azaleas and boundless smiles, spreading their joy and priceless southern charm in a glorious rainbow of pastel colors, have appeared in Disney's Easter Parade in Orlando, FL; the Macy's Day Parade in New York City, the Rose Bowl Parade in Pasadena, CA; and the Presidential's Inaugural Parade.

LeFlore's Azalea Trail Maids participate in many organizations throughout Mobile including the Azalea Trail Run, a two day family friendly event that includes a world class 10K race, fun run, and a health and fitness exposition.

Imperial Knights Service Club

verse which builds character:

The Imperial Knights Service Club has won many awards for their step show performances including the 1998 Bishop State Community College $500 talent search and the 1998 University of South Alabama $1000 talent search competitions. Above being recognized for stepping, they are noted within the Toulminville and LeFlore community. IK's deliver Thanksgiving Baskets throughout the Toulminville suburb, provide community service for the elderly which includes yard maintenance and painting, car washes, and host LeFlore's annual Winter Formal where the recently crossed Imperial Knights are presented.

The Imperial Knights Service Club hosts LeFlore's annual Winter Formal held late January-early February. This is the only formal event for the entire student body as the homecoming dance is semi-formal and the prom is held for juniors and seniors.

Jack and Jill LeBeautillion Militaire Program

Jack and Jill [cite web | title = Jack and Jill| publisher = Jack and Jill | url = http://www.jack-and-jill.org/ | accessdate = 2007-10-25] of America was founded January 24, 1938 in Philadelphia, PA with the idea of bringing children together in a social and cultural environment. The organization dedicates its resources to improving the quality of life, particularly for African American children. Their primary objectives are to create a medium which will stimulate children's growth and development, provide constructive educational, cultural, civic, recreational, social and service programs as well as aiding mothers in learning more about their children and childcare through educational conferences and workshops. Jack and Jill has recently incorporated a program for fathers to become a more integral part called the Father's Auxiliary.

The LeBeautillion Militaire Program was organized in 1986 by the Jack and Jill of America, Indiana Chapter, to provide a personal development experience and recognition event for high school males. The Beautillion Militaire Program is jointly sponsored by another non-profit organization, The 100 Black Men of America, which both provide educational programs for young men, reinforce leadership skills, academic success and community service. Being presented as a beaux is a one-time opportunity, therefore if a young man participates as a junior, he may not return again to participate his senior year. To become eligible at LeFlore one must be a senior and well-versed in areas of leadership, academics, athletics, and service(church, community, and school). Eligibility also requires recommendation by the principal, high school counselors, pastors, or a person from the community who has personal contact with the student. Each participant will have the opportunity to win a scholarship or book award to be used at a college or university of the recipient's choice. The eligibility of the award is based on the young man's involvement in extracurricular activities, ticket and ad sales, and his academics. Beaus are also provided info on available scholarships outside of the program.

The beaus attend a formal ball that consists of the following: dinner, a formal military drill by the beaus, dance with beaux and significant mother figure in their life, dance with escort, presentation of scholarships and awards, individual presentation of each beaux and their parents, and the Rite of Passage Ceremony for the beaus and the significant father figure in their life. The attire for this event for each beaux is a black tuxedo with tails, black bow tie, white gloves, tuxedo shirt, black top hat and cane. Beaus receive a souvenir booklet that includes pictures of the beaus along with their biographical sketches and advertisements from family, friends and community supporters of the LeBeautillion Militaire Program which is important fundraising support for the LeBeautillion Militaire Scholarships.

The beaus of the Jack and Jill LeBeautillion Militaire Program are also featured each year in the Prichard Mardi Gras Association parade located in Prichard, AL the Monday before Fat Tuesday.

Kappa League

The Kappa League is an organization geared toward helping young men of high school age grow and develop their leadership talents in every phase of human endeavor. It provides both challenging and rewarding experiences which richly enhances their lives. Kappa League is assisted in achieving worthy goals and making constructive contributions to their community when leadership roles become their responsibility by the Mobile Alumni Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity Incorporated. The Mobile Chapter consists of many young men who attend various high schools throughout Mobile County, many of whom attend LeFlore . Because of large membership, they are able to participate in many events around the city and in neighboring states. These events range from charity walks, blood drives to serving the elderly and those with special needs. The young men of LeFlore's Kappa League have also had the privilege to tour many schools throughout the south to promote the need for higher education.

