name = Elephant
image_width = 250px
image_caption = An African Bush Elephant near the border of the
Serengetiand Ngorongoro Conservation Areain Tanzania.
phylum = Chordata
subphylum = Vertebrata
familia = Elephantidae
familia_authority = Gray, 1821
subdivision_ranks = Subfamilia
* See Classification
Elephants (family: "Elephantidae") are large land
mammals of the order Proboscidea. There are three living species: the African Bush Elephant, the African Forest Elephantand the Asian Elephant(also known as the Indian Elephant). Other species have become extinct since the last ice age, the Mammothsbeing the best-known of these. They were once classified along with other thick skinned animals in a now invalid order, Pachydermata.
Elephants are the largest land animals.cite web|url=http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/african-elephant.html|title=African Elephant|publisher=National Geographic | accessdate = 2007-06-16] The elephant's
gestationperiod is 22 months, the longest of any land animal. At birth it is common for an elephant calf to weigh convert|120|kg|lb. An elephant may live as long as 70 years, sometimes longer. The largest elephant ever recorded was shot in Angolain 1956. This male weighed about convert|12000|kg|lb, [cite web |url=http://www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/elephants/about/faq.php|title=Frequently asked African Elephant questions|publisher=South African National Parks | accessdate = 2007-06-16] with a shoulder height of convert|4.2|m|ft, a metre (yard) taller than the average male African elephant. [cite web|url=http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-elephant.html|title=Animal Bytes: Elephant|publisher=San Diego Zoo | accessdate = 2007-06-16] The smallest elephants, about the size of a calf or a large pig, were a prehistoric species that lived on the island of Creteduring the Pleistoceneepoch. [Bate, D.M.A. 1907. On Elephant Remains from Crete, with Description of "Elephas creticus" sp.n. Proc. zool. Soc. London: 238-250.]
The elephant has appeared in cultures across the world. They are a symbol of wisdom in Asian cultures and are famed for their memory and intelligence, where they are thought to be on par with
cetaceanscite web|url=http://tursiops.org/dolfin/guide/smart.html|title=What Makes Dolphins So Smart?|publisher=Discovery Communications|accessdate = 2007-07-31] and hominids.cite web|url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ap/ar/2001/00000062/00000005/art01815|title=Cognitive behaviour in Asian elephants: use and modification of branches for fly switching |publisher=BBC|accessdate = 2007-07-31] Aristotleonce said the elephant was "the beast which passeth all others in wit and mind"cite book
last = O'Connell
first = Caitlin
title = The Elephant's Secret Sense: The Hidden Lives of the Wild Herds of Africa
publisher = Simon & Schuster
year = 2007
New York City
pages = 174, 184
isbn =0743284410 ] . The word "elephant" has its origins in the Greek ἐλέφας, meaning "ivory" or "elephant".cite book |last=Soanes |first=Catherine |coauthors=Angus Stevenson |title=Concise Oxford English Dictionary |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=0-19-929634-0 |year=2006]
Healthy adult elephants have no natural predatorsJoubert D. 2006. Hunting behaviour of lions ("Panthera leo") on elephants ("Loxodonta africana") in the Chobe national Park, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology 44:279-281.] , although lions may take calves or weak individuals. [A. J. Loveridge, J. E. Hunt, F. Murindagomo & D. W. Macdonald. (2006) Influence of drought on predation of elephant ("Loxodonta africana") calves by lions ("Panthera leo") in an African wooded savannah. Journal of Zoology 270:3, 523–530] cite episode | title = Great Plains | series = Planet Earth | airdate = November 2006 | number = 7 | serieslink = Planet Earth (TV series) | url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/tvradio/programmes/planetearth/prog_summary.shtml] They are, however, increasingly threatened by human intrusion and poaching. Once numbering in the millions, the African elephant population has dwindled to between 470,000 and 690,000 individuals.cite web |url=http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/species/about_species/species_factsheets/elephants/african_elephants/index.cfm |title=WWF: African elephants|accessdate=2007-06-09|date=
2007-03-28] The elephant is now a protected species worldwide, with restrictions in place on capture, domestic use, and trade in products such as ivory.
Taxonomy and evolution
African Elephant genuscontains two (or, arguably, three) living species; whereas, the Asian Elephantspecies is the only surviving member of the Asian Elephant genus, but can be divided into four subspecies.
Although the fossil evidence is uncertain, scientists discovered genetic evidence that the elephant family shares distant ancestry with the
sirenians (sea cows) and the hyraxes through gene comparisons. In the distant past, members of the hyrax family grew to large sizes, and it seems likely that the common ancestor of all three modern families was some kind of amphibious hyracoid. One theory suggests that these animals spent most of their time under water, using their trunks like snorkels for breathing. Modern elephants have retained this ability and are known to swim in that manner for up to 6 hours and 50 km (30 miles).
In the past, there was a much wider variety of elephant genera, including the
mammoths, stegodons and deinotheria. There was also a much wider variety of species. [Todd, N. E. (2001). [http://www.cq.rm.cnr.it/elephants2001/pdf/693_697.pdf African "Elephas recki": time, space and taxonomy] (pdf). In: Cavarretta, G., P. Gioia, M. Mussi, and M. R. Palombo. The World of Elephants, Proceedings of the 1st International Congress. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Rome, Italy.] [Todd, N. E. (2005). Reanalysis of African Elephas recki: implications for time, space and taxonomy. Quaternary International 126-128:65-72.]
The Elephants of the genus "
Loxodonta", known collectively as African elephants, are currently found in 37 countries in Africa.
African elephants are distinguished from Asian elephants in several ways, the most noticeable being their ears which are much larger. The African elephant is typically larger than the Asian elephant and has a concave back. Both African males and females have external tusks and are usually less hairy than their Asian cousins.
