- Second Battle of Ypres
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Second Battle of Ypres
partof=the Western Front of
World War I
caption=" The Second Battle of Ypres " by Richard Jack, 146 x 234½ in., at the
Canadian War Museum.
22 April- 25 May 1915
flagicon|France Colonial forces
flagicon|UK United Kingdom
Horace Smith-Dorrien[General Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien commanded II Corps, British Expeditionary Force at the beginning of the battle. He was replaced by Lieutenant-General Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer (officially) on 6 May 1915. [http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/smithdorrien.htm] ]
flagicon|France Henri Gabriel Putz [Général Putz commanded the "Détachement d'Armée de Belgique" (formerly the French 8th Army). [http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/frenchorder.htm] ]
flagicon|Belgium A.-L.-T. de Ceuninck [Général-Major Armand-Léopold-Théodore de Ceuninck commanded the 6th Division, Belgian Army. [http://web.genealogie.free.fr/Les_militaires/1GM/Autres/Belgique.htm] [http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/gravenstafel/bedefence.htm] ]
commander2=flagicon|German Empire Albrecht of Württemberg [General-Oberst Albrecht Maria Alexander Philipp Joseph of Württemberg commanded the 4th German Army. [http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/germanorder.htm] ]
strength1=8 infantry divisions [2 French divisions and 6 British, Canadian, and Newfoundland divisions.]
strength2=7 infantry divisions
casualties1=70,000 dead, wounded, or missing
casualties2=35,000 dead, wounded, or missingThe Second Battle of Ypres was the first time
Germanyused poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front in World War Iand the first time a former colonial force (Canadians) pushed back a major European power (Germans) on European soil, which occurred in the battle of St. Julien-Kitcheners' Wood.
The Second Battle of
Ypresconsisted of four separate engagements:
* The Battle of Gravenstafel: Thursday
22 April– Friday 23 April 1915
* The Battle of St Julien: Saturday
24 April– 4 May 1915
* The Battle of Frezenberg:
8 May– 13 May 1915
* The Battle of Bellewaarde:
24 May– 25 May 1915
The scene of the battles was the Ypres salient where the Allied line which followed the canal bulged eastward around the town of
Ypres, Belgium. North of the salient were the Belgians; covering the northern part of the salient itself were two French divisions (one Metropolitan and one Algerian) The eastern part of the salient was defended by one Canadian division and two UK divisions.
In total during the battles, the British Commonwealth forces were the II and V Corps of the
Second Armymade up of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Cavalry divisions, and the 4th, 27th, 28th, 50th, Lahore and 1st Canadian Divisions. [ [http://www.ypressalient.co.uk/2nd%20Ypres%20Order%20of%20Battle.htm Order of battle] ]
The Battle of Gravenstafel (22nd - 23rd April 1915)
Gas attack on Gravenstafel
At around 17:00 (5:00 pm) on
22 April 1915, the German Army released one hundred and sixty eight tons of chlorine gasover a 6.5 km (4 mile) front on the part of the line held by French Territorial and colonial Moroccan and Algerian troops of the French 45th and 78th divisions. [Love, 1996.] [cite book |last=Hobbes |first=Nicholas |title=Essential Militaria |year=2003 |publisher=Atlantic Books |isbn=978-1843542292] Contrary to popular belief this was not the first use of chemical warfare, the first was at the Battle of Bolimov3 months earlier. Approximately 6,000 French and colonial troops died within ten minutes at Ypres, primarily from asphyxiationand subsequent to tissue damage in the lungs. Many more were blinded. [ Chlorine gasforms hydrochloric (muriatic) acid when combined with water, destroying moist tissues such as lungs and eyes. See [http://www.ucc.ie/academic/chem/dolchem/html/elem/elem017.html here] for reaction of chlorine with water.] The chlorine gas, being denser than air, quickly filled the trenches, forcing the troops to climb out into heavy enemy fire.
With the survivors abandoning their positions en masse, [No one blamed the French and Algerian survivors for abandoning their trenches. Field Marshal Sir John French, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, wrote:
...I wish particularly to repudiate any idea of attaching the least blame to the French Division for this unfortunate incident.(Extract from "The London Gazette, No. 29225",
After all the examples our gallant Allies have shown of dogged and tenacious courage in the many trying situations in which they have been placed throughout the course of this campaign it is quite superfluous for me to dwell on this aspect of the incident, and I would only express my firm conviction that, if any troops in the world had been able to hold their trenches in the face of such a treacherous and altogether unexpected onslaught, the French Division would have stood firm.