The Mobile Kappa League [cite web | title = Mobile Kappa League | publisher = Mobile Kappa League | url = http://www.mobilekappaleague.com/ | accessdate = 2007-10-01] was chartered in 1978 with the purpose to improve the self-image of today's youth and thus raise their aspirational level through club oriented responsibilities of tomorrow while yet enjoying today. The Kappa League is composed of advisors who are committed leaders which share their experiences and volunteer countless hours to provide young men of LeFlore opportunities for academic advancement and leadership training.

Kimberly-Clark Hi-Q

Kimberly-Clark Hi-Q, formerly Scott Hi-Q, is the oldest academic quiz competition in the United States which began in 1948 in Pennsylvania. It presently takes place as an intracounty competition in four states: Pennsylvania, Washington, Wisconsin and as of 1987 Alabama. Each team consists of ten students competing in thirteen subject areas:
*Art History
*Current Events
*US Government
*US History
*World HistoryOver the years, new reference materials were added and students began to answer questions based on specific categories and reference works. Questions are selected from standard high school scholastic curricula, general scholastic or knowledge. Each high school competes in three matches each season, excluding possible semi-final and championship appearances. Each match consists of three competing teams which is hosted by one of the participating schools in that match. Matches are typically held in the high school auditorium on stage, before an audience of students, teachers, faculty, and community leaders. Questions are read aloud by the Quizmaster and at all times team members use buzzers to answer questions. Points awarded throughout the season accumulate and determine semi-final and championship entry eligibility. LeFlore has participated in the Kimberly-Clark Hi-Q since the early 90s.

Mighty Marching Rattler Band

The John L. LeFlore Mighty Marching Rattler Band began in 1968 as Toulminville High Mighty Marching Rattler Band under the direction and guidance of Mr. Marion Ward and Mr. James Seals. Mr. Ward, a Dixieland trombonist, known for his sweet, smooth tone and improvisational talent, has been identified as one of the best trombone players in the area. Upon receiving a degree from Alabama State University in Music Education, Mr. Ward established himself as a successful music educator at Booker T. Washington Middle School, Toulminville High School and John L. LeFlore High School.

Toulminville High Mighty Marching Rattler Band gained notoriety upon its inception for its distinct quality of sound, sparkling halftime shows, marching techniques, and rattler pride. The qualities Mr. Ward established with the Mighty Marching Rattler Band throughout his tenure from Toulminville to LeFlore were passed to the bands next director, Mr. Terrence Mixon, a LeFlore graduate who played under Mr. Ward and further established the bands motto: "THE BEST BAND IN THE LAND" by winning numerous awards, band competitions, and invitations to collegiate homecomings and the Martin Luther King Jr. parade in Atlanta, GA.

Under the direction of Mr. Standifer, the band has continued to hold true to the core values established by Mr. Ward at Toulminville while propelling to extraordinary heights. The Mighty Marching Rattler Band consists of a highly technical percussion section(DΦD), tubas(Silver Bullets), baritones(BΦT), trombones(TΦB), french horns(FΦH), trumpets(TΦB), saxophones(SΦ), clarinettes(CΦNettes), flutes(FΦP), piccolos(FΦP), drummajors, and two auxiliary units which are the Strikettes Dance Team(DΦG) and Flag Corporation(FΦC). Composed of talented musicians, the Mighty Marching Rattler Band has generated a genuine pride in the entire student body at LeFlore and Toulminville as a result of their stellar performances in the state of Alabama and the country. The Mobile County Public School System recently acknowledged the band as one of the finest bands in the state for its participation in an adjudicated, invitation-only battle of the bands in Montgomery, Alabama. The competition included magnificent band programs such as: Jeff Davis, Booker T. Washington, Selma, Calhoun High Schools and many more. The competition was fierce but the LeFlore Mighty Marching Rattler Band placed 1st in all categories, swept the competition and dethroned the current champs with authority. The ultimate prize for winning the competition wasn't just a trophy, but an all-expense paid trip to perform with the National Football League at selected games exemplfying Rattler Pride, precision and exiciting show band entertainment.

