Mammals of Borneo

Mammals of Borneo

The mammal species of Borneo include 288 species of terrestrial and 91 species of marine mammals recorded within the territorial boundaries of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. The terrestrial mammals are dominated by the chiroptera (102 species of bats) and rodents (61 species of rats and mice).



The high diversity and endemicity of mammals is related to the many niches found in the tropical rain forest of Borneo and past Pleistocene events within the Sundaland region. During interglacial and post-glacial periods, there was migration of animal from the Asian mainland into Borneo and into Sulawesi via the Philippines. Due to lack of favourable habitats and small founder population, some species of animals have become extinct and others have radiated into endemic species. For example, in Holocene times, ancient anteater (Manis palaeojavanica), panther (Panthera sp) and tapir (Tapirus indicus) became locally extinct in Borneo. Of the 57 mammal species that were identified from archaeological remains in the Niah Caves, Sarawak, 13 were bats. Four of these were megachiropterans, Pteropus vampyrus, Rousettus amplexicaudatus, Rousettus sp and Eonycteris spelaea, all of which remain extant species in Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia. The provisional list of mammals of Borneo (sensu Lord Medway, Payne et al., Corbet and Hill, Koopman, and Wilson and Reeder) are listed in the table below. There are various conflicts in the taxonomic lists by previous authors which need further field research for validation.

Taxonomic list

The following list gives the scientific name followed by the common names, description, ecology, conservation and distribution information.

Order: Erinaceomorpha

  • Echinosorex gymnura: Moonrat. Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan.
  • Hylomys suillus: Lesser gymnure. China, Myanmar, Indochina, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak.

Order: Soricomorpha

  • Suncus murinus: House shrew. Africa, Asia, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan.
  • Suncus ater: Black shrew. Endemic to Borneo; known only from Gunong Kinabalu
  • Suncus etruscus: Savi's pigmy shrew. Europe, Africa, Asia; Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak.
  • Crocidura monticola: Sunda shrew. Java, Lombok, Sumba and Flores; Malay Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan.
  • Crocidura fuliginosa: South-east Asia white-toothed shrew. India, Indochina, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan.
  • Chimarrogale himalayica: Himalayan water shrew. Himalaya, south China, Southeast Asia, Japan, Sumatra and Sabah.

Order: Scandentia

  • Ptilocercus lowii Pentail treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia glis Common treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia splendidula Ruddy treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia montana Mountain tree shrew. Local name is tupai gunung CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia minor Lesser treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia gracilis Slender treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia picta Painted treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia dorsalis Striped treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Tupaia tana Large treeshrew. CITES Appendix II
  • Dendrogale melanura Smooth-tailed treeshrew. CITES Appendix II

Order: Dermoptera

  • Galeopterus variegatus Flying lemur

Order: Chiroptera

  • Rousettus amplexicaudatus Geoffroy's rousette
  • Rousettus spinalatus Bare-backed rousette
  • Pteropus vampyrus Large flying fox
  • Pteropus hypomelanus Island flying fox
Large-sized Cynopterus brachyotis
  • Cynopterus brachyotis form I: Short-nosed fruit bat; large-sized, in open habitats; form II: Short-nosed fruit bat; small-sized, in closed forest .
  • Cynopterus brachyotis
  • Cynopterus sphinx Greater short-nosed fruit bat. Known to Kalimantan
  • Cynopterus horsfieldi Horsfield's fruit bat
  • Penthetor lucasi Dusky fruit bat
  • Megaerops ecaudatus Tailess fruit bat
  • Megaerops wetmorei White-collared fruit bat
  • Dyacopterus spadiceus Dayak fruit bat
  • Chironax melanocephalus Black-capped fruit bat
  • Balionycteris maculata Spotted-winged fruit bat
  • Aethalops aequalis Grey fruit bat
  • Eonycteris spelaea Cave nectar bat
  • Eonycteris major Greater nectar bat
  • Macroglossus minimus Long-tongued nectar bat
  • Emballonura alecto Greater sheath-tailed bat
  • Emballonura monticola Lesser sheath-tailed bat
  • Saccolaimus saccolaimus Pouched tomb bat
  • Taphozous melanopogon Black-bearded tomb bat
  • Taphozous longimanus Long-winged tomb bat
  • Megaderma spasma Lesser false vampire
  • Nycteris tragata Hollow-faced bat
  • Rhinolophus borneensis Bornean horseshoe bat
  • Rhinolophus pusillus Least horseshoe
  • Rhinolophus arcuatus Arcuatus horseshoe bat
Rhinolophus arcuatus is rare in Borneo
  • Rhinolophus acuminatus Acuminate horseshoe bat
  • Rhinolophus affinis Intermediate horseshoe bat
  • Rhinolophus creaghi Creagh's horseshoe bat
  • Rhinolophus philippinensis Philippine horseshoe bat
  • Rhinolophus trifoliatus Trefoil horseshoe bat
  • Rhinolophus sedulus Lesser wolly horseshoe bat
  • Hipposideros ater Dusky roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros bicolor Bicolor roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros cineraceus Ashy roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros dyacorum Dayak Roundleaf Bat
  • Hipposideros doriae Least roundleaf
Hipposideros ridleyi, also known as Ridley's roundleaf


