Atkins Nutritional Approach

Atkins Nutritional Approach

Atkins Nutritional Approach, popularly known as the "Atkins Diet" or just 'Atkins', is a well-known low-carbohydrate diet created by Dr.Robert Atkins from a diet he read in the "Journal of the American Medical Association" and utilized to resolve his own overweight condition following medical school and graduate medical training. He later popularized the Atkins diet in a series of books, starting with "Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution" in 1972. In his revised book, "Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution", he modified or changed some of his ideas, but remained faithful to the original concepts.

The Atkins franchise, a business formed to provide products to those individuals on the diet, was highly successful due to the popularity of the diet, and is considered the driving entity of the larger "low-carb craze" during the early millennium. Various factors, however, led to its dwindling success and the company founded by Dr. Atkins in 1989, Atkins Nutritionals of Ronkonkoma, New York, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in July of 2005, two years after the death of Dr. Atkins. The company re-emerged in January 2006, and the Atkins logo is still highly visible through licensed-proprietary branding for food products and related merchandise.

Nature of the diet

The Atkins Diet is a departure from previously prevailing metabolic theories. Atkins claimed there are two important unrecognized factors in Western eating habits which lead to obesity. First, the main cause of obesity is eating refined carbohydrates, particularly sugar, flour, and high-fructose corn syrups. Secondly, that saturated fat is overrated as a nutritional problem, being not as important in developing vascular disease, and that trans fats from sources such as hydrogenated oils are much more important in developing vascular disease. ["citation needed"] Accordingly, Dr. Atkins rejected conventional nutritional advice (eg, that embodied in the food pyramid), instead claiming that the tremendous increase in refined carbohydrates has been responsible for the rise in metabolic disorders of the 20th century, and that the focus on the detrimental effects of dietary fat has actually contributed to the obesity problem by neglecting the increased proportion of carbohydrates in the diet. ["citation needed"] While Atkins puts his emphasis on diet, nutritional supplements and exercise are also considered important elements. ["citation needed"]

The Atkins Diet involves restriction of carbohydrates to more frequently switch the body's metabolism from burning glucose as fuel to burning stored body fat. This process (called "ketosis") begins when insulin levels are low; in normal humans insulin is lowest when blood glucose levels are low (mostly before eating), and blood glucose levels are most fundamentally increased by ingestion of some kinds of carbohydrate (eg, glucose, starch (ie, long glucose chains)). Other kinds of carbohydrates don't participate in the insulin mechanism controlling metabolism. Ketosis involves "lipolysis" in which some of the lipid stores in fat cells are transferred to the blood. Ketosis is normal, and is the chief mechanism by which stored lipids are used for fuel; in principle, the body alternates between glucose metabolism and ketosis, being in glucose burning state after meals (especially meals with glucose content) and ketosis after ingested glucose is consumed. ["citation needed"]

In his book "Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution", Dr. Atkins claimed that the low-carbohydrate diet produces a "metabolic advantage" in which the body burns more calories, overall, than on normal diets, and also expels some unused calories. He cited one study where he estimated this advantage to be 950 calories (4.0 MJ) a day. However, a review study in the Lancet (see below) concluded that there was no such metabolic advantage and dieters were simply eating fewer calories due to boredom. Professor Astru stating that "The monotony and simplicity of the diet could inhibit appetite and food intake", [ [] "Robert C. Atkins"] or possibly protein inducing a satiating effect.

The Atkins Diet restricts "net carbs" (carbohydrates that have an effect on blood sugar). One effect is a tendency to decrease the onset of hunger, perhaps due to longer duration of digestion (fats and proteins take longer to digest than carbohydrates). Dr. Atkins says in Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution (2002) that hunger is the number one reason why low-fat diets fail. Though studies show the efficacy of the Atkins approach after one year is the same as some low-fat diets, Dr. Atkins claimed that it was easier to stay on the Atkins diet because dieters did not feel as hungry or "deprived". ["citation needed"] One study goes so far as to suggest that the low fat trend in food is connected with the increase in diagnosed depression over the last two decades. ["citation needed"]

Net carbohydrates can be calculated from a food source by subtracting fiber and sugar alcohols (which are shown to have a negligible effect on blood sugar levels) from total carbohydrates. Sugar alcohols need to be treated with caution, because while they may be slower to convert to glucose, they can be a significant source of glycemic load and can stall weight loss. Fructose (eg, as found in many industrial sweeteners) also contributes to caloric intake, though outside of the glucose-insulin metabolic control loop.