trikettes Dance Team

Born in 1968 at Toulminville High School, the Lovely Lady Strikettes Dance Team are the Mighty Marching Rattler Band's dance line that have gained nationwide acclaim for their expeditious, highly-technical, dance routines called workouts. These crisp workouts are performed to such sounds as Cameo's "Shake Your Pants", Jennifer Lopez' "I'm Real", Michael Jackson's "Workin' Day and Night", Rick James' "Give It To Me Baby" and many more. The Strikettes Dance Team, noted for its picture-perfect, surprise endings and poses have crowned themselves as the most classy and jazzy high school dance line existing and rank themselves just beneath the top collegiate dance lines.

These talented ladies receive disciplined, rigorous, strict, instruction and guidance during training as many are members of LeFlore's Moving Images Dance Company or are enrolled in dance at John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts.

Moving Images Dance Company

Moving Images Dance Company began in 1991 at LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts by founder and esteemed choreographer Mrs. JoAnn "Miss Chris" Christopher. Along with being the current Dance Specialist for the Fine Arts Department of the Mobile County Public School System, this author, director, and producer is also the founder of the Melange Dance Company. With over forty-five years of teaching and instruction at the Studio of Dance and Gymnastics, Ms. Christopher has had her choreography presented at the Kennedy Center, been the national choreographer for the America's Junior Miss Program for thirty-five years, the producer and director for the America's Junior Miss preliminaries for fifteen years, and has extensive work in television. In addition to her lucrative dance résumé, Ms. Christopher wrote the dance textbook for the Mobile County Public School System, the pacing guide for dance for Mobile County, and wrote the dance curriculum for the state of Alabama all while teaching dance at LeFlore Magnet High School for eighteen years.

Moving Images Dance Company is a performance based company made up of twenty creative members that are required to audition each year. The students attend class five days a week and perform ballet, jazz, modern, and tap dance. LeFlore's Moving Images Dance Company has been chosen to perform on five occasions at the National High School Dance Festival held in Miami, FL and Los Angeles, CA and have also performed at the Southeastern Regional Dance Festival in Montgomery, Alabama. In 2005, the company represented the state by invitation at International Dance Excellence in Los Angeles, CA, a program to integrate all of the performance areas: drama, musical, television, theatre, voice and feature films with special emphasis on dance. LeFlore's Moving Images Dance Company was also selected in 2007 to perform at the National School Board Association's 6th annual conference at the Lakeside Center of McCormick Place in San Francisco, CA.

Moving Images Dance Company presently have former dance students appearing on broadway. Matt Loehr [cite web | title = Matt Loehr| publisher = LeFlore Preparatory Academy | url = http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?id=81932 | accessdate = 2007-10-26] has performed in "The Producers", "Movin' Out", "Fosse", and is the understudy for the lead in "Chitty Chitty Bang Bang" while Tyrick Jones [cite web | title = Tyrick Jones| publisher = LeFlore Preparatory Academy | url = http://www.broadwayartistsalliance.org/gallery/view_album.php?set_albumName=06S3hairsprayJones | accessdate = 2008-06-01] is currently starring in the broadway cast of "Hairspray", and many other productions. Many members go on to teach dance and one currently performs in Disney World. LeFlore's Moving Images Dance Company is also a participant in Mobile's showcase performance of all the magnet schools in Mobile County called Power of the Arts.