African elephants have traditionally been classified as a single species comprising two distinct subspecies, namely the savanna elephant ("Loxodonta africana africana") and the forest elephant ("Loxodonta africana cyclotis"), but recent
DNA analysissuggests that these may actually constitute distinct species. [cite journal
first =Alfred L.
coauthors = Nicholas Georgiadis, Jill Pecon-Slattery, and Stephen J. O'Brien
title =Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa
24 August 2001
pmid =11520983] This split is not universally accepted by experts [cite web
last =African Elephant Specialist Group
title =Statement on the taxonomy of extant Loxodonta
month =December | year =2003
accessdate = 2006-12-08 ] and a third species of African elephant has also been proposed. [cite journal
first =Lori S.
coauthors = Caylor A. Rasner, David S. Woodruff
title =The evolution and phylogeography of the African elephant inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence and nuclear microsatellite markers
journal = Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
id = ISSN: 0962-8452 (Paper) 1471-2954 (Online) ]
This reclassification has important implications for conservation, because it means that where previously it was assumed that a single and endangered species comprised two small populations, if in reality these are two separate species, then as a consequence, both could be more gravely endangered than a more numerous and wide-ranging single species might have been. There is also a potential danger in that, if the forest elephant is not explicitly listed as an endangered species, poachers and smugglers might be able to evade the law forbidding trade in endangered animals and their body parts.
The Forest elephant and the Savanna elephant can also hybridise – that is, breed together – successfully, though their preferences for different terrains reduce such opportunities. As the African elephant has only recently been recognized to comprise two separate species, groups of captive elephants have not been comprehensively classified and some could well be hybrids.
Under the new two species classification, "Loxodonta africana" refers specifically to the Savanna Elephant, the largest of all elephants. In fact, it is the largest land animal in the world, with the males standing convert|3.2|m|ft to convert|4|m|ft at the shoulder and weighing convert|3500|kg|lb to a reported convert|12000|kg|lb. [ [http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/ID/fauna/Volume1/A-115.001.002.001%20Loxodonta%20africana_E.pdf CITES Appendix II "Loxodonta africana"] - retrieved 4 September 2008] . The female is smaller, standing about convert|3|m|ft at the shoulder [ [http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Loxodonta_africana.html Animal Diversity Web - "Loxodonta africana"] - retrieved 4 September 2008] . Most often, Savanna Elephants are found in open
grasslands, marshes, and lakeshores. They range over much of the savanna zone south of the Sahara.
The other putative species, the Forest Elephant ("Loxodonta cyclotis"), is usually smaller and rounder, and its tusks thinner and straighter compared with the Savanna Elephant. The Forest Elephant can weigh up to convert|4500|kg|lb and stand about convert|3|m|ft|0 tall. Much less is known about these animals than their savanna cousins, because environmental and political obstacles make them difficult to study. Normally, they inhabit the dense African rain forests of central and western Africa, although occasionally they roam the edges of forests, thus overlapping the Savanna elephant territories and hybridizing. In 1979,
Iain Douglas-Hamiltonestimated the continental population of African elephants at around 1.3 million animals. [cite book
title =The African Elephant Action Plan
location =unpublished report] This estimate is controversial and is believed to be a gross overestimate , [cite book
coauthors =Amin, Mohammed
title =Ivory Crisis
publisher = Chatto and Windus, London
pages =184] but it is very widely cited and has become a "de facto" baseline that continues to be incorrectly used to quantify downward population trends in the species. Through the 1980s, "Loxodonta" received worldwide attention due to the dwindling numbers of major populations in East Africa, largely as a result of poaching. Today, according to
IUCN’s African Elephant Status Report 2007 [cite book
coauthors =Barnes, RFW, Craig, GC, Dublin, HT, Thouless, CR, Douglas-Hamilton, I, Hart, JA,
title = African Elephant Status Report 2007: An update from the African Elephant Database
publisher = IUCN, Gland and Cambridge
year = 2007
url = http://iucn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/afesg/aed/pdfs/aesr2007.pdf
id = ISBN 978-2-8317-0970-3|format=PDF] there are approximately between 470,000 and 690,000 African elephants in the wild. Although this estimate only covers about half of the total elephant range, experts do not believe the true figure to be much higher, as it is unlikely that large populations remain to be discovered. [cite journal
coauthors = Barnes, RFW, Craig, GC, Douglas-Hamilton, I, Dublin, HT, Hart, JA, Thouless, CR
title = Changes in elephant numbers in major savanna populations in eastern and southern Africa
publisher =IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group
date =January-June 2005
url = http://iucn.org/afesg/pachy/pdfs/pachy38.pdf#page=22
accessdate = 2006-12-08 ] By far the largest populations are now found in Southern and Eastern Africa, which together account for the majority of the continental population. According to a recent analysis by IUCN experts, most major populations in Eastern and Southern Africa are stable or have been steadily increasing since the mid-1990s, at an average rate of 4.5% per year. [cite journal
coauthors =Barnes, RFW, Craig, GC, Douglas-Hamilton, I, Dublin, HT, Hart, JA, Thouless, CR
title = Changes in elephant numbers in major savanna populations in eastern and southern Africa
publisher =IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group
date =January-June 2005
url = http://iucn.org/afesg/pachy/pdfs/pachy38.pdf#page=22
accessdate = 2006-12-08 ] [Blanc "et al". 2007, op. cit.]