Preferred foods in all categories are whole, unprocessed foods with a low glycemic load. Atkins Nutritionals, the company formed to market foods which work with the Atkins Diet, recommends that no more than 20% of calories eaten while on the diet come from saturated fat.BBC (January 19, 2004) [ Atkins diet boss: 'Eat less fat'] . "BBC News". Retrieved on September 12, 2007.]

According to the book "Atkins Diabetes Revolution", for people whose blood sugar is abnormally high or who have Type 2 diabetes mellitus, this diet decreases or eliminates the need for drugs to treat these conditions. The Atkins Blood Sugar Control Program (ABSCP) is an individualized approach to weight control and permanent management of the risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. [ [ Atkins Diabetes Revolution] "Robert C. Atkins"] Nevertheless, the causes of Type 2 diabetes remain obscure, and the Atkins Diet is not accepted in conventional therapy for diabetes.

The Four Phases

There are four phases of the Atkins diet: induction, ongoing weight loss, pre-maintenance and lifetime maintenance.


The "Induction" phase is the first, and most restrictive, phase of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. It is intended to cause the body to quickly enter a state of ketosis. Carbohydrate intake is limited to 20 net grams per day (grams of carbohydrates minus grams of fiber, sugar alcohols, or glycerin), 12 to 15 net grams of which must come in the form of salad greens and other green vegetables (broccoli, green beans, spinach and asparagus). The allowed foods include a liberal amount of all meats, fish, shellfish, fowl, and eggs; up to 4 ounces (113 g) of soft or semi-soft cheese; salad vegetables; other low carbohydrate vegetables; and butter and vegetable oils. Drinking eight glasses of water per day is a must during this phase. Alcoholic beverages are not allowed during this [ Acceptable Foods] . Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. Retrieved on September 12, 2007.] Caffeine is allowed in moderation so long as it does not cause cravings or low blood sugar. If a caffeine addiction is evident, it is best to not allow it until later phases of the diet. A daily multivitamin with minerals is also recommended.

The Induction Phase is usually when many see the most significant weight loss — reports of losses of 5 to 10 pounds per week are not uncommon when Induction is combined with daily exercise.

Atkins suggests the use of Ketostix, small chemically reactive strips used by diabetics. These let the dieter monitor when they enter the ketosis, or fat burning, phase. Other indicators of ketosis include a metallic taste in the mouth, or bad breath.

Ongoing weight loss

The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins consists of an increase in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. The target daily carbohydrate intake increases each week by 5 net grams. A goal in OWL is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing" and to learn in a controlled manner how food groups in increasing glycemic levels and foods within that group affect your craving control. The OWL phase lasts until weight is within 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of the target weight.

During the first week, one should add more of the induction acceptable vegetables to his/her daily products. For example, 6-8 stalks of asparagus, salad, one cup of cauliflower or one half of avocado. The next week, one should follow the carbohydrate ladder that Dr Atkins created for this phase and add fresh dairy. The ladder has 9 rungs and should be added in order given. One can skip a rung if one does not intend to include that food group in one's permanent way of eating, such as the alcohol rung.

The rungs are as follows:

* Induction acceptable vegetables
* Fresh dairy
* Nuts
* Berries
* Alcohol
* Legumes
* Other fruits
* Starchy vegetables
* Grains


Carbohydrate intake is increased again this time by 10 net carbs a week from the ladder groupings, and the key goal in this phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance", this is the maximum number of carbohydrates you can eat each day without gaining weight. This may well be above the level of carbohydrates inducing ketosis on a testing stick. As a result, it is not necessary to maintain a positive ketosis test long term.