Television Productions

This elective at LeFlore Magnet High School allows students access to:
*learn broadcasting
*learn and explain development of networks and cable television
*know safety hazards associated with sound and audio equipment
*speech and clear diction
*appropriate interview questions
*writing, producing, performing
*studio operations
*recognize proper television script writing format
*create commercials
*learn about and create public service announcements
*produce the senior video
*photo editing
*advanced productionThe Mobile County Public School System Television Network [cite web | title = MCPSS TV Network| publisher = MCPSS | url = http://old.mcpss.com/?DivisionID=6&DepartmentID=62&ToggleSideNav=DivisionOnly| accessdate = 2007-10-21] is a department of the school system and works along with the Office of Communication in directing the flow of information from the central office to other divisions, the schools and the community. The MCPSS TV Network broadcasts these educational programs and allows students and school system employees to assist in the production and reporting of the stories. The MCPSS TV Network also plays a support role for the Television Production classes offered at LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts. The Television Productions classes broadcasts its announcements and all other programs on WLHS, Rattler Television Network, through "LeFlore Today". The Rattler Television Network of LeFlore passed its recent BIC review. This review is part of the Career Technical Education guidelines for this program's certification.


The John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts RATTHLETICS, Rattler Athletics Department, offers 11 men's and 10 women's varsity sports, all in the school(5A)classification of the Alabama High School Athletic Association(AHSAA). Men's sports offered are baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, gymnastics, powerlifting, soccer, swimming, tennis, and track and field. Women's sports offered are basketball, cross country, gymnastics, powerlifting, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, track and field, and volleyball.

tate Championships

*Football Squad 1: 1968
*Lady Roundball Rattlers 1: 1994
*Roundball Rattlers 4: 2007, 2002, 1989, 1986
*Powerlifting Team 3: 1999, 1997, 1996

In 2007, LeFlore Magnet High School's students, staff, and administrators celebrated the groundbreaking for the school's new William "Bill" Jessie Rattler Athletic Facility [cite web | title = Rattler Athletic Facility| publisher = MCPSS | url = http://old.mcpss.com/Default.asp?PN='NewsStory'&DivisionID=&DepartmentID=&SubDepartmentID=&NewsID=1104&ShowNav=&StoryGroup=&Keyword=leflore | accessdate = 2007-10-26] . This ceremony was attended by the Superintendent Dr. Harold Dodge, Commissioners Rev. Fleet Belle and Ms. Hazel Fournier, past LeFlore High School athletic coaches, and the former LeFlore Ratthletics director, Toulminville High School alumni, Mrs. Sherry McDade to acknowledge that this new athletic building will promote and enhance LeFlore athletics and academic learning of all athletes. This new facility has a classroom, large offices, the convenience of individual restrooms and showers, 51 double-tier lockers for a total of 102, and a massive(1,140 square foot)weight room. Extra amenities include three large equipment storage rooms, a lounge area, a fully loaded laundry room with commercial size washers and dryers, team toilets and shower area, a large(120 square foot) storage room, a whirpool, and a training room.


Alma Mater

:"Hail to thee our Alma Mater,":"In our hearts you'll stay.":"Fervently to lead and guide us":"As we find our way."

:"Honor, Valor, Truth":"As our hearts unfold;":"Lead us to our youth,":"Guide us to our goal."

:"Hail to thee our Alma Mater,":"To our Orange and Green;":"John L. LeFlore we will forever love you,":"We will e'er be true."


These spirit cheers are often accompanied by the Mighty Marching Rattler Band or the Pep Band.

I'm So Glad!

:"I'm so glad,":"I go to LHS!":"I'm so glad,":"I go to LHS!":"I'm so glad,":"I go to LHS!" :"Singin' Glory Hallelujah,":"I'm So Glad!"

Is The Gang All Here?

:"Is the gang all here?":"Yea, man!":"Is the gang all here?":"Yea, man!":"So what we gonna' do?":"We're gonna yell man;":"We're gonna yell like who?":"Like Rattlers man!":"So, loose'n up and let's go,":"A let's go!":"A hidee, hidee, hidee, hidee,":"A ho! A ho!":"A hidee, hidee, hidee, hidee,":"A ho! A ho!"



chool Publications

The John L. LeFlore Magnet High School's annual yearbook is "La Culebra", the snake. "La Culebra" has been published every year since 1983 and is produced by the "La Culebra" yearbook staff and Jostens Publishing. In addition, the journalism classes at LeFlore print a newspaper called "Rattlers' Outloud", which chronicles all school, neighborhood, and local news and events.