  • Hipposideros ridleyi Ridley's roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros cervinus Fawn roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros galeritus Cantor's roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros coxi Cox's roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros larvatus Intermediate roundleaf bat
  • Hipposideros diadema Diadem roundleaf bat
  • Coelops robinsoni Lesser tailess roundleaf bat
  • Myotis muricola Whiskered myotis
  • Myotis ater Black myotis
  • Myotis montivagus Large brown myotis
  • Myotis siligorensis Small-toothed myotis
  • Myotis ridleyi Ridley's myotis
  • Myotis horsfieldii Horsfield's myotis
  • Myotis hasseltii Hasselt's large-footed myotis
  • Myotis adversus Grey large-footed myotis
  • Myotis macrotarsus Pallid large-footed myotis
  • Pipistrellus javanicus Javan pistrelle
  • Pipistrellus tenuis Least pipistrelle
  • Pipistrellus ceylonicus Dark brown pipistrelle
  • Hypsugo kitcheneri Red-brown pipistrelle
  • Falsistrellus petersi Wooly pipistrelle
  • Arielulus cuprosus Coppery pipistrelle
  • Hypsugo imbricatus
  • Hypsugo macrotis
  • Pipistrellus vordermanni White-winged pipistrelle
  • Glischropus tylopus Thick-thumb pipistrelle
  • Philetor brachypterus Narrow-winged brown bat
  • Hesperoptenus doriae False serotine
  • Hesperoptenus blanfordi Least false serotine
  • Hesperoptenus tomesi Tomes' false serotine
  • Tylonycteris robustula Greater bamboo bat
  • Tylonycteris pachypus Lesser bamboo bat
  • Scotophilus kuhlii Yellow house bat
  • Murina cyclotis Orange tube-nosed bat
  • Murina aenea Bronzed tube-nosed bat
  • Murina rozendaali Gilded tube-nosed bat
  • Murina suilla Lesser tube-nosed bat
  • Harpiocephalus harpia Hairy-winged bat
  • Kerivoula papillosa Papillose wooly bat
  • Kerivoula hardwickii Hardwicke's wooly bat
  • Kerivoula pellucida Clear-winged wooly bat
  • Kerivoula intermedia Small woolly bat
  • Kerivoula minuta Least wooly bat
  • Kerivoula whiteheadi Whitehead's woolly bat
  • Kerivoula lenis
  • Phoniscus jagorii Frosted groove-toothed bat
  • Phoniscus atrox Gilded groove-thoothed bat
  • Miniopterus magnater Large bent-winged bat
  • Miniopterus schreibersi Common bent-winged bat
  • Miniopterus pusillus Small bent-winged bat
  • Miniopterus medius Medium bent-winged bat
  • Miniopterus australis Lesser bent-winged bat
  • Cheiromeles torquatus Naked bat
  • Mops mops Free-tailed bat
  • Chaerephon plicata Wrinkle-lipped bat

Order: Primates

Tarsius bancanus in Sarawak is a protected species
  • Nycticebus coucang Slow loris
  • Tarsius bancanus Western tarsier common name : Kera hantu
  • Presbytis melalophos Banded langur
  • Presbytis hosei Hose's langur
  • Presbytis rubicunda Maroon langur
  • Presbytis chrysomelas Sarawak surili
  • Presbytis frontata White-fronted langur
  • Trachypithecus cristatus Silvered langur
  • Nasalis larvatus Proboscis monkey
  • Macaca fascicularis Long-tailed macaque. This species is arboreal.
  • Macaca nemestrina Pig-tailed macaque
  • Hylobates muelleri Müller's Bornean gibbon
  • Hylobates albibarbis Bornean white-bearded gibbon
  • Pongo pygmaeus Orangutan .