Lifetime maintenance

This phase is intended to carry on the habits acquired in the previous phases, and avoid the common end-of-diet mindset that can return people to their previous habits and previous weight. Whole, unprocessed food choices are emphasized, with the option to drop back to an earlier phase if you begin to gain weight.


The Atkins Nutritional Approach gained widespread popularity in 2003 and 2004. At the height of its popularity one in eleven North-American adults were on the diet. [ [ Atkins Bankruptcy a Boon for Pasta Makers : NPR ] ] This large following was blamed for large declines in the sales of carbohydrate-heavy foods like pasta and rice (sales were down 8.2 and 4.6 percent, respectively, in 2003 [ [] ] ). The diet's success was even blamed for a decline in Krispy Kreme sales [] . Trying to capitalize on the "low-carb craze," many companies released special product lines that were low in carbohydrates. Coca-Cola released C2 and Pepsi-Cola created Pepsi Edge, which was scheduled to be discontinued later in 2005. Unlike the sugar-free soft drinks Diet Coke and Diet Pepsi, which had been available for decades, these new drinks used a blend of traditional sweetener and the diet drinks' artificial sweeteners to offset the allegedly inferior artificial sweetener flavor. These "half-and-half" drinks declined in popularity as soft drink makers learned to use newer sweeteners to mask the flavor of aspartame (or completely replace it) in reformulated diet drinks such as Coca-Cola Zero and Pepsi ONE.

Low-carbohydrate diets and the societal changes they have caused have been a subject of interest in the news and popular media. Coverage has included among other things a one-hour documentary television special called "The Low Carb Revolution" on Food Network Canada, on April 25, 2004.

In 2003, Robert Atkins died from a fatal head injury sustained in a fall on ice. [" [ Statements on Atkins' death] ", USA Today, 2 Oct. 2004] His untimely death came after a battle with a heart condition, cardiomyopathy, caused by a viral infection, which had caused noticeable weight fluctuation in his final years. This combination of circumstances led to rumors and allegations that Dr. Atkins had died from complications arising from his namesake nutritional plan. However contemporary accounts from his physicians did not substantiate these rumors. [" [ Atkins diet author home after cardiac arrest] ", CNN, 25 April 2002] [" [ Weight-loss doctor dies at 72 from head injuries] ", USA Today, 18 April 2003] [Dolson, Laura: " [ How Did Atkins Die?: The Truth About Atkins' Death] ", Low Carb Diets, 2 October 2007] Nevertheless the reputation of the nutritional plan, and the low-carbohydrate concept in general, suffered.

On July 31, 2005, the Atkins Nutritional company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection after the percentage of adults on the diet declined to two percent and sales of Atkins brand product fell steeply in the second half of 2004. The company continues to operate and the diet plan remains popular although it has never regained its former popularity.