Elephant populations in West Africa, on the other hand, are generally small and fragmented, and only account for a small proportion of the continental total. [cite book
coauthors =Thouless, CR; Hart, JA; Dublin, HT; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Craig, GC; Barnes, RFW
title = African Elephant Status Report 2002: An update from the African Elephant Database
publisher = IUCN, Gland and Cambridge
year = 2003
url = http://iucn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/afesg/aed/pdfs/aesr2002.pdf
id = ISBN 2-8317-0707-2 |format=PDF] Much uncertainty remains as to the size of the elephant population in Central Africa, where the prevalence of forest makes population surveys difficult, but poaching for ivory and bushmeat is believed to be intense through much of the region. [cite web
last = Blake
title = Central African Forests: Final Report on Population Surveys (2003-2005)
publisher = CITES MIKE Programme, Nairobi
year = 2005
url = http://www.cites.org/common/prog/mike/survey/central_africa_survey03-04.pdf
South Africaelephant population more than doubled, rising from 8,000 to over 20,000, in the thirteen years after a 1995 ban on killing the animals. [ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/02/080225-AP-south-afric.html South Africa to Allow Elephant Killing] ] The ban was lifted in February 2008, sparking controversy among environmental groups. [cite web
title = South Africa to sanction killing of elephants
publisher = CNN
date = 2008-02-25
url = http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/africa/02/25/south.africa.elephants.ap/index.html
The Asian elephant, "Elephas maximus", is smaller than the African. It has smaller ears, and typically, only the males have large external tusks.
The world population of Asian elephants – also called Indian Elephants – is estimated to be around 60,000, about a tenth of the number of African elephants. More precisely, it is estimated that there are between 38,000 and 53,000 wild elephants and between 14,500 and 15,300 domesticated elephants in Asia with perhaps another 1,000 scattered around zoos in the rest of the world. [cite web | url = http://www.eleaid.com/index.php?page=asianelephantdistribution | title = Asian Elephant distribution | publisher = EleAid | accessdate = May 2007] The Asian elephants' decline has possibly been more gradual than the African and caused primarily by poaching and habitat destruction by human encroachment.
Several subspecies of "Elephas maximus" have been identified, using
morphometricdata and molecular markers. "Elephas maximus maximus" ( Sri Lankan Elephant) is found only on the island of Sri Lanka. It is the largest of the Asians. There are an estimated 3,000–4,500 members of this subspecies left today in the wild, although no accurate census has been carried out recently. Large males can weigh upward to 5,400 kg (12,000 lb) and stand over 3.4 m (11 ft) tall. Sri Lankan males have very large cranial bulges, and both sexes have more areas of depigmentation than other Asians. Typically, their ears, face, trunk, and belly have large concentrations of pink-speckled skin. There is an orphanagefor elephants in Pinnawala, Sri Lanka, which plays a large role in protecting the Sri Lankan Elephant from extinction.
"Elephas maximus indicus" (
Indian Elephant) makes up the bulk of the Asian elephant population. Numbering approximately 36,000, these elephants are lighter grey in colour, with depigmentation only on the ears and trunk. Large males will ordinarily weigh only about 5,000 kg (11,000 lb), but are as tall as the Sri Lankan. The mainland Asian can be found in 11 Asian countries, from India to Indonesia. They prefer forested areas and transitional zones, between forests and grasslands, where greater food variety is available.
The smallest of all the elephants is the
Sumatran Elephant, "Elephas maximus sumatranus". Population estimates for this group range from 2,100 to 3,000 individuals. It is very light grey in colour and has less depigmentation than the other Asians, with pink spots only on the ears. Mature Sumatrans will usually only measure 1.7–2.6 m (5.6–8.5 ft) at the shoulder and weigh less than 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). It is considerably smaller than its other Asian (and African) cousins and exists only on the island of Sumatra, usually in forested regions and partially wooded habitats.
In 2003, a further subspecies was identified on
Borneo. Named the Borneo pygmy elephant, it is smaller and tamer than any other Asian elephants. It also has relatively larger ears, longer tail and straighter tusks.
proboscis, or trunk, is a fusion of the nose and upper lip, elongated and specialized to become the elephant's most important and versatile appendage. African elephants are equipped with two fingerlike projections at the tip of their trunk, while Asians have only one. According to biologists, the elephant's trunk may have over forty thousand individual muscles in it, [cite web |url=http://www.upali.ch/anatomy_en.html |title=Anatomy of the elephants | accessdate = 2007-06-16] making it sensitive enough to pick up a single blade of grass, yet strong enough to rip the branches off a tree. Some sources indicate that the correct number of muscles in an elephant's trunk is closer to one hundred thousand.cite web |url=http://elephant.elehost.com/About_Elephants/Anatomy/The_Trunk/the_trunk.html |title=Elephant Information Repository: The Trunk | author = Paul MacKenzie | accessdate = 2007-06-16]
herbivores(plant eaters, like the elephant) possess teeth adapted for cutting and tearing off plant materials. However, except for the very young or infirm, elephants always use their trunks to tear up their food and then place it in their mouth. They will graze on grass or reach up into trees to grasp leaves, fruit, or entire branches. If the desired food item is too high up, the elephant will wrap its trunk around the tree or branch and shake its food loose or sometimes simply knock the tree down altogether.
The trunk is also used for drinking. Elephants suck water up into the trunk (up to fifteen quarts or fourteen litres at a time) and then blow it into their mouth. Elephants also inhale water to spray on their body during bathing. On top of this watery coating, the animal will then spray dirt and mud, which act as a protective sunscreen. When swimming, the trunk makes an excellent snorkel.Citation
last = West
first = John B.
title = Snorkel breathing in the elephant explains the unique anatomy of its pleura
journal = Respiratory Physiology
volume = 126
issue = 1
pages = 1–8
year = 2001
url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6T3J-42SPN0Y-1-7&_cdi=4948&_user=10&_orig=search&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F2001&_sk=998739998&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzV&md5=47a1f5f9745e29f15d73a7f73c376a41&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
doi = 10.1016/S0034-5687(01)00203-1 ] Citation
last = West
first = John B.
last2 = Fu
first2 = Zhenxing
last3 = Gaeth
first3 = Ann P.
last4 = Short
first4 = Roger V.
