Winter service vehicle

Winter service vehicle

A winter service vehicle (WSV), or snow removal vehicle, is used to clear thoroughfares of ice and snow.cite news|url=|title=How do snowplough drivers get to work?|publisher=BBC News Magazine Monitor|date=8 February 2007|accessdate=2007-02-08] cite web|url=|title=Vehicles used for snow removal|publisher=Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec|accessdate=2007-11-28] cite web|url=|title=Winter Driving|publisher=Highways Agency|accessdate=2007-02-08] Winter service vehicles are usually based on dump truck chassis, with adaptations allowing them to carry specially designed snow removal equipment. Many authorities also use smaller vehicles on sidewalks, footpaths, and cycleways. Road maintenance agencies and contractors in temperate or polar areas often own several winter service vehicles, using them to keep the roads clear of snow and ice and safe for driving during winter.cite book|url=|title=Report on the 1998 scanning review of European winter service technology|author=United States National Research Council|publisher=Transportation Research Board|year=1999] [cite book|url=|title=Winter Maintenance Technology and Practices - Learning from Abroad|date=9 February 1995|author=United States National Research Council|publisher=Transportation Research Board] Airports use winter service vehicles to keep both aircraft surfaces, and runways and taxiways free of snow and ice, which, besides endangering aircraft takeoff and landing, can interfere with the aerodynamics of the craft.cite web|url=|title=Once around the world: Dresden Airport's Winter Service covered about 40,000 km|publisher=Dresden Airport|date=19 April 2006|accessdate=2007-02-09] [cite web|url=|title=Tips On Winter Flying|publisher=FAA|accessdate=2007-11-28]

The earliest winter service vehicles were snow rollers, designed to maintain a smooth, even road surface for sleds,cite web|url=|title=Moving The Snow|publisher=Weather Almanac for December 1999|accessdate=2007-04-17] although horse-drawn snowploughs and gritting vehicles are recorded in use as early as 1862.cite web|url=|title=Have Snow Shovel, Will Travel|first=Laura|last=Cheshire|publisher=National Snow and Ice Data Center|accessdate=2007-04-17] The increase in motor car traffic and aviation in the early 20th century led to the development and popularisation of large motorised winter service vehicles.


Although snow removal dates back to at least the Middle Ages, early attempts merely involved using a shovel or broom to remove snow from walkways and roads. Before motorised transport, snow removal was seen as less of a concern; unpaved roads in rural areas were dangerous and bumpy, and snow and ice made the surface far smoother. Most farmers could simply replace their wagons with sleds, allowing the transport of heavy materials such as timber with relative ease. Early communities in the northern regions of the United States and Canada even used animal-drawn snow rollers, the earliest winter service vehicles, to compress the snow covering roads. The compression increased the life of the snow and eased passage for sleds. Some communities even employed snow wardens to spread or "pave" snow onto exposed areas such as bridges, to allow sleds to use these routes.

However, with the increase in paved roads and the increasing size of cities, snow-paving fell out of favour, as the resultant slippery surfaces posed a danger to pedestrians and traffic. The earliest patents for snowploughs date back to 1840, but there are no records of their actual use until 1862, when the city of Milwaukee began operating horse-drawn carts fitted with snowploughs. The horse-drawn snowplough quickly spread to other cities, especially those in areas prone to heavy snowfall.

The first motorised snowploughs were developed in 1913, based on truck and tractor bodies. These machines allowed the mechanisation of the snow clearing process, reducing the labour required for snow removal and increasing the speed and efficiency of the process. The expansion of the aviation industry also acted as a catalyst for the development of winter service vehicles during the early 20th century. Even a light dusting of snow or ice could cause an aeroplane to crash, so airports erected large fences around airfields to prevent snowdrifts, and began to maintain fleets of vehicles to clear runways in heavy weather.

With the popularisation of the motor car, it was found that ploughing alone was insufficient for removing all snow and ice from the roadway, leading to the development of gritting vehicles, which used sodium chloride to accelerate the melting of the snow. Early attempts at gritting were resisted, as the salt used encouraged rusting, causing damage to the metal structures of bridges and the shoes of pedestrians. However, as the number of motoring accidents increased, the protests subsided and by the end of the 1920s, many cities in the United States used salt and sand to clear the roads and increase road safety. As environmental awareness increased through the 1960s and 1970s, gritting once again came under criticism due to its environmental impact, leading to the development of alternative de-icing chemicals and more efficient spreading systems.


Winter service vehicles are usually based on dump truck chassis, which are then converted into winter service vehicles either by the manufacturer or an aftermarket third-party. A typical modification involves the replacement of steel components of the vehicle with corrosion resistant aluminium or fibreglass, waterproofing any exposed electronic components, replacement of the stock hopper with a specially designed gritting body, the addition of a plough frame, reinforcement of the wheels, bumpers to support the heavy blade, and the addition of extra headlamps, a light bar, and retroreflectors for visibility.cite web|url=|title=Gritting Contractors : History Of Gritting|publisher=Schofield of Huddersfield|accessdate=2007-04-17] Other common changes include the replacement of the stock tires with rain tires or mud and snow tires and the shortening of the vehicle's wheelbase to improve maneuverability.cite web|url=|title=Gritting Contractors : Vehicles|publisher=Schofield of Huddersfield|accessdate=2007-04-17] However, some winter service vehicles, especially those designed for use on footpaths or pedestrianised zones, are built on a far smaller chassis. These vehicles are often multi-purpose, and can be fitted with other equipment such as brushes, lawnmowers or cranes—as these operations are generally unable to run during heavy snowfalls, there is generally little overlap between the different uses, reducing the size of the fleet required by the agency or contractor.cite web|url=|title=Flexible applications|publisher=Multicar|accessdate=2007-04-17] Modern winter service vehicles will usually also