cientific Studies

Because of the substantial controversy regarding the Atkins Diet and even disagreements in interpreting the results of specific studies it is difficult to objectively summarize the research in a way that reflects scientific consensus. [Taubes, Gary: " [ What if It's All Been a Big Fat Lie?] ", New York Times, Friday, February 15, 2008] [Warner, Jennifer: " [ Jury Still Out on Low-Carbohydrate Diets] ",, April 8, 2003] Although there has been some research done throughout the twentieth century,cite journal | author= Lieb, Clarence W. | title=The Effects of an Exclusive Long-Continued Meat Diet | year=1926 | url=] [cite journal | author= Kekwick, A., Pawan, G.L.S. | title=Calorie Intake in Relation to Body-Weight Changes in the Obese | year=1956 | url= | pages=155–161] most directly relevant scientific studies, both those that directly analyze the Atkins Diet and those that analyze similar diets, have occurred in the 1990s and early 2000s and, as such, are relatively new. Researchers and other experts have published articles and studies that run the gamut from promoting the safety and efficacy of the dietcite journal | author=Iris Shai, R.D., Ph.D. | title=Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. | journal=New England Journal of Medicine | year=2008 | month=July | volume=359:229-241 | url=] [cite journal | author=Linda Stern, MD; Nayyar Iqbal, MD; Prakash Seshadri, MD; Kathryn L. Chicano, CRNP; Denise A. Daily, RD; Joyce McGrory, CRNP; Monica Williams, BS; Edward J. Gracely, PhD; and Frederick F. Samaha, MD | title=The Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Conventional Weight Loss Diets in Severely Obese Adults: One-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial | journal=Annals of Internal Medicine | year=2004 | volume=140 | issue=10 | pages= 778–785 | url= | pmid=15148064] to questioning its long-term validity [cite journal | author=Drs Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Angela Harper | title=Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? | journal=Lancet | year=2004 | volume=364(2004):589 | | url=] [cite journal | author= Carol S Johnston, Sherrie L Tjonn, Pamela D Swan, Andrea White, Heather Hutchins and Barry Sears | title=Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets | journal=American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | year=2006 | month=May | volume=83 | url=] to outright condemning it as dangerous. [cite journal | author= C. Tissa Kappagoda, MBBS, PhD, FACC*,*, Dianne A. Hyson, RD, MS, PhD{dagger} and Ezra A. Amsterdam, MD, FACC | title=Low-carbohydrate–high-protein diets: Is there a place for them in clinical cardiology? . | journal=Journal of the American Medical Association | year=2004 | volume=43 | url= | pages=725-730] [Charlotte E. Grayson, M.D., " [|Weight Loss: High Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diets] ", Web MD, retrieved 17 July, 2008] Until recently a significant criticism of the Atkins Diet was that there were no studies that evaluated the effects of Atkins beyond a few months. However, studies are emerging which evaluate low-carbohydrate diets over much longer periods, controlled studies as long as two years and survey studies as long as two decades. [cite journal | author= Thomas L. Halton, Sc. D., Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr. P.H., Simin Liu, M.D., Sc. D., JoAnn E. Manson, M.D., Dr. P.H., Christine M. Albert, M.D., M.P.H., Kathryn Rexrode, M.D., and Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph. D. | title=Low-Carbohydrate-Diet Score and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women | journal=New England Journal of Medicine | year=2006 | volume=355:1991-2002 | url= | pmid=17093250 | doi=10.1056/NEJMoa055317 | pages=1991] [cite journal | author= Christopher D. Gardner, PhD | title=Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women. | journal=Journal of the American Medical Association | year=2007 | month=March | volume=297 No. 9 | url= | pmid=17341711 | doi=10.1001/jama.297.9.969 | pages=969] [cite journal | author= Jørgen Vesti Nielsen and Eva Joensson | title=Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up | journal=Nutrition and Metabolism | year=2006 | month=June | volume=3:22 | doi=10.1186/1743-7075-3-22 | url=]

In addition to research on the efficacy of Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets some research has directly addressed other areas of health affected by low-carbohydrate diets. For example, contrary to popular belief that low-carbohydrate diets damage the heart, one study found that women eating low-carbohydrate, high-fat/protein diets had the same or slightly less risk of coronary heart disease, compared to women eating high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets. [cite journal | author= Thomas L. Halton, Sc. D., Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr. P.H., Simin Liu, M.D., Sc. D., JoAnn E. Manson, M.D., Dr. P.H., Christine M. Albert, M.D., M.P.H., Kathryn Rexrode, M.D., and Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph. D. | title=Low-carbohydrate diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women | journal=New England Journal of Medicine | year=2006 | volume=355:1991-2002 | pmid = 17093250 ] Other studies have found possible benefits to individuals with diabetes, [cite journal | pmid = 16318637 | doi = 10.1186/1743-7075-2-34 | last = Yancy | first = W.S. | coauthors = Foy M, Chalecki AM, Vernon MC, Westman EC. | year = 2005 | title = A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes | journal = Nutrition & Metabolism | volume = 1 | pages = 34 | issue = 2 | url = ] cancer, [cite journal | last = Bravi | first = F. | coauthors = Bosetti C, Scotti L, Talamini R, Montella M, Ramazzotti V, Negri E, Franceschi S, & La Vecchia C | journal = International Journal of Cancer | year = 2007 | volume = 120 | issue = 3 | pages = 681-5 | pmid = 17058282 | title = Food groups and renal cell carcinoma: A case-control study from Italy ] [Sun Ha Jee, PhD, MHS; Heechoul Ohrr, MD, PhD; Jae Woong Sull, PhD, MHS; Ji Eun Yun, MPH; Min Ji, MPH; Jonathan M. Samet, MD, MS: Fasting Serum Glucose Level and Cancer Risk in Korean Men and Women, Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 293 No. 2, Jan. 12, 2005.] and epilepsy. [ Johns Hopkins Epilepsy Center. "The Ketogenic Diet"] ] [Freeman, John M.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.: " [ The Ketogenic Diet: One Decade Later] ", PEDIATRICS, Vol. 119 No. 3 March 2007, pp. 535-543] Nevertheless some studies demonstrate potentially harmful effects of certain types of low-carbohydrate diets including various metabolic and emotional side-effects. [cite journal | author= Carol S Johnston, Sherrie L Tjonn, Pamela D Swan, Andrea White, Heather Hutchins and Barry Sears | title=Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets | journal=American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | year=2006 | month=May | volume=83 | url= | pmid=16685046]