title = Fetal lung development in the elephant reflects the adaptations required for snorkeling in adult life
journal = Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
volume = 138
issue = 2-3
pages = 325–333
date = 2003-11-14
url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6X16-49MF0FR-2-7&_cdi=7234&_user=10&_orig=article&_coverDate=11%2F14%2F2003&_sk=998619997&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzb-zSkWA&md5=ad91a1eea54ef52d0a723aeec5232049&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
doi = 10.1016/S1569-9048(03)00199-X ]
This appendage also plays a key role in many social interactions. Familiar elephants will greet each other by entwining their trunks, much like a handshake. They also use them while play-wrestling, caressing during courtship and mother / child interactions, and for dominance displays – a raised trunk can be a warning or threat, while a lowered trunk can be a sign of submission. Elephants can defend themselves very well by flailing their trunk at unwanted intruders or by grasping and flinging them.An elephant also relies on its trunk for its highly developed sense of smell. Raising the trunk up in the air and swivelling it from side to side, like a periscope, it can determine the location of friends, enemies, and food sources.
tusks of an elephant are its second upper incisors. Tusks grow continuously; an adult male's tusks will grow about 18 cm (7 in) a year. Tusks are used to dig for water, salt, and roots; to debark trees, to eat the bark; to dig into baobabtrees to get at the pulp inside; and to move trees and branches when clearing a path. In addition, they are used for marking trees to establish territory and occasionally as weapons.
Like humans who are typically right- or left-handed, elephants are usually right- or left-tusked. The dominant tusk, called the master tusk, is generally shorter and more rounded at the tip from wear. Both male and female African elephants have large tusks that can reach over 3 m (10 ft) in length and weigh over 90 kg (200 lb). In the Asian species, only the males have large tusks. Female Asians have tusks which are very small or absent altogether. Asian males can have tusks as long as the much larger Africans, but they are usually much slimmer and lighter; the heaviest recorded is 39 kg (86 lb). The tusk of both species is mostly made of
calcium phosphatein the form of apatite. As a piece of living tissue, it is relatively soft (compared with other minerals such as rock), and the tusk, also known as ivory, is strongly favoured by artists for its carvability. The desire for elephant ivory has been one of the major factors in the reduction of the world's elephant population.
Some extinct relatives of elephants had tusks in their lower jaws in addition to their upper jaws, such as "
Gomphotherium", or only in their lower jaws, such as " Deinotherium".
Elephants' teeth are very different from those of most other mammals. Over their lives they usually have 28 teeth. These are:
*The two upper second incisors: these are the
*The milk precursors of the tusks.
premolars, 3 in each side of each jaw.
*12 molars, 3 in each side of each jaw.This gives elephants a dental formula of: dentition2|18.104.22.168|0.0.3.3Unlike most mammals, which grow baby teeth and then replace them with a permanent set of adult teeth, elephants have cycles of tooth rotation throughout their entire life. The tusks have milk precursors, which fall out quickly and the adult tusks are in place by one year of age, but the molars are replaced five times in an average elephant's lifetime. [cite web | url = http://www.indyzoo.com/content.aspx?cid=302 | title = Elephant Anatomy | accessdate = 2007-05-28 | publisher =
Indianapolis Zoo] The teeth do not emerge from the jaws vertically like with human teeth. Instead, they have move horizontally, like a conveyor belt. New teeth grow in at the back of the mouth, pushing older teeth toward the front, where they wear down with use and the remains fall out. When an elephant becomes very old, the last set of teeth is worn to stumps, and it must rely on softer foods to chew. Very elderly elephants often spend their last years exclusively in marshy areas where they can feed on soft wet grasses. Eventually, when the last teeth fall out, the elephant will be unable to eat and will die of starvation. Were it not for tooth wearout, their metabolism would allow them to live much longer. Rupert Sheldrakehas proposed this as an explanation for the elephant graveyards. However, as more habitat is destroyed, the elephants' living space becomes smaller and smaller; the elderly no longer have the opportunity to roam in search of more appropriate food and will, consequently, die of starvation at an earlier age.
Tusks in the lower jaw are also second incisors. These grew out large in "
Deinotherium" and some mastodons, but in modern elephants they disappear early without erupting.
Elephants are colloquially called "pachyderms" (from their original scientific classification), which means thick-skinned animals. An elephant's skin is extremely tough around most parts of its body and measures about convert|2.5|cm|in|1 thick. However, the skin around the mouth and inside of the ear is paper-thin. Normally, the skin of an Asian is covered with more hair than its African counterpart. This is most noticeable in the young. Asian calves are usually covered with a thick coat of brownish red fuzz. As they get older, this hair darkens and becomes more sparse, but it will always remain on their heads and tails.
The species of elephants are typically greyish in colour, but the Africans very often appear brown or reddish from wallowing in mud holes of coloured soil. Wallowing is an important behaviour in elephant society. Not only is it important for socialization, but the mud acts as a sunscreen, protecting their skin from harsh ultraviolet radiation. Although tough, an elephant's skin is very sensitive. Without regular mud baths to protect it from burning, as well as from insect bites and moisture loss, an elephant's skin would suffer serious damage. After bathing, the elephant will usually use its trunk to blow dirt on its body to help dry and bake on its new protective coat. As elephants are limited to smaller and smaller areas, there is less water available, and local herds will often come too close over the right to use these limited resources.
Wallowing also aids the skin in regulating body temperatures. Elephants have difficulty in releasing heat through the skin because, in proportion to their body size, they have very little of it. The ratio of an elephant's mass to the surface area of its skin is many times that of a human. Elephants have even been observed lifting up their legs to expose the soles of their feet, presumably in an effort to expose more skin to the air. Since wild elephants live in very hot climates, they must have other means of getting rid of excess heat.
Legs and feet
An elephant's legs are great straight pillars, as they must be to support its bulk. The elephant needs less muscular power to stand because of its straight legs and large pad-like feet. For this reason an elephant can stand for very long periods of time without tiring. In fact, African elephants rarely lie down unless they are sick or wounded. Indian elephants, in contrast, lie down frequently.