Order: Pholidota

  • Manis javanica Pangolin

Order: Rodentia

  • Ratufa affinis Giant squirrel
  • Callosciurus prevostii Prevost's squirrel
  • Callosciurus baluensis Kinabalu squirrel
  • Callosciurus notatus Plantain squirrel
  • Callosciurus adamsi Ear-spot squirrel
  • Callosciurus orestes Bornean black-banded squirrel
  • Sundasciurus hippurus Horse-tailed squirrel
  • Sundasciurus lowii Low's squirrel
  • Sundasciurus tenuis Slender squirrel
  • Sundasciurus jentinki Jentink's squirrel
  • Sundasciurus brookei Brooke's squirrel
  • Glyphotes simus Red-bellied sculptor squirrel
  • Lariscus insignis Three-striped ground squirrel
  • Lariscus hosei Four-striped ground squirrel
  • Dremomys everetti Bornean mountain ground squirrel
  • Rhinosciurus laticaudatus Shrew-faced ground squirrel
  • Nannosciurus melanotis Black-eared pigmy squirrel
  • Exilisciurus exilis Plain pigmy squirrel
  • Exilisciurus whiteheadi Whitehead's pigmy squirrel
  • Rheithrosciurus macrotis Tufted ground squirrel
  • Petaurillus hosei Hose's pigmy flying squirrel
  • Petaurillus emiliae Lesser pigmy flying squirrel
  • Iomys horsfieldii Horsfield's flying squirrel
  • Aeromys tephromelas Black flying squirrel
  • Aeromys thomasi Thomas's flying squirrel
  • Petinomys hageni Hagen's flying squirrel
  • Petinomys genibarbis Whiskered flying squirrel
  • Petinomys setosus Temminck's flying squirrel
  • Petinomys vordermanni Vordermann's flying squirrel
  • Hylopetes lepidus Grey-cheeked flying squirrel
  • Hylopetes spadiceus Red-cheeked flying squirrel
  • Pteromyscus pulverulentus Smoky flying squirrel
  • Petaurista petaurista Red giant flying squirrel
  • Petaurista elegans Spotted giant flying squirrel
  • Rattus rattus House rat
  • Rattus tiomanicus Malaysian field rat
  • Rattus argentiventer Ricefield rat
  • Rattus baluensis Summit rat
  • Rattus exulans Polynesia rat
  • Rattus norvegicus Norway rat
  • Sundamys muelleri Muller's rat
  • Sundamys infraluteus Mountain giant rat
Niviventer cremoriventer in Borneo
  • Niviventer cremoriventer Dark-tailed rat
  • Niviventer rapit Long-tailed mountain rat
  • Maxomys rajah Brown spiny rat
Maxomys surifer
  • Maxomys surifer Red spiny rat
  • Maxomys alticola Mountain spiny rat
  • Maxomys ochraceiventer Chestnut-bellied spiny rat
  • Maxomys baeodon Small spiny rat
  • Maxomys whiteheadi Whitehead's rat
  • Leopoldamys sabanus Long-tailed giant rat
  • Lenothrix canusGrey tree rat
  • Mus castaneus Asian house rat
  • Mus caroli Ricefield mouse
  • Chiropodomys gliroides Common pencil-tailed tree-mouse
  • Chiropodomys major Large pencil-tailed tree-mouse
  • Chiropodomys muroides Grey-bellied pencil-tailed tree-mouse
  • Haeromys margarettae Ranee mouse
  • Trichys fasciculata Long-tailed porcupine
  • Hystrix brachyura Common porcupine
  • Thecurus crassispinis Thick-spined porcupine