10 July 1915, as reported [http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/gravenstafel/frengulfed.htm here] and [http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/2ndypres_sirjohnfrench.htm here] .)] a convert|4|mi|km|sing=on gap was left in the front line. However, the German High Command had not foreseen the effectiveness of their new weapon, and so had not put any reserves ready in the area. [General von Falkenhayn, Chief of German General Staff, apparently classified the attack as localised, and ordered the German 4th Army not to take distant objectives. (From the German Army Official History of the War ("Der Weltkrieg 1914 bis 1918: Sommer und Herbst 1915, 8. Band, p." 41), as cited [http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/gravenstafel/gegains.htm here.] ] German troops started to enter the gap at 5:00PM in some numbers, but with the coming of darkness and the lack of follow up troops the German forces did not exploit the gap, and British and Canadian troops were able to put in a hasty defence that held that part of the line against further attacks until 3 May 1915at a cost of 6000 wounded or dead. Casualties were especially heavy for the 13th Battalion CEF, which was enveloped on three sides and over-extended by the demands of security its left flank once the Algerian Division had broken.
One thousand of these "original" troops were killed and 4,975 were wounded from an initial strength of 10,000.Fact|date=April 2007
At Kitcheners' Wood, the 10th Battalion of the 2nd Canadian Brigade was ordered to counter-attack into the gap created by the gas attack. They formed up after 11:00pm on the night of
22 Aprilwith the 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish) of the 3rd Brigade arriving as they were forming, tasked to support the advance. Both battalions stepped off with over 800 men, formed up in waves of two companies each, at 11:46 pm. Without prior reconnaissance, the battalions ran into obstacles half way to the objective and drew heavy automatic weapons fire from the Wood, prompting an impromptu bayonet charge. Their attack cleared the former oak plantation of Germans at the cost of 75 percent casualties.
The Battle of St Julien (24th April - 4th May)
The village of St. Julien had been comfortably in the rear of the 1st Canadian Division until the poison gas attack of
22 April, whereupon it became the front line. Some of the first fighting in the village involved a hasty defence, which included the stand of Lance Corporal Fred Fisherof the 13th Battalion CEF's machine-gun detachment; who twice went out with a handful of men and a Colt Machine-gun and prevented advancing German troops from passing through St. Julien into the rear of the Canadian front line. Fisher was awarded the VC for his actions on the 22nd, but was killed when he attempted to repeat his actions on the 23; this was the first of 70 Canadian VCs awarded in the First World War.
On the morning of
24 April 1915the Germans released another cloud of chlorine gas, this time directly towards the re-formed Canadian lines just west of the village of St. Julien. On seeing the approach of the greenish-grey gas cloud, word was passed among the Canadian troops to urinate on their handkerchiefs and place these over their noses and mouths. [It remains unclear who passed the order to urinate on the handkerchiefs. The order is attributed to [Capt. F.A.C. Scrimger] , a medical officer by one modern source, [http://www.legionmagazine.com/features/victoriacross/04-07.asp Legion Magazine] published by the Royal Canadian Legion. However, memoirs of two individuals at the battle do not recount this episode (see Nasmith, 1917, and Scott, 1922)] [Whoever passed the order, the chemistry was valid. The ureain urine would react with chlorine, forming dichlorourea and effectively neutralizing it. See Chattaway (1908).]
However, the countermeasures were ineffective and the Canadian lines broke as a result of the attack, allowing German troops to take the village.
The following day the York and Durham Brigade units of the Northumberland Division counterattacked failing to secure their objectives but establishing a new line close to the village. The third day the Northumberland Brigade attacked again, briefly taking part of the village but forced back with the loss of more than 1,900 men and 40 officers - two thirds of its strength. [ [http://www.4thbnnf.com/22_150426_150429_stjulien.html 4th Territorial Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers] ]
Royal Dublin FusiliersBattalion suffered heavily, incurring hundreds of casualties and with no respite took part in the next two subsidiary battles at Frezenberg and Bellewaarde. On 24 Maythe battalion was subject to a German chlorine gas attack near Saint-Julien and effectively disintegrated as a fighting unit.