The feet of an elephant are nearly round. African elephants have three nails on each hind foot, and four on each front foot. Indian elephants have four nails on each hind foot and five on each front foot. Beneath the bones of the foot is a tough, gelatinous material that acts as a cushion or shock absorber. Under the elephant's weight the foot swells, but it gets smaller when the weight is removed. An elephant can sink deep into mud, but can pull its legs out readily because its feet become smaller when they are lifted.Fact|date=July 2007
An elephant is a good swimmer, but it can not trot,
jump, nor gallop. It does have two gaits: a walk; and a faster gait that is similar to running.
In walking, the legs act as pendulums, with the hips and shoulders rising and falling while the foot is planted on the ground. With no "aerial phase", the faster gait does not meet all the criteria of running, as elephants always have at least one foot on the ground. However, an elephant moving fast uses its legs much like a running animal, with the hips and shoulders falling and then rising while the feet are on the ground. In this gait, an elephant will have three feet off the ground at one time. As both of the hind feet and both of the front feet are off the ground at the same time, this gait has been likened to the hind legs and the front legs taking turns running. [Moore, Tom. (May 2007). "Biomechanics: A Spring in Its Step". "Natural History" 116:(4) 28-9.]
Although they start this "run" at only 8 km/h, [cite journal| author= Ren, L. & J.R. Hutchinson | year = 2007 | title= The three-dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants reveal a smooth gait transition at moderate speed | journal = J. Roy. Soc. Interface | doi=10.1098/rsif.2007.1095| issn=1742-5662 | volume= 5 | pages= 195] elephants can reach speeds up to 25 km/h, all the while using the same gait. At this speed, most other four-legged creatures are well into a gallop, even accounting for leg length. Spring-like kinetics could explain the difference between the motion of elephants and other animals. [cite journal | author = Hutchinson, J.R., "et al." | month = Apr | year = 2003 | title = Biomechanics: Are fast-moving elephants really running? | journal = Nature | volume = 422 | pages = 493–494 | doi = 10.1038/422493a]
The large flapping ears of an elephant are also very important for temperature regulation. Elephant ears are made of a very thin layer of skin stretched over cartilage and a rich network of blood vessels. On hot days, elephants will flap their ears constantly, creating a slight breeze. This breeze cools the surface blood vessels, and then the cooler blood gets circulated to the rest of the animal's body. The hot blood entering the ears can be cooled as much as ten degrees Fahrenheit before returning to the body. Differences in the ear sizes of African and Asian elephants can be explained, in part, by their geographical distribution. Africans originated and stayed near the equator, where it is warmer. Therefore, they have bigger ears. Asians live farther north, in slightly cooler climates, and thus have smaller ears.
The ears are also used in certain displays of aggression and during the males' mating period. If an elephant wants to intimidate a predator or rival, it will spread its ears out wide to make itself look more massive and imposing. During the breeding season, males give off an odour from the
musthgland located behind their eyes. Joyce Poole, a well-known elephant researcher, has theorized that the males will fan their ears in an effort to help propel this "elephant cologne" great distances. [ [http://www.elephantvoices.org/about_sevp/publictns.html Joyce Poole's publication "Announcing intent: the aggressive state of musth in African elephants"] ]
Biology and behavior
. Adult males, on the other hand, live mostly solitary lives.
The social circle of the female elephant does not end with the small family unit. In addition to encountering the local males that live on the fringes of one or more groups, the female's life also involves interaction with other families, clans, and subpopulations. Most immediate family groups range from five to fifteen adults, as well as a number of immature males and females. When a group gets too big, a few of the elder daughters will break off and form their own small group. They remain very aware of which local herds are relatives and which are not.
The life of the adult male is very different. As he gets older, he begins to spend more time at the edge of the herd, gradually going off on his own for hours or days at a time. Eventually, days become weeks, and somewhere around the age of fourteen, the mature male, or bull, sets out from his natal group for good. While males do live primarily solitary lives, they will occasionally form loose associations with other males. These groups are called bachelor herds. The males spend much more time than the females fighting for dominance with each other. Only the most dominant males will be permitted to breed with cycling females. The less dominant ones must wait their turn. It is usually the older bulls, forty to fifty years old, that do most of the breeding.
The dominance battles between males can look very fierce, but typically they inflict very little injury. Most of the bouts are in the form of aggressive displays and bluffs. Ordinarily, the smaller, younger, and less confident animal will back off before any real damage can be done. However, during the breeding season, the battles can get extremely aggressive, and the occasional elephant is injured. During this season, known as
musth, a bull will fight with almost any other male it encounters, and it will spend most of its time hovering around the female herds, trying to find a receptive mate.
Males will sometime also engage in same-sex bonding and mounting. Such encounters are often associated with affectionate interactions, such as kissing, trunk intertwining, and placing trunks in each other's mouths. Unlike heterosexual relations however, which are always of a fleeting nature, those between males result in a "companionship", consisting of an older individual and one or two younger, attendant males. Fact|date=October 2008
Rogue elephant is a term for a lone, violently aggressive wild elephant. It is a
calqueof the Sinhala term "hora aliya". Its introduction to English has been attributed by the Oxford English Dictionaryto Sir James Emerson Tennent, but this usage may have been pre-dated by William Sirr.
With a mass just over 5 kg (11 lb), elephant brains are larger than those of any other land animal, and although the largest
whales have body masses twentyfold those of a typical elephant, whale brains are barely twice the mass of an elephant's. A wide variety of behaviours, including those associated with grief, making music, art, altruism, allomothering, play, use of tools, [cite web | url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/features/302feature1.shtml | title = Not so Dumbo: Elephant Intelligence | last=Braden | first = Claire | accessdate = 2007-05-27 ] compassionand self-awareness[cite web | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6100430.stm | title = Elephants' jumbo mirror ability | accessdate = 2007-08-10 ] evidence a highly intelligent species on par with cetaceansand primates. The largest areas in the elephant brain are those responsible for hearing, smell and movement coordination.