Medical consensus on Atkins remains elusive and the research is still strongly debated.


An analysis conducted by Forbes magazine found that the boxed retail Atkins Nutritional Approach food product is one of the top five in the expense category of ten plans "Forbes" analyzed. The analysis showed the median average of the ten diets was approximately 50% higher, and Atkins 80% higher, than the American national average. Atkins was less expensive than Jenny Craig and more expensive than Weight Watchers. [ [ Costly Calories] ""]

Low-carbohydrate diets have been the subject of heated debate in medical circles for three decades. They are still controversial and only recently has any serious research supported some aspects of Atkins' claims, especially for short-term weight-loss (6 months or less).

But many in the scientific community also raise serious concerns:

*Dr. Robert Eckel of the American Heart Association says that high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets put people at risk of heart disease [] ; A long term study published in the "New England Journal of Medicine" in 2006 found that women reduced heart disease risk by eating more protein and fat from vegetable sources. [ (November 8, 2006), [ Carbs may be worse for heart than fatty foods: Long-term study eases concerns about risk of Atkins, other low-carb diets] .]

* A 2001 scientific review conducted by Freedman "et al". and published in the peer reviewed scientific journal "Obesity Research" concluded that low-carb dieters' initial advantage in weight loss was a result of increased water loss, and that after the initial period, low-carbohydrate diets produce similar fat loss to other diets with similar caloric intake. [Freedman MR, King J, and Kennedy E (2001), [ Popular Diets: a Scientific Review] "Obesity Research", Volume 9, Supplement 1, Pages 5S-17S. Retrieved on September 12, 2007.]

* The May 2004 "Annals of Internal Medicine" study showed that "minor adverse effects" of diarrhea, general weakness, rashes and muscle cramps "were more frequent in the low-carbohydrate diet group".

* Concerns have been raised regarding consumption of high levels of protein, especially in individuals with medical conditions that make them susceptible.

Opponents of the diet also point out that the initial weight loss upon starting the diet is a phenomenon common with most diets, and is due to reduction in stored glycogen and related water in muscles, not fat loss. They claim that no evidence has surfaced that any diet will cause weight loss unless it reduces food energy (calories) below the maintenance level and that weight loss from the Atkins diet may be the result of less food energy being consumed by the dieter, rather than the lack of carbohydrates. [BBC (January 21, 2004), [ Uncovering the Atkins diet secret] . "BBC News". Retrieved on September 12, 2007.] They further point out that weight loss on fad diets, which typically restrict or prohibit certain foods, is often because the dieter has fewer food choices available.