Order: Cetacea

  • Balaenoptera musculus Blue whale
  • Balaenoptera physalus Fin whale
  • Balaenoptera borealis Sei whale
  • Balaenoptera edeni Bryde's whale
  • Balaenoptera acutorostrata Minke whale
  • Megaptera novaeangliae Humpback whale
  • Physeter macrocephalus Sperm whale
  • Kogia breviceps Pigmy sperm whale
  • Kogia simus Dwarf sperm whale
  • Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier's beak whale
  • Mesoplodon sp Beaked whale
  • Orcaella brevirostris Irrawaddy dolphin
  • Peponocephala electra Melon-headed whale
  • Feresa attenuata Pigmy killer whale
  • Pseudorca crassidens False killer whale
  • Orcinus orca Killer whale
  • Globicephala macrorhynchus Short-finned pilot whale
  • Steno bredanensis Rough-toothed dolphin
  • Sousa chinensis Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin
  • Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser's dolphin
  • Delphinus delphis Common dolphin
  • Tursiops truncatus Bottlenose dolphin
  • Grampus griseus Risso's dolphin
  • Stenella attenuata Spotted dolphin
  • Stenella coeruleoalba Striped dolphin
  • Stenella longirostris Long-snouted spinner dolphin
  • Neophocaena phocaenoides Finless porpoise

Order: Carnivora

  • Canis familiaris Domestic dog
  • Helarctos malayanus Sun bear
  • Martes flavigula Yellow-throated marten
  • Mustela nudipes Malay weasel
  • Melogale personata Ferret-badger
  • Mydaus javanensis Malaya badger
  • Lutra sumatrana Hairy-nosed otter
  • Lutra lutra Eurasian otter
  • Lutrogale perspicillata Smooth-coated otter
  • Amblonyx cinerea Oriental small-clawed otter
  • Viverra tangalunga Malay civet. Local name for Malay civet is musang
  • Prionodon linsang Banded linsang
  • Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Common palm civet
  • Paguma larvata Masked palm civet
  • Arctictis binturong Bearcat
  • Arctogalidia trivirgata Small-toothed palm civet
  • Hemigalus derbyanus Banded palm civet
  • Diplogale hosei Hose's civet
  • Cynogale bennettii Otter-civet
  • Herpestes brachyurus Short-tailed mongoose
  • Herpestes hosei Hose's mongoose
  • Herpestes semitorquatus Collared mongoose
  • Neofelis diardi Sunda Clouded Leopard
  • Pardofelis marmorata Marbled cat
  • Catopuma badia Bay cat
  • Prionailurus planiceps Flat-headed cat
  • Prionailurus bengalensis Leopard cat
  • Felis sylvestris catus Domestic cat

Order: Sirenia

  • Dugong dugon Dugong

Order: Proboscidea

  • Elephas maximus borneensis Borneo Elephant

Order: Perissodactyla

  • Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Sumatran rhinoceros. Extinct in Brunei, probably extinct in Sarawak and Kalimantan. Found only in eastern Sabah.[1]

Order: Artiodactyla

  • Sus barbatus Bearded pig
  • Sus scrofa domesticus Domestic pig
  • Tragulus javanicus Lesser mouse-deer
  • Tragulus napu Greater mouse-deer
  • Muntiacus muntjak Red muntjac
  • Muntiacus atherodes Bornean yellow muntjac
  • Rusa unicolor Sambar deer
  • Rusa timorensis Javan rusa
  • Bos javanicus Banteng or tembadau. Present in Kalimantan, Sabah, and possibly Sarawak; believed extinct in Brunei.[2]
  • Bos indicus Domestic humped cattle
  • Bubalus bubalis Domestic water buffalo
  • Capra aegagrus hircus Domestic goat

See also


  1. ^ van Strien, N.J., Manullang, B., Sectionov, Isnan, W., Khan, M.K.M, Sumardja, E., Ellis, S., Han, K.H., Boeadi, Payne, J. & Bradley Martin, E. (2008). "Dicerorhinus sumatrensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  2. ^ Timmins, R.J., Duckworth, J.W., Hedges, S., Steinmetz, R. & Pattanavibool, A. (2008). Bos javanicus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 19 April 2011. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of endangered.

