Entomology (from Greek _gr. ἔντομος, "entomos", "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented", hence "insect"; and _gr. -λογία, "-logia"cite book | author = Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott | year = 1980 | title =
A Greek-English Lexicon(Abridged Edition) | publisher = Oxford University Press| location = United Kingdom | id = ISBN 0-19-910207-4] ) is the scientific study of insects. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than 2/3rds of all known organisms,cite book |author=Chapman, A. D. |year=2006 |title=Numbers of living species in Australia and the World |pages=60pp |Publisher=Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study|id=ISBN 978-0-642-56850-2 |url=http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/publications/other/species-numbers/index.html] dating back some 400 million years, and have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth, so it is an important specialty within biology. Though technically incorrect, the definition is sometimes widened to include the study of terrestrial animalsin other arthropodgroups or other phyla, such as arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, and slugs.
Like several of the other fields that are categorized within
zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category; any form of scientific study in which the organisms studied happen to be insects is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore includes a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, systematics, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology, paleontology, anthropology, robotics, agriculture, nutrition, and more.
History of entomology
Entomology is rooted in nearly all human
cultures from prehistorictimes, primarily in the context of agriculture(esp. biological controland beekeeping), but scientificstudy began only as recently as the 16th century [Antonio Saltini, "Storia delle scienze agrarie", 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2414-X] .
list of entomologiststhrough recorded history is enormous, and includes such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch(winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine), and two-time Pulitzer Prizewinner E. O. Wilson.
Entomology has even entered popular modern culture.
Gil Grissomon the TV show is an entomologist, who is played by actor William Petersen. Similarly, Dr. Jack Hodginsof " Bones" helps his team by analyzing insects and "particulates" near to or attached to decomposed victims, often identifying the precise location a murder originally occurred; he allegedly has three Ph.D.'s, at least one of which is in entomology.
Identification of insects
Insects other than
Lepidoptera( butterfliesand moths) are typically identifiable only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs. Because the class Insectacontains a very large number of species (over 330,000 speciesof beetlesalone) and the characters separating them are unfamiliar, and often subtle (or invisible without a microscope), this is often very difficult even for a specialist.
Many entomologists specialize in a single order or even a family of insects, and a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names, typically (but not always) derived from the scientific name of the group:
Apiology(or melittology) - bees
*Hemipterology - true bugs
moths and butterflies
Orthopterology- grasshoppers, crickets, etc.
Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local, national, and international organizations. There are also many organizations specializing in specific subareas.
Amateur Entomologists' Society
Deutsches Entomologisches Institut
Entomological Society of America
Entomological Society of Canada
Royal Belgian Entomological Society
Royal Entomological Society of London
Société Entomologique de France
Netherlands Entomological Society
Entomological Society of Japan
Many museums contain very large and important insect collections. Here is a list of some of the most important.
*Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa [http://www.nmsa.org.za]
*Natural History Museum, Vienna
*Natural History Museum, Paris
Muséum national d'histoire naturelle
*Natural History Museum, Berlin
*Natural History Museum, London
Natural History Museum
*Royal Museum for Central Africa, Brussels
Royal Museum for Central Africa
*Natural History Museum, Leiden
Natural History Museum, Leiden
*Natural History Museum, Sweden
Swedish Museum of Natural History
*Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg
Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science
*Natural History Museum, Geneva [http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/mhng/page-e/arto.htm]
*The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology
Zoologische Staatssammlung München
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC
American Museum of Natural History, New York
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Lawrence, KS
University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, NE
Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA
* McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity,
University of Florida
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa
Montreal Insectarium, Montreal
*University of Guelph Insect Collection,
University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario
*Lyman Entomological Museum,
McGill University, Montreal
*Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes,
*E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum,
List of entomologists
List of entomological journals
Insects on stamps
For further reading
*Chiang, H.C. and G. C. Jahn 1996. Entomology in the Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project. (in Chinese) Chinese Entomol. Soc. Newsltr. (Taiwan) 3: 9-11.
*Davidson, E. 2006. Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How Discoveries of Invertebrate Diseases Are Advancing Modern Science University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 208 pages, ISBN 0-8165-2544-7.
*Triplehorn, Charles A. and Norman F. Johnson (2005-05-19). Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects, 7th edition, Thomas Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-03-096835-6. — a classic textbook in North America.
*cite book|author=Grimaldi, D. & Engel, M.S. |title=Evolution of the Insects|year=2005|publisher=
Cambridge University Press|id=ISBN 0-521-82149-5
*Capinera, JL (editor). 2008. Encyclopedia of Entomology, 2nd Edition. Springer. ISBN 1-402-06242-7.
*cite web| url=http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/87| author=Professor Andrew Speilman| title=Malaria video| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/52| author=Rob Hutchinson | title=Mosquitoes video| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://www.uvm.edu/~entlab| title=Entomology Laboratory| author=University of Vermont| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://www.ent.iastate.edu/list/| title=Annotated Entomology directory| author=Iowa State University| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://www.ub.es/dpep/meganeura/meganeura.htm| title=Fossil Insects| author=Meganeura, University of Barcelona| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://www.goliathus.cz/| title=Goliathus (Entomology hobbyist site)| author=| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://parasite.natur.cuni.cz/jirovec/index.php?category=11| title=Medical Entomology images| author=| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://www-museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/index.htm| title=Division of Entomology| author=University of Nebraska State Museum| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://gvcocks.homeip.net/orders.html| title=Insects of Townsville, Australia| author=Graeme Cocks| accessdate=2006-12-09
*cite web| url=http://www.actroninc.com/flyref.htm| title=Compendium of References on Flies and Disease| author=Actronic| accessdate=2006-12-09
* [http://www.ars.usda.gov/Main/site_main.htm?docid=10141&page=1 USDA Collecting methods.Detailed instructions]
* [http://arthropa.free.fr/ Arthropa] Site from France.Extensive photo album sorted by topic.
* [http://entweb.clemson.edu/museum/cabinet.htm Virtual Insect Museum]
* [http://pests.ifas.ufl.edu/bestbugs/ Best of the Bugs] Great entomology Web sites selected by entomologists
* [http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/ Department of Entomology and Nematology] at the
University of Florida
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.