Elephants have well innervated trunks, and an exceptional sense of hearing and smell. The hearing receptors reside not only in ears, but also in trunks that are sensitive to vibrations, and most significantly feet, which have special receptors for low frequency sound and are exceptionally well innervated. Elephants communicate by sound over large distances of several kilometers partly through the ground, which is important for their social lives. Elephants are observed listening by putting trunks on the ground and carefully positioning their feet.
Their eyesight is relatively poor, and the eyes are aiming down the trunk. An elephant has to raise his head conspicuously to look out horizontally.
Mirror self recognition is a test of self awareness and cognition used in animal studies. A mirror was provided and visible marks were made on the elephant. The elephants investigated these marks, that were visible only via the mirror. The tests also included non-visible marks to rule out the possibility of their using other senses to detect these marks. This shows that elephants recognize the fact that the image in the mirror is their own self and such abilities are considered the basis for empathy, altruism and higher social interactions. This ability has been demonstrated in
humans, apes, dolphins, [Joshua M. Plotnik, Frans B. M. de Waal, and Diana Reiss (2006) Self-recognition in an Asian elephant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences103(45):17053–17057 10.1073/pnas.0608062103 [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0608062103v1 abstract] ] and magpies. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080819/sc_nm/magpies_mirror_dc Magpies are no bird-brains, mirror test shows] ]
In addition to their bellows, roars and widely recognized trumpet-like calls; elephants communicate over long distances by producing and receiving low-frequency sound (
infrasound), a sub-sonic rumbling, which can travel through the ground farther than sound travels through the air. This can be felt by the sensitive skin of an elephant's feet and trunk, which pick up the resonant vibrations much as the flat skin on the head of a drum. To listen attentively, every member of the herd will lift one foreleg from the ground, and face the source of the sound, or often lay its trunk on the ground. The lifting presumably increases the ground contact and sensitivity of the remaining legs. This ability is thought also to aid their navigation by use of external sources of infrasound. Discovery of this new aspect of elephant social communication and perception came with breakthroughs in audio technology, which can pick up frequencies outside the range of the human ear. Pioneering research in elephant infrasound communication was done by Katy Payne, of the Elephant Listening Project, [cite web | url = http://www.birds.cornell.edu/brp/elephant/ | title = Elephant Listening Project | accessdate = 2007-06-16] and is detailed in her book "Silent Thunder". Though this research is still in its infancy, it is helping to solve many mysteries, such as how elephants can find distant potential mates, and how social groups are able to coordinate their movements over extensive range.
herbivores, spending 16 hours a day collecting plant food. Their diet is at least 50% grasses, supplemented with leaves, bamboo, twigs, bark, roots, and small amounts of fruits, seeds and flowers. Because elephants only digest 40% of what they eat, they have to make up for their digestive system's lack of efficiency in volume. An adult elephant can consume 140–270 kg (300–600 lb) of food a day. 60% of that food leaves the elephant's body undigested.
Reproduction and life cycle
Elephant social life revolves around breeding and raising of the calves. A female will usually be ready to breed around the age of thirteen, when she comes into [estrus] , a short phase of receptiveness lasting a couple of days, for the first time. Females announce their [estrus] with smell signals and special calls.
Females prefer bigger, stronger, and, most importantly, older males. Such a reproductive strategy tends to increase their offspring's chances of survival.
After a twenty-two-month pregnancy, the mother will give birth to a calf that will weigh about 113 kg (250 lb) and stand over 76 cm (2.5 ft) tall. Elephants have a very long childhood. They are born with fewer survival instincts than many other animals. Instead, they must rely on their elders to teach them the things they need to know. Today, however, the pressures humans have put on the wild elephant populations, from poaching to habitat destruction, mean that the elderly often die at a younger age, leaving fewer teachers for the young.
A new calf is usually the centre of attention for all herd members. All the adults and most of the other young will gather around the newborn, touching and caressing it with their trunks. The baby is born nearly blind and at first relies, almost completely, on its trunk to discover the world around it.
As everyone in the herd is usually related, all members of the tightly knit female group participate in the care and protection of the young. After the initial excitement, the mother will usually select several full-time baby-sitters, or "allomothers", from her group. According to [http://elephanttrust.org/node/41 Cynthia Moss] , a well known researcher, these allomothers will help in all aspects of raising the calf [ Elephant Memories: Thirteen Years in the Life of an Elephant Family - [http://elephanttrust.org/node/41 Cynthia Moss] . 2000. ] . They walk with the young as the herd travels, helping the calves along if they fall or get stuck in the mud. The more allomothers a baby has, the more free time its mother has to feed herself. Providing a calf with nutritious milk means the mother has to eat more nutritious food herself. So, the more allomothers, the better the calf's chances of survival. An elephant is considered an allomother when she is not able to have her own baby. A benefit of being an allomother is that she can gain experience or receive assistance when caring for her own calf.
Effect on the environment
Elephants are a species which many other organisms depend on. One particular example of that are
termitesmounds: termites eat elephant feces and often begin building their mounds under piles of elephant feces.
Elephants' foraging activities can sometimes greatly affect the areas in which they live. By pulling down trees to eat leaves, breaking branches, and pulling out roots they create clearings in which new young trees and other vegetation can establish itself. During the dry season, elephants use their tusks to dig into
dry river bedsto reach underground sources of water. These newly dug water holes may then become the only source of waterin the area. Elephants make pathways through their environment which are also used by other animals to access areas normally out of reach. This pathways have sometimes been used by several generations of elephants and today are converted by humans to paved roads.
Threat of extinction
The threat to the African elephant presented by the ivory trade is unique to the species. Larger, long-lived, slow-breeding animals, like the elephant, are more susceptible to overhunting than other animals. They cannot hide, and it takes many years for an elephant to grow and reproduce. An elephant needs an average of 140 kg (300 lb) of vegetation a day to survive. As large predators are hunted, the local small grazer populations (the elephant's food competitors) find themselves on the rise. The increased number of herbivores ravage the local trees, shrubs, and grasses. Elephants themselves have few natural predators besides man and, occasionally, lions.