Measures of Success

John L. LeFlore Magnet High School was one of forty one Mobile County Public Schools to receive a Performance Award. LeFlore High School students' performances exceeded the challenge set by state officials. LeFlore is a school with a subgroup whose percent of students scoring proficient in reading and mathematics exceeded its state counterpart. For this accomplishment the school received a montary award for $20,000 which will go directly to the school and be invested in instructional improvement programs and materials voted on by the teaching faculty. In Alabama, schools and systems are evaluated based on student performance with Alabama content standards, attendance rates and graduation rates. The ability to reach the goal becomes more difficult yearly as the percent of students who must reach the objective increases. As of the 2007-2008 school year, LeFlore Magnet High School has Exceeded the Challenge. [cite web | title = High Student Performance - Mobile County Public Schools - LeFlore Preparatory Academy| publisher = Mobile Area Education Foundation | url = http://www.maef.net/Home/PerformanceAwards/tabid/578/Default.aspx | accessdate = 2007-09-13 ]

Test Scores

All Alabama public high school students are assessed using the Alabama High School Graduation Exam. LeFlore Magnet high School students are measured on this exam as well as the ACT college entrance exam and on Advanced Placement tests.

LeFlore's Business/Industry Certification assists career technical education programs to improve setting standards against which all programs can measure progress. The goal is for all programs to remain in compliance with business/industry standards. LeFlore scored in the 80-89th percentile for compliance with these programs meeting their goals and students who completed a career/technical program and took a job in a related field or enrolled in post secondary studies. LeFlore has a 92.66% graduation rate, and scored in the 90-100th percentile for their low dropout rate.



External links

* [http://leflore.mcs.schoolinsites.com/ LeFlore Preparatory Academy]
* [http://www.rattlernation.ning.com/ Toulminville-LeFlore Alumni Association]
* [http://www.southalabama.edu/archives/html/manuscript/oralhist/oralhist1a.htm John L. LeFlore Interviews]
* [http://www.actstudent.org/ ACT Prep]
* [http://www.alsde.edu/general/great_expectations.pdf Alabama High School Graduation Exam Information]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQAs-9Ra2Fk&feature=related 1995 Track and Field Team]
* [http://old.mcpss.com/Default.asp?PN='NewsStory'&DivisionID=&DepartmentID=&SubDepartmentID=&NewsID=1034&ShowNav=&StoryGroup=&Keyword=leflore JROTC Lt. Col Frank Barrow]
* [http://bonner.house.gov/HoR/AL01/Press+Office/Press+Releases/2006/Bonner+Announces+First+Congressional+Art+Competition+Winners.htm LeFlore Art Department]
* [http://www.myshotz.com/clients/saenger/071209-leflorechoir/index.html LeFlore Chorus]
* [http://www.wkrg.com/news/article/pass_the_hat/9483/ Mighty Marching Rattler Band's Pass the Hat]
* [http://vod.themarchingnetwork.com/search/leflore/0/1baef755-dac2-4cc2-a2d9-99cf002d9f56.htm Strikettes Dance Team]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sARu3J90Wr0 Roundball Rattlers Iolani, Hawaii Dunk Contest]
* [http://www.sparqtraining.com/videos/?col=srch&q=%2212351%22&x=0&y=0/ LeFlore Roundball Rattlers]
* Antonio Lang
* Jason Guy
* Rich Boy
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n80qEKtooL0&feature=related Rich Boy]
* Robert "Hammer" McCune

name = Mobile County Public Schools
titlestyle = background:#FF6600;
title = Mobile County Public Schools
groupstyle = background:#009900;
group1 = District Office
list1 = nowrap begin

1 Magnum Pass, Mobile, Alabama, 36618nowrap end
group2 = Elementary Schools
list2 = nowrap begin



Augusta Evans!w

Belsaw/Mt.Vernon Pre-K-8!w









Council Traditional!w


Dauphin Island!w








Forest Hill!w











Indian Springs!w

John Will!w

Just 4 Developemental Labaratory!w

Lee Intermediate!w

Lee Primary!w








Old Shell Rd.!w


Pearl Haskew!w













Woodcocknowrap end
group3 = Middle Schools
list3 = nowrap begin











Grand Bay!w




Mobile County Training!w

Phillips Preparatory!w




Washingtonnowrap end
group4 = High Schools
list4 = nowrap begin



Bryant Career Technical!w



Continuous Learning Center!w


Faulkner Vocational!w

LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts!w








Williamsonnowrap endNavbox
name = Magnet Schools In Alabama
titlestyle = background:#009900;
title = Magnet Schools In Alabama
groupstyle = background:#FF6600;
group1 = Elementary Schools
list1 = nowrap begin