The Battle of Frezenberg (8th - 13th May)
The battle began
8 Maywhen German forces attempted to break Allied lines held by the 27th and 28th divisions. On 10 Maythe Germans released another gas cloud but made little progress. The battle ended after six days of fighting with a German advance of 1000 yards.
The Battle of Bellewaarde (24th -
24 Maythe Germans released a gas attack on a convert|4.5|mi|km|sing=on front. British troops were able to defend against initial German attacks but eventually they were forced to retreat to the north and south. Failed British counterattacks forced a British retreat 1000 yards northwards. Upon the end of the battle the Ypres salient was convert|3|mi|km deep.
By the end of the battle the size of the Ypres Salient had been reduced such that Ypres itself was closer to the line. In time it would be reduced by shelling until virtually nothing would remain standing.
The surprise use of poison gas was not a historical first (poison gas had already been used on the Eastern Front) but did come as a tactical surprise to the Allies. After Second Ypres, both sides developed more sophisticated gas weapons, and countermeasures, and never again was the use of gas either a surprise, nor especially effective. The British quickly developed their own gas attacks using them for the first time at the
Battle of Loosin late September. Development of gas protection was instituted and the first examples of the PH helmetissued in July 1915.
The Canadian Division was forced to absorb several thousand replacements shortly afterwards, but presented a most favourable image to their allies and the world. Another Canadian division joined the British Expeditionary Force in late 1915, joined eventually by two more in 1916. The battle also blooded many commanders, singling out some for praise, such as brigade commander
Arthur Currie, and others for criticism, such as Garnet Hughes.
The inadequacies of training and doctrine in the early CEF was made obvious by the antique tactics used at Kitcheners' Wood and St. Julien, though tactics in the British Colonial armies would be slow to evolve. At Second Ypres, the smallest tactical unit in the infantry was a company; by 1917 it would be the section. The Canadians were employed offensively later in 1915, but not successfully.
Third Battle of Ypres, more commonly known as Passchendaelewas fought in the autumn of 1917. The battle was marked by Canadian tactical successes as a result of many innovations in organization, training and tactics in both the infantry and artillery.
It was during the Second Battle of Ypres that
Lieutenant Colonel John McCraeM.D. of Guelph, Ontario, Canada wrote the memorable poem " In Flanders Fields" in the voice of those who perished in the war. Published in Punch Magazine 8 December 1918, it is still recited today, especially on Remembrance Day and Memorial Day. [ [http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10200 John McCrae (from Historica)] ] [ [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&ArticleId=A0004849 John McCrae (from the Canadian Encyclopedia)] ]
First Battle of Ypres
Use of poison gas in World War I
Saint Julien Memorial
Third Battle of Ypres
List of Canadian battles during World War I
* Chattaway, F.D. (1908). The Action of Chlorine upon Urea Whereby a Dichloro Urea is Produced. "Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. A", 81:381-388. [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0950-1207%2819081222%2981%3A549%3C381%3ATAOCUU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7&size=LARGE]
* — (1916). Captain F.A.C. Scrimger, V.C., M.D. "Can. Med. Assoc. J.", 6:334-336. [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1584589&blobtype=pdf]
* Howell, W.B. (1938). Colonel F.A.C. Scrimger, V.C. "Can. Med. Assoc. J. "38: 279–281. [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=536406&blobtype=pdf]
* Legion Magazine online. [http://www.legionmagazine.com/features/victoriacross/04-07.asp]
* Love, D. (1996). The Second Battle of Ypres, April 1915. "Sabretasche" (Vol 26, No 4). [http://www.worldwar1.com/sf2ypres.htm]
* Nasmith, G.G. (1917). "On the Fringe of the Great Fight." McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Toronto. [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/19876/19876-h/19876-h.htm]
* Scott, F.G. (1922). "The Great War as I Saw It." Goodchild Publishers, Toronto. [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/19857/19857-h/19857-h.htm#page055]
* [http://www.wo1.be/eng/database/dbDetail.asp?TypeID=1&SubTypeID=8&ItemID=5781&lID=3 Kitchener's Wood Memorial]
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