Another threat to elephant's survival in general is the ongoing cultivation of their habitats with increasing risk of conflicts of interest with human cohabitants. These conflicts kill 150 elephants and up to 100 people per year in Sri Lanka. [cite web | url = http://nationalzoo.si.edu/ConservationAndScience/ConservationGIS/projects/asian_elephants/conflict.cfm | title = Conservation GIS Projects | publisher = Smithsonian National Zoological Park | accessdate = 2007-06-16] Lacking the massive tusks of its African cousins, the Asian elephant's demise can be attributed mostly to loss of its habitat.
As larger patches of forest disappear, the ecosystem is affected in profound ways. The trees are responsible for anchoring soil and absorbing water runoff. Floods and massive erosion are common results of deforestation. Elephants need massive tracts of land because, much like the slash-and-burn farmers, they are used to crashing through the forest, tearing down trees and shrubs for food and then cycling back later on, when the area has regrown. As forests are reduced to small pockets, elephants become part of the problem, quickly destroying all the vegetation in an area, eliminating all their resources.
Africa's first official reserve,
Kruger National Park, eventually became one of the world's most famous and successful national parks. [ [http://www.krugerpark.co.za/Krugerpark_History-travel/kruger-national-park-history.html History of Kruger Park: Kruger National Park: South Africa ] ] There are, however, many problems associated with the establishment of these reserves. For example, elephants range through a wide tract of land with little regard for national borders. Once a reserve is established and fence erected, many animals find themselves cut off from their winter feeding grounds or spring breeding areas. Some animals may die as a result, while others, like the elephants, may just trample over the fences, wreaking havoc in nearby fields. When confined to small territories, elephants can inflict an enormous amount of damage to the local landscapes. [ [http://elephant.elehost.com/About_Elephants/Impact/impact.html Impact ] ]
Additionally, some reserves, such as Kruger National Park has, in the opinion of wildlife managers, suffered from elephant overcrowding, at the expense of other species of wildlife within the reserve. On 25 February 2008, the South Africa announced that they would reintroduce culling for the first time since 1994 to control elephant numbers. [cite web | url = http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article3431369.ece | title=Animal rights outrage over plan to cull South Africa's elephants | date=2008-02-26 | work=Times Online | accessdate=2008-03-22] Nevertheless, as scientists learn more about nature and the environment, it becomes very clear that these parks may be the elephant's last hope against the rapidly changing world around them.
Humanity and elephants
Harvest from the wild
The harvest of elephants, both legal and illegal, has had some unexpected consequences on elephant anatomy as well. African ivory hunters, by killing only tusked elephants, have given a much larger chance of mating to elephants with small tusks or no tusks at all. The propagation of the absent-tusk gene has resulted in the birth of large numbers of tuskless elephants, now approaching 30% in some populations (compare with a rate of about 1% in 1930). Tusklessness, once a very rare genetic abnormality, has become a widespread hereditary trait.
It is possible, if unlikely, that continued selection pressure could bring about a complete absence of tusks in African elephants, a development normally requiring thousands of years of evolution. The effect of tuskless elephants on the environment, and on the elephants themselves, could be dramatic. Elephants use their tusks to root around in the ground for necessary minerals, tear apart vegetation, and spar with one another for mating rights. Without tusks, elephant behaviour could change dramatically. [cite web | url = http://firstname.lastname@example.org/msg00030.html | title = The Learning Kingdom | date =
Domestication and use
Elephants have been
working animalsused in various capacities by humans. Seals found in the Indus Valley suggest that the elephant was first domesticated in ancient India. However, elephants have never been truly domesticated: the male elephant in his periodic condition of " musth" is dangerous and difficult to control. Therefore elephants used by humans have typically been female, war elephants being an exception, however: as female elephants in battle will run from a male, only males could be used in war. It is generally more economical to capture wild young elephants and tame them than breeding them in captivity (see also elephant "crushing").Elephants are also commonly exhibited in zoosand wild animal parks.
War elephants were used by armies in the Indian sub-continent, the Warring States of China, and later by the Persian Empire. This use was adopted by Hellenisticarmies after Alexander the Greatexperienced their worth against king Porus, notably in the Ptolemaic and Seleuciddiadoch empires. The Carthaginian general Hannibal took elephants across the Alpswhen he was fighting the Romans, but brought too few elephants to be of much military use, although his horse cavalry was quite successful; he probably used a now-extinct third African (sub)species, the North African (Forest) elephant, smaller than its two southern cousins, and presumably easier to domesticate. A large elephant in full charge could cause tremendous damage to infantry, and cavalry horses would be afraid of them (see Battle of Hydaspes).
Myanmar(Burma), Siam, India, and most of South Asia elephants were used in the military for heavy labour, especially for uprooting trees and moving logs, and were also commonly used as executioners to crush the condemned underfoot.
Elephants have also been used as mounts for safari-type
hunting, especially Indian "shikar" (mainly on tigers), and as ceremonial mounts for royal and religious occasions, whilst Asian elephants have been used for transportand entertainment.
Zoo and Circuses
[http://www.helpelephantsinzoos.com/topeka_zoo.html Help Elephants in Zoos ] ] [ [http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:zy-rTMG8dRgJ:www.elephantvoices.org/tools/documents/Poole_bullhooks_boston_jan2007.pdf+elephant+rocking+behavior&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=us&client=firefox-a] ] [ [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:kdYDBPzWaXwJ:www.elephantvoices.org/tools/documents/Statement_regarding_Arna_March_2002.pdf+elephant+rocking+behavior&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us&client=firefox-a] ] [ [http://www.elephants.com/media/yahoo_11_18_05.htm The Elephant Sanctuary, Hohenwald, Tennessee ] ] ] Elephants have traditionally been a major part of circuses around the world, being intelligent enough to be trained in a variety of acts (see for example
P.T. Barnum's Jumboand John L. Sullivan, the famous "Boxing Elephant"). However, conditions for circus elephants are highly unnatural (confinement in small pens or cages, restraints on their feet, lack of companionship of other elephants, etc) and, perhaps as a result, there are instances of them turning on their keepers or handlers (examples include Black Diamond and "Murderous Mary").
