- English Restoration
The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the
English monarchy, Scottish monarchyand Irish monarchywere restored under Charles IIafter the Interregnum that followed the English Civil War. The term "Restoration" may apply both to the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and to the period immediately following the event. The Protectorate, which had preceded the Restoration and followed the Commonwealth, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, who was made Lord Protectoron his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was that he did not have the confidence of the army. After seven months the army removed him and on 6 May 1659 it reinstalled the Rump Parliament. Charles Fleetwoodwas appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, and one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659 he was nominated lord-general (commander-in-chief) of the army. However, his power was undermined in Parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the post-First Civil War Parliament. The Commons on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, and installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the Speaker of the House of Commons. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Fleetwood and Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general. Lambert was now sent, by the Committee of Safety, with a large force to meet George Monck, who was in command of the English forces in Scotland, and either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms.
It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, and he returned to London almost alone. Monck marched to London unopposed. The Presbyterian members, excluded in
Pride's Purgeof 1648, were recalled and on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. Lambert was sent to the Tower of Londonon 3 March 1660, from which he escaped a month later. Lambert tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the " Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill. But he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a participant in the regicideof Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Drake's Islandin 1684; Ingoldsby was pardoned.
Restoration of Charles II
On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the
Declaration of Breda, which made known the conditions of his acceptance of the crown of England. Monck organised the Convention Parliament, which met for the first time on 25 April. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I in January 1649. [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=26183#s2 House of Commons Journal Volume 8, 8 May 1660] ] Charles returned from exile, leaving The Hagueon 23 May and landing at Doveron 25 May. [http://www.pepysdiary.com/archive/1661/04/23/index.php Pepys Diary 23 April 1661] .] He entered Londonon 29 May, his birthday. To celebrate "his Majesty's Return to his Parliament" 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day. [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=26202#s3 House of Commons Journal Volume 8, 30 May 1660] ] He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661.
Cavalier Parliamentconvened for the first time on 8 May 1661, and it would endure for over 17 years until its dissolution on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and is also known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.
Many Royalist exiles returned and were rewarded.
Prince Rupert of the Rhinereturned to the service of England, became a member of the privy council, and was provided with an annuity. George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. Marmaduke Langdalereturned and was made " Baron Langdale." William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, returned and was able to regain the greater part of his estates, was invested in 1661 with the Order of the Garter(which had been bestowed upon him in 1650), and was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665.
Regicides and rebels
Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but specifically excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the fifty-nine Commissioners who had signed the death warrant were living.
In the ensuing trials, twelve were condemned to death, the full penalty for
Fifth Monarchy Men. Thomas Harrison was the first person found guilty of the regicide, the seventeenth of fifty-nine commissioners (Judges) to sign the death warrant in 1649. He was the first regicide to be hanged, drawn and quarteredbecause he was considered by the new government to still represent a real threat to the re-established order.
In October 1660, at
Charing Crossor Tyburn, London, ten were publicly hanged, drawn and quartered: Thomas Harrison, John Jones, Adrian Scroope, John Carew, Thomas Scot, and Gregory Clement, who had signed the King's death warrant; the preacher Hugh Peters; Francis Hackerand Daniel Axtel, who commanded the guards at the King's trial and execution; and John Cooke, the solicitor who directed the prosecution.
On 6 January 1661, 50 Fifth Monarchy Men, headed by a wine-cooper named
Thomas Venner, made an effort to attain possession of London in the name of "King Jesus." Most of the 50 were either killed or taken prisoner, and on 19 January and 21, Venner and 10 others were hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason. John Okey, one of the regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles I, was brought back from Holland along with Miles Corbet, friend and lawyer to Cromwell and John Barkstead, former constable of the Tower of London. They were all imprisoned in the Tower. From there they were taken to Tyburn to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. A further 19 were imprisoned for life. Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, Judge Thomas Pride, and Judge John Bradshawwere posthumously attainted for high treason. Because Parliament is a court, and the highest in the land, a bill of attainder is a legislative act declaring a person guilty of treason or felony rather than using a regular judicial process of trial and conviction. In January 1661, the corpses of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw were exhumed and hung in chains at Tyburn.
Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, Puritanism lost its momentum, and the bawdy ' Restoration comedy' became a recognizable genre. In addition, women were allowed to perform on stage for the first time.
To celebrate the occasion & cement their diplomatic relations, the Dutch Republic presented Charles with the
Dutch Gift, a fine collection of old master paintings, classical sculptures, furniture, and a yacht.
The republican new nobility
The Commonwealth's written constitutions gave to the Lord Protector the King's power to grant titles of honour. Cromwell created over thirty new
knights. These were all declared invalid upon the Restoration of Charles II. Many were regranted by the restored King, but being non-hereditary, these titles have long since become extinct.
Of the twelve Cromwellian
baronetcies, Charles II regranted half of them. Only two now continue: Sir George Howland Francis Beaumont, 12th baronet, and Sir Richard Thomas Williams-Bulkeley, 14th baronet, are the direct successors of Sir Thomas Beaumont and Sir Griffith Williams.
Edmund Dunch was created
BaronBurnell of East Wittenham in April 1658, but it was not regranted. The male line failed in 1719 with the death of his grandson, also Edmund Dunch, so no one can lay claim to the title.
The one hereditary
viscountcy Cromwell created (making Charles Howard Viscount Howard of Morpeth and Baron Gilsland) continues to this day. In April 1661 Howard was created Earl of Carlisle, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, and Baron Dacre of Gillesland. The present Earl is a direct descendant of this Cromwellian creation and Restoration recreation.
Notes and references
*"Restoration", the film of
Rose Tremain's novel
Samuel Pepys, whose diary is one of the primary historical sources for this period
17th century Britain
* [http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8704 Review of 'Revolution and Counter-Revolution in England, Ireland and Scotland 1658-60', by Brian Manning]
* [http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/cmh/cmh505.html Chapter V. The Stewart] [http://www.historyonthenet.com/civil_war/civilwarmain.htm Restoration] By Sir
Charles Harding Firth
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