Pratt & Whitney

Pratt & Whitney

Infobox Company
company_name = Pratt & Whitney
company_type = Subsidiary of UTC
foundation = 1925
location = East Hartford, Connecticut
key_people = Steven Finger, President
industry = Aerospace
products = Aircraft engines
Gas turbines
Spacecraft propulsion
homepage = [ Pratt & Whitney]

Pratt & Whitney is an American aircraft engine manufacturer of products widely used in both civil and military aircraft. As one of the "big three" aero-engine manufacturers, it competes with General Electric and Rolls-Royce, although it has also formed joint ventures with both of these companies. In addition to aircraft engines, Pratt & Whitney manufactures fixed gas turbines for industry and power generation, marine turbines, railway locomotive engines, and rocket engines.


The Pratt & Whitney Company was founded in 1860 by Francis Pratt and Amos Whitney, with headquarters in Hartford, Connecticut. The company manufactured machine tools, tools for the makers of sewing machines, and gun-making machinery for use by the Union Army during the American Civil War.

In 1925, Frederick Rentschler approached Pratt & Whitney for funding and a location to build his new aircraft engine. Pratt & Whitney lent him $250,000, the use of the Pratt & Whitney name, and space in their building. This was the beginning of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company. Pratt & Whitney's first engine, the Wasp, was completed on Christmas Eve 1925. It developed 425 horsepower (317 kW) on its third test run and easily passed the Navy qualification test in March 1926; by October, the Navy had ordered 200. The Wasp exhibited performance and reliability that revolutionized American aviation.

In 1929, Rentschler ended his association with Pratt & Whitney Machine Tool and formed United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, the predecessor to United Technologies Corporation, Boeing Aircraft Company, and United Air Lines, Inc.. His agreement allowed him to carry the name with him to his new corporation.

What remains of the original Pratt & Whitney is Pratt & Whitney Measurement Systems, located in Bloomfield, Connecticut. However, for many years they maintained a plant on New Park Avenue near the Hartford/West Hartford border, where they manufactured machine tools such as their jig-bore machines and other numerically controlled machines. They also manufactured milling machines and twist drills.

On August 2, 2005, Pratt & Whitney acquired the space propulsion company Rocketdyne from Boeing and renamed the company Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc.

Pratt & Whitney is headquartered in East Hartford, Connecticut and also has plants in Columbus, Georgia; Middletown, Connecticut;
Cheshire, Connecticut; West Palm Beach, Florida; and North Berwick, Maine.

In motorsport

Between 1967 and 1971, Pratt & Whitney turbine engines were used in American Championship Car Racing and Formula One. Parnelli Jones's entry in the 1967 Indianapolis 500 dominated the race until a small part failed four laps from the finish. The following year, Team Lotus entered a trio of 56s at Indianapolis. Two of the cars qualified fastest and second fastest, but all three retired from the race. Turbine cars were deemed illegal before the following year's race, so Lotus chief Colin Chapman developed the car for use in Formula One and an updated 56B competed in half a dozen Formula One races in 1971.


Pratt & Whitney is a business unit of industrial conglomerate United Technologies, making it a sister company to Sikorsky Aircraft, Hamilton Sundstrand, Otis Elevator Company, UTC Fire & Security and refrigeration giant Carrier Corporation. It is also involved in two major joint ventures: the Engine Alliance with GE; and International Aero Engines company with Rolls-Royce, MTU Aero Engines and the Japanese Aero Engines Corporation. Those two joint ventures manufacture engines for the Airbus A380 and the Airbus A320 respectively.

;Commercial EnginesPratt & Whitney's Large Commercial Engines (LCE) power more than 40 percent of the world’s passenger aircraft fleet and serve more than 800 customers in 160 countries.

;Global Material SolutionsGlobal Material Solutions (GMS) offer gas path and life limited parts for the CFM56, which represents 90% of the material value of an average overhaul.

;Global Service PartnersPratt & Whitney Global Service Partners (GSP) is a total service provider of Pratt & Whitney, International Aero Engines, General Electric, Rolls-Royce and CFMI engines. In addition to engine overhaul and repair services, GSP provides services including line maintenance, engine monitoring and diagnostics, environmentally-friendly on-wing water washes, leased engines, custom engine service programs and new and repaired parts.

;Military EnginesPratt & Whitney's Military Engines power over 30 armed forces around the world. They are the engine manufacturer of choice for the F-15 Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, C-17 Globemaster III, F-22 Raptor and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.

;Pratt & Whitney Canada
Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC, originally United Aircraft of Canada) provides engines for business and regional aircraft, and helicopters. The company also offers advanced engines for industrial applications. P&WC's operations and service network span the globe. PWC designs and builds the smaller aircraft engines while P&W manufactures the larger ones.

;Space Propulsion
Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne powers the Space Shuttle, supplies booster engines for Delta II rockets and boosters and upper stage engines for Atlas III and V and Delta IV rockets.

;Pratt & Whitney Power SystemsPratt & Whitney Power Systems, Inc. (PWPS) designs, builds, furnishes and supports aero-derivative gas turbine power systems for customers worldwide. These industrial gas turbines provide power for everything from lighting cities to large ships. PWPS also provides parts and repairs for heavy-duty frame gas turbines as an OEM alternative.

;International Aero Engines
International Aero Engines is a joint venture that develops, builds and services the V2500 aero engine family, which powers the Airbus A320 family and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 aircraft. The four engine manufacturers that make up IAE each contribute an individual module to the V2500 engine. Pratt & Whitney produces the combustor and high-pressure turbine, Rolls-Royce the high-pressure compressor, JAEC the fan and low-pressure compressor and MTU the low-pressure turbine.