Academy for Academics & Arts!w

Academy for Science & Foreign Language!w

Bear Exploration Center!w

Benjamin Davis!w



Forest Avenue!w




Macmillan International Academy!w



Old Shell Rd. Creative and Performing Arts!w

Us Jones!w

Council Traditionalnowrap end
group2 = Middle Schools
list2 = nowrap begin

Alabama School of Fine Arts!w

Baldwin Art and Academics!w

Carver Mathematics and Science!w

Dunbar Creative and Performing Arts!w

Ensley Alternative!w


K.J Clark Mathematics and Science!w

School of Discovery Genesis!w

Sidney Phillips Preparatory Academy!w

We Putnam!w

Woodlawn Alternativenowrap end
group3 = High Schools
list3 = nowrap begin

Alabama School of Fine Arts!w

Booker T. Washington!w

Brewbaker Technology!w



Jo Johnson!w


John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Arts!w

Loveless Academic!w

New Century Technology Demo!w


Woodlawnnowrap end

name = Magnet Schools In Mobile
titlestyle = background:#FF6600;
title = Magnet Schools In Mobile
groupstyle = background:#009900;
group1 = Elementary Schools
list1 = nowrap begin


Old Shell Rd. Creative and Performing Arts!w

W.H Councilnowrap end
group2 = Middle Schools
list2 = nowrap begin

Dunbar Creative and Performing Arts!w

K.J Clark Mathematics and Science!w

Sidney Phillips Preparatory Academynowrap end
group3 = High School
list3 = nowrap begin

John L. LeFlore Magnet High School of Advanced Communications and Fine Performing Artsnowrap end

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Toulminville — is a district in Mobile, Alabama. It began a small settlement on the property of Theopilus Toulmin, who served as Sheriff of Mobile County in the 1830s. During the American Civil War, Toulminville was mapped along the Mobile and Ohio Railroad as… …   Wikipedia

  • List of high schools in Alabama — This is a list of high schools in the state of Alabama, United States. Autauga County *Autaugaville School, Autaugaville *Billingsley High School, Billingsley *Prattville High School, Prattville *Marbury High School, Marbury Baldwin County… …   Wikipedia

  • Variations of green — This article is about notable tints and shades of the color green. These various colors are shown below.Green in natureGreen is common in nature, especially in plants. Many plants are green mainly because of a complex chemical known as… …   Wikipedia

  • List of high schools in Mississippi — This is a list of high schools in the state of Mississippi.Adams County*Natchez High School, Natchez *Cathedral High School, Natchez *Trinity Episcopal Day School, Natchez *Adams County Christian School, NatchezAlcorn County*Alcorn Central High… …   Wikipedia

  • Greenwood, Mississippi — Infobox Settlement official name = Greenwood, Mississippi settlement type = City nickname = Cotton Capital of the World motto = imagesize = image caption = image imagesize = image caption = image mapsize = 250px map caption = Location of… …   Wikipedia

  • Mayagüez, Puerto Rico — Mayagüez redirects here. For the U.S. ship, see SS Mayaguez. For the 1975 US Cambodia ship capture incident, see Mayaguez incident. Mayagüez, Puerto Rico   Municipality   …   Wikipedia

  • Mobile County Public School System — Coordinates: 30°43′18.13″N 88°13′26.68″W / 30.7217028°N 88.2240778°W / 30.7217028; 88.2240778 …   Wikipedia

  • Jackson, Mississippi — This article is about Jackson, the city and related subjects within the city. For subjects outside the city but relating to the Jackson metro area, see Jackson metropolitan area. For the county in the Mississippi Gulf Coast, see Jackson County,… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”