Further reading

  • Abdullah, MT., Wong, S.F., Besar Ketol. 2010. Catalogue of mammals of UNIMAS Zoological Museum, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak Publication, Kota Samarahan. ISBN 978-967-5527-02-9.
  • Abdullah, MT. 2007. Mammals of Borneo online. Prospect Malaysia 2: 84-85.
  • Abdullah, MT, et al. 2007. Studies on Zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases in Borneo. Research proposal, UNIMAS.
  • Abdullah MT, Rahman MA, Hall LS. 1996. New records for bats in Sarawak, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 50:365-367.
  • Abdullah MT, Siswanto H, Widiyanto A, Setiabudi A, Firmansyah. 1997. Abdundance, diversity and distributional records of bats in disturbed habitats in Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. Sarawak Museum Journal 72:75-84.
  • Abdullah MT, Moritz C, Grigg GC., Hall LS. 2000. Evidence of cryptic species within Cynopterus brachyotis by using mtDNA sequence. In Yaacob Z, Moo-Tan S, Yorath S (eds) In situ and ex situ Biodiversity Conservation. Yayasan Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Abdullah, MT., Wong, S.F. and Besar Ketol. 2010. Catalogue of mammals of UNIMAS Zoological Museum. Penerbitan Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan. 80pp.
  • Abdullah, MT., Jusanit, P., Di, P. W. H., Zabani Ariffin, M. and Hall, L. S. 2007. Observations on bats in three national parks in Thailand. Tigerpaper, 34 (4): 5-10.
  • Abdullah MT, NH Hasan, FAA Khan, JJ Rovie-Ryan, JV Kumaran, Y Esa, IV Paul, and LS Hall. 2009. Review on the molecular phylogeny of selected Malaysian Bats. Pp28-33. In G Ainsworth and S Garnett (eds). RIMBA: Sustainable forest livelihoods in Malaysia and Australia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak and Charles Darwin University. ISBN 978-967-5227-30-1.
  • Andersen K. 1912. Catalogue of the chiroptera in the collection of the British Museum. Second edition, British Museum of Natural History.
  • Apun, K., K.L. Kho, Y.L. Chong, F.H. Hashimatul, MT. Abdullah, M.A. Rahman, M.B. Lesley and L. Samuel, 2010. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wildlife from disturbed habitats in Sarawak, Malaysia. Res. J. Microbiol., 6: 132-139. DOI: 10.3923/jm.2011.132.139.
  • Apun, K., Y.L. Chong, MT. Abdullah and V. Micky. 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Escherichia coli isolates from food Animals and wildlife animals in Sarawak, East Malaysia. AJAVA., 3: 409-416. DOI: 10.3923/ajava.2008.409.416 URL:
  • Bank E. 1981. More mammals from Borneo. Brunei Museum Journal 4(4): 262-273.
  • Campbell, P., C. J. Schneider, et al. 2004. Phylogeny and phylogeography of Old World fruit bats in the Cynopterus brachyotis complex. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.
  • Besar Ketol, F. A. Anwarali, Wahap Marni, Isa Sait, Maklarin Lakim, Paul Imbun Yambun, Mohd Azib Salleh, Mustafa Abdul Rahman And MT. Abdullah. 2009. Checklist of mammals from Gunung Silam, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 5 : 61 – 65.
  • Chong Yee Ling, Kasing Apun and MT Abdullah. 2007. Occurrence of the nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in bats and rodents isolated from selected primary lowland forests and disturbed habitat in Sarawak, Malaysia. Pp123-130. In IB Ipor, CS Tawan, P. Bulan, I. Jusoh, BA Fasihuddin, K. Meekiong (eds.). Proceedings of Conference on Natural Resources In The Tropics, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan. ISBN 983-9257-46-3.
  • Corbet GB, Hill JE. 1992. The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press.
  • Davis DD. 1958. Mammals of the Kelabit Plateau north Sarawak. Fieldiana Zoology 39(15):119-147.
  • Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Sergio Solari, Vicki J. Swier, Peter A. Larsen, MT. Abdullah, Robert J. Baker. 2010. Systematics of Malaysian woolly bats (Vespertilionidae: Kerivoula) inferred from mitochondrial, nuclear, karyotypic, and morphological data. Journal of Mammalogy. 91( 5): 1058-1072.
  • Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Mohamad Faishal Bujang, Mohd. Azmin Kassim, Yap Sheau Yuh, Abang Arabi Abg Aimran, Zaidi Mawek, Abang Abdul Mutalib Abg Tajudin, Haidar Ali, Besar Ketol, Wahap Marni, Isa Sait, C.J. Laman, MT. Abdullah. 2008. Diversity and Abundance of Birds and Mammals in Niah National Park, Sarawak using Transect Survey. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, 4(1): 23-37.
  • Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, V.J. Swier, P.A. Larsen, S. Solari, K. Besar, M. Wahap, S. Ellagupillay, M. Marklarin, MT. Abdullah, and R.J. Baker. 2008. Using Genetics and Morphology to Examine Species Diversity of Old World Bats: report of a recent collection from Malaysia. Occasional Papers at Museum of Texas Tech University.