There is growing resistance [cite web | url = http://elephanttrust.org/search/node/elephants+capture+training | title = Resistance against capture and training of wild elephants | publisher = [http://elephanttrust.org/ Amboseli Trust for Elephants] | accessdate = 2007-12-01] against the capture, confinement, and use of wild elephants. Animal rights advocates allege that elephants in zoos and circuses "suffer a life of chronic physical ailments, social deprivation, emotional starvation, and premature death". [cite web | url = http://www.savewildelephants.com/ | title = SaveWildElephants.com | publisher = PETA | accessdate = 2007-06-16] Zoos argue that standards for treatment of elephants are extremely high and that minimum requirements for such things as minimum space requirements, enclosure design, nutrition, reproduction, enrichment and veterinary care are set to ensure the wellbeing of elephants in captivity. Circuses continue to have a mixed record. Recently, the city of
Los Angeles' closed an elephant act with Circus Vazquezdue to numerous instances of abuse and neglect (April 2008) [ [http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/unleashed/2008/04/la-city-animal.html "L.A. City Animal Services shuts down elephant circus show," "Los Angeles Times", April 11, 2008] ] , and according to PETA, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circushas lost 25 elephants since 1992. [ [http://www.circuses.com/pdfs/ringlingfactsheet.pdf PETA Fact Sheet on Ringling Brothers Circus, April 22, 2008] ]
Although successful hybridisation between African and Asian Elephant species is highly unlikely in the wild, in 1978 at
Chester Zoo, an Asian elephant cow gave birth to a hybrid calf sired by an African elephant bull (the old terms are used here as these events pre-date the current classifications). " Motty", the resulting hybrid male calf, had an African elephant's cheeks, their ears (large with pointed lobes) and legs (longer and slimmer), but the toenail numbers, (5 for each front foot, 4 hind) and the single trunk finger of an Asian elephant. His wrinkled trunk was like that of an African elephant. His forehead was sloping with one dome and two smaller domes behind it. The body was African in type, but had an Asian-type centre hump and an African-type rear hump. The calf died of infection 12 days later [http://www.elephant.se/Motty_the_elephant_crossbreed.php?open=Living%20Elephant%20Species] . It is preserved as a mounted specimen at the British Natural History Museum, London. There are unconfirmed rumours of three other hybrid elephants born in zoos or circuses; all are said to have been deformed and none survived.
Despite its popularity in zoos, and cuddly portrayal as gentle giants in fiction, elephants are among the world's most potentially dangerous animals. They can crush and kill any other land animal, even the
rhinoceros. They can experience unexpected bouts of rage, and can be vindictive.cite web | url = http://www.truthout.org/cgi-bin/artman/exec/view.cgi/65/23108 | title = Animal Behaviour: Rogue Elephants | last = Huggler | first = Justin | publisher = The Independent | date = 2006-10-12| accessdate = 2007-06-16] In Africa, groups of young teenage elephants attack human villages in what is thought to be revenge for the destruction of their society by massive cullings done in the 1970s and 80s. [cite web | url = http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2006/02/16/1140064206413.html | title = Elephant rage: they never forgive, either | first = Roger | last = Highfield | publisher = Sydney Morning Herald| date = 2006-02-17 | accessdate = 2007-06-16] In India, male elephants attack villages at night, destroying homes and killing people on a regular basis. In the Indian state of Jharkhand, 300 people were killed by elephants between 2000 and 2004, and in Assam, 239 people have been killed by elephants since 2001. In Indiaelephants kills up to 200 humans every year, and in Sri Lanka around 50 per year.
Adult male elephants naturally periodically enter the state called "
musth" (Hindi for "madness"), sometimes spelt "must" in English.
At least a few elephants have been suspected to be drunk during their attacks. In December 1998, a herd of elephants overran a village in India. Although locals reported that nearby elephants had recently been observed drinking beer which rendered them "unpredictable", officials considered it the least likely explanation for the attack. [cite web | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/241781.stm | title = India elephant rampage | publisher =
BBC News| date = 1998-12-24| accessdate = 2007-06-16] An attack on another Indian village occurred in October 1999, and again locals believed the reason was drunkenness, but the theory was not widely accepted. [cite web | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/482001.stm | title = Drunken elephants trample village | publisher = BBC News| date = 1999-10-21| accessdate = 2007-06-16] Purportedly drunk elephants raided yet another Indian village again on December 2002, killing six people, which led to killing of about 200 elephants by locals. [ cite web | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2583891.stm | title = Drunk elephants kill six people | publisher = BBC News| date = 2002-12-17| accessdate = 2007-06-16]
Crushing by elephant
Elephants in Kerala culture
History of elephants in Europe
Year of the Elephant
John Godfrey Saxe
*Debruyne, R., Barriel, V., & Tassy, P. (2003). Mitochondrial cytochrome b of the lyakhov mammoth (proboscidea, mammalia): New data and phylogenetic analyses of elephantidae. "Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution", 26(3), 421-434.
* [http://iucn.org/afesg/aed/ African Elephant Specialist Group] : database and status reports
* [http://www.awf.org/wildlives/71 African Wildlife Foundation: Elephant]
* [http://www.eleaid.com/ EleAid - Asian Elephant Conservation Charity]
* [http://www.upali.ch/elephant_encyclopedia.html Elephant encyclopedia]
* [http://www.elephant.se/ Elephants Encyclopedia]
* [http://www.elephant-news.com/ Elephant News] : news articles about elephants
* [http://www.elephantvoices.org ElephantVoices] : information about elephant communication
* [http://www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/elephants/default.php South African National Parks: Elephant Hall]
* [http://www.elephants.com/ The Elephant Sanctuary: Hohenwald, Tennessee]
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