Misconceptions about the diet

Many people incorrectly believe that the Atkins Diet promotes eating unlimited amounts of fatty meats and cheeses. This is a key point of clarification that Dr. Atkins addressed in the more recent revisions of his book. Although the Atkins Diet does not impose limits on certain foods, or caloric restriction in general, Dr. Atkins points out in his book that this plan is "not a license to gorge." The director of research and education for Atkins Nutritionals, Collette Heimowitz, has said, "The media and opponents of Atkins often sensationalise and simplify the diet as the all-the-steak-you-can-eat diet. This has never been true."

Another common misconception arises from confusion between the Induction Phase and rest of the diet. The first two weeks of the Atkins Diet are strict, with only 20g of carbohydrates permitted per day. Atkins states that a dieter can safely stay at the Induction Phase for several months if the person has a lot of weight to lose.cite book | last = Atkins | first = Robert | authorlink = Robert Atkins | coauthors = | title = Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, Revised Edition | publisher = .Evans | date = 2003-09-25 | location = | pages = 119-120 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 978-1590770023 ] Once the weight-loss goal is reached, carbohydrate levels are raised gradually, though still significantly below USDA norms, and still within or slightly above the definition of ketosis.

The Induction Phase is also known for its comparatively lower intake of dietary fiber, and this is often misconstrued as characteristic of the diet as a whole.Fact|date=September 2008 In fact fiber supplements, such as psyllium seed husks, are recommended for the early stages. It is often misstatedFact|date=September 2008Who|date=September 2008 that those on the diet do not consume enough vegetables and fruits. However those who follow it properly should not face this problem as even the Induction Phase allows for adequate amounts of dark green leaf vegetables. If using the 2003 edition of DANDR in the British version which uses actual weights rather than the US cups, by selecting carefully from the allowed salad and vegetable lists the daily allowance for the third week of the diet could be as much as 24 ounces which could still be only half the carbohydrate allowance of someone in the third stage of the diet and who would still be losing weight slowly. A personal daily allowance of 60 gm of carbohydrates is not unusual during weightloss, and although that is not a large amount if taken in non Atkins foods such as bread, apples or potatoes, if foods of lower glycaemic index are chosen the actual volume is quite considerable. It is often necessary to include a small amount of fruit to reduce the bulk.Fact|date=September 2008

Atkins Nutritionals

Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. (ANI) was founded in 1989 by Dr. Robert Atkins to promote the diet and sell Atkins-branded products. Following his death, waning popularity of the diet and a reduction in demand for Atkins products, Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on July 31 2005 citing losses of $340 million. [ [ Atkins Nutritionals files for bankruptcy - AP 1 August 2005] .] The company emerged from bankruptcy on January 10, 2006, introducing "a new business strategy that focuses on providing great-tasting portable foods with a unique nutrition advantage to healthy, active men and women." [ [ ATKINS NUTRITIONALS, INC. EMERGES FROM BANKRUPTCY - Company press release] ] Although the marketing focus has changed, the products are still low-carb. It is also stated on the packages the stage of the Atkins Nutritional Approach where they may be used.


*Robert C. Atkins (2004) Atkins for Life: The Complete Controlled Carb Program for Permanent Weight Loss and Good Health, 370pp, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-641-67892-4
*Robert C. Atkins (2001) Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution book, 560 pp, Avon Books; Revised ed., ISBN 0-06-001203-X, ISBN 0-09-188948-0
*Robert C. Atkins (2000) Dr. Atkins' Age-Defying Diet Revolution: A Powerful New Dietary Defense Against Aging, Saint Martin's Press, LLC, ISBN 9780312251895
*Robert C. Atkins (1999) Dr. Atkins' Vita-Nutrient Solution: Nature's Answer to Drugs, 416 pp, Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), ISBN 0-684-84488-5.

See also

* Diet
* Dieting
* Low-carb tortilla
* Low-carbohydrate diet
* Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets


External links

* [ Official Atkins Corporate Site]
* [ Atkins Diet] at the Open Directory Project
* [ "New England Journal of Medicine": (vol 348, p 2082)] A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity.
* [ "New England Journal of Medicine": (vol 359, p 229)] Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet (July 17, 2008)
* [ Glycemic Index Updates] Glycemic Index Updates

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