;Engine AllianceThe Engine Alliance is a joint venture between General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. The main application is the GP7200, which has been designed for use on the Airbus A380. It competes with the Rolls-Royce Trent 900, the launch engine for the aircraft.


Civil turbine engines and applications

* JT3D/TF33
**Boeing 707
**Douglas DC-8

* JT4A
**Boeing 707-220
**Douglas DC-8-20

* JT8D
**Boeing 727
**Boeing 737
**Dassault Mercure
**Douglas DC-9
**McDonnell Douglas MD-80
**Sud Aviation Caravelle

* JT9D
**Airbus A300
**Airbus A310
**Boeing 747
**Boeing 767
**McDonnell Douglas DC-10

**North American Sabreliner
**Sikorsky S-69

**Boeing 757
**Ilyushin IL-96M
**C-17 Globemaster III

**Airbus A300-600
**Airbus A310-300
**Airbus A330
**Boeing 747-400
**Boeing 767
**Boeing 777
**McDonnell Douglas MD-11

**Airbus A318

*Engine Alliance GP7200 "PW is a stakeholder in the Engine Alliance which manufactures the GP7200"
**Airbus A380

*International Aero Engines V2500 "PW is a stakeholder in the IAE joint venture which manufactures the V2500"
**Airbus A320
**McDonnell Douglas MD-90

In development

* Pratt & Whitney PW1000G
**Bombardier C-Series
**Mitsubishi MRJ

Military turbine engines and applications

*J42 (JT6) (Rolls-Royce Nene)
**F9F Panther (developmental)

*J48 (JT7) (Rolls-Royce Tay)
**F9F Panther
**North American YF-93
**F-94 Starfire

* J52 (JT8A)
**A-4 Skyhawk
**A-6 Intruder
**EA-6 Prowler

* J57 (JT3C)
**F-100 Super Sabre
**F-101 Voodoo
**F-102 Delta Dagger
**F-8 Crusader

* TF33 (JT3D)
**USAF and NATO E-3 Sentrys
**Boeing RC-135
**B-52 Stratofortress

* J58 (JT11D)
**SR-71 Blackbird/Lockheed YF-12/Lockheed A-12

* J75 (JT4A)
**Lockheed U-2
**F-105 Thunderchief
**F-106 Delta Dart
**North American YF-107
**XF8U-3 Crusader III
**P6M SeaMaster
**CF-105 Arrow

* TF30 (JT10)
**Mirage IIIV

* F100
**F-15 Eagle
**F-15E Strike Eagle

* F119
**F-22 Raptor

* F135
**F-35 Lightning II

Rocket engines

*H-1 - (RP-1/LOX) Used by the Saturn I, IB, Jupiter, and some Delta rockets
*F-1 - (RP-1/LOX) Used by the Saturn V.
*J-2 - (LH2/LOX) Used by both the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets and will be used on the second stages of both the future Ares I crew launch rocket and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch rocket for NASA's Project Constellation.
*SSME - (LH2/LOX) The Space Shuttle Main Engine
*RS-68 - (LH2/LOX) Used by the Delta IV first stage and on the core stage of the Ares V heavy-lift rocket for NASA's Project Constellation
*RS-27A - (RP-1/LOX) Used by the Delta II/III and Atlas ICBM
*RL-10 - Used on the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas V rocket, the second stage of the Delta IV, and will be used on the Lunar Surface Access Module for NASA's Project Constellation
*COBRA Co-optimized Booster for Reusable Applications (LH2/LOX) Prototype convert|600000|lbf|kN|abbr=on thrust engine

Reciprocating engines

* R-1340 (Wasp)
* R-1690 (Hornet)
* R-985 (Wasp Junior)
* R-1535 (Twin Wasp Junior)
* R-1830 (Twin Wasp)
* R-2000
* R-2800 (Double Wasp)
* R-4360 (Wasp Major) - powering many postwar large bombers and transports.

Turboprop engines

* T34
** C-133 Cargomaster
** C-97J Stratofreighter
** C-121F Constellation
** B-377 Super Guppy

Aeroderivative industrial & marine gas turbines

*FT8 - ~30MW derivative of JT8D

Engine Maintenance Systems

*Ecopower Services - Pratt and Whitney now markets a pressure-washing service that uses a high-pressure water spray run through several nozzles to clean grime and contaminants from jet engine parts, most notably turbine blades, which prevents over-heating, improves engine operating efficiency and reduces fuel burn. The system collects the runoff from the washing process for appropriate disposal. The washing is accomplished at the airport tarmac in about one hour. Pratt and Whitney's customers include United Airlines, Southwest Airlines, Air India, Martinair, Singapore Airlines, Northwest Airlines, and Virgin Atlantic. [Engine Washing Cuts Airline Fuel Costs, Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2008, p.B1] [ [ Pratt & Whitney EcoPower Services web page] , Pratt & Whitney ] [ [ "United Airlines to Save on Fuel and Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions"] , United Airlines Ecopower Press Release, June 11, 2008.] [ [ "Southwest Airlines to Save Millions in Fuel Costs and Significantly Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Pratt & Whitney EcoPower Engine Wash Services"] , Southwest Airlines Ecopower Press Release, June 11, 2008.]


External links

* [ United Technologies Corporation website]
** [ UTC's Pratt & Whitney division website]
** [ UTC's Pratt & Whitney Canada]
* [ Pratt & Whitney Measurement Systems website]

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