  • Dzulhelmi, MN and M T. Abdullah. 2009. An Ethogram Construction For The Malayan Flying Lemur (Galeopterus Variegatus) In Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation5  : 31 – 42.
  • Hall LS, Gordon G. Grigg, Craig Moritz, Besar Ketol, Isa Sait, Wahab Marni and MT Abdullah. 2004. Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Sarawak Museum Journal 80:191-284.
  • Hanzebroek HP, Abang Kasim bin Abang Morshidi. 2000. National Parks of Sarawak. Natural History Publication (Borneo) Kota Kinabalu.
  • Findley JS. 1993. Bats: a community perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Francis CM. 1990. Trophic structure of bat communities in the understorey of lowland dipterocarp rain forest in Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:421-431.
  • Ghazally Ismail et al. (eds.).1996-2001. Scientific Journey Through Borneo Series. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan.
  • Groves CP. 1985. Plio-Pleistocene mammals in island southeast Asia. Modern Quaternary Research in South East Asia 9:43-55.
  • GUMAL, M., M. I. ABDULLAH, K. ABDULLAH A. ALIAS & C. J. BRANDAH. 1998. Why conserve Sarawak’s bats? Sarawak Gazette 125: 52-57.
  • GUMAL, M., J. HON & D. KONG. 2008. Birds and Bats of Loagan Bunut National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. UNDP, GEF, FRIM & WCS, Kepong. 105 pp.
  • Hall L. 1996. Observation on bats in Gua Payau (Deer Cave), Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal 72:111-124.
  • Hall LS, Abdullah MT. 1998. Bagging bats in Borneo. Geo 20(2): 9-10.
  • Hall LS, Richards GC, Abdullah MT. 2002. The bats of Niah National Park, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal. 78: 255-282.
  • Hall LS, Gordon G. Grigg, Craig Moritz, Besar Ketol, Isa Sait, Wahab Marni, Abdullah MT. 2004. Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Sarawak Museum Journal 80:191-284.
  • Hill JE. 1983. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Indo-Australia. Bulletin British Museum of Natural History (Zoology) 45(3):103-208.
  • Hollar LJ, Springer MS. 1997. Old world fruitbat phylogeny: evidence for convergent evolution and an endemic African clade. Proceeding of National Academy of Science, USA. 94:5716-5721.
  • Hasan NH and Abdullah MT. 2011. A morphological analysis of Malaysian Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Mammal Study. 36: 87-97.
  • Ingle NR, Heaney LR. 1992. A key to the bats of the Philippine islands. Fieldiana Zoology 69:1-44.
  • IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <>. Accessed on 1 October 2006.
  • JAYARAJ, V. K., B. KETOL, F. A. KHAN, L. S. HALL, & MT. ABDULLAH. 2006. Bat survey of Mount Penrisen and notes on the rare Kerivoula minuta and Hipposideros coxi in Sarawak, Borneo. Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 711–716.
  • Jaya Seelan Sathiya Seelan, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Sepiah Muid, MT. Abdullah. 2008. Bats (chiropteran) Reported With Aspergillus Species From Kubah National. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 4(1): 81-97.
  • Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran, Besar Ketol, Wahap Marni, Isa Sait, Mohamad Jalani Mortada, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Fong Pooi Har, Leslie S. Hall & Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah. 2011. Comparative Distribution And Diversity Of Bats From Selected Localities In Sarawak. Borneo J. Resour. Sci. Tech. 1: 1-13.
  • Kitchener DJ, Maharadatunkamsi. 1991. Description of a new species of Cynopterus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) from Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Research Western Australian Museum 15(2):307-363.
  • Kitchener DJ, Maharadatunkamsi. 1996. Geographic variation in morphology of Cynopterus nusatenggara (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in southeastern Indonesia, and description of two new subspecies. Mammalia, 60(2):255-276.
  • Kofron CP. 1997. Reproduction of two species of congeneric fruit bats (Cynopterus) in Brunei, Borneo. Journal of Zoology London 243:485-506.
  • KOOL, K. M. AND NAWI, Y. 1995. Catalogue of mammal skins in the Sarawak Museum, Kuching Sarawak,Malaysia. Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (IBEC), Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan.
  • Koopman KF. 1989. Distribution patterns of Indo-Malayan bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). American Museum Novitates 2942:1-19.
  • Koopmans BN, Stauffer PH. 1968. Glacial phenomena on Mount Kinabalu, Sabah. Malaysian Geological Survey Bulletin 8: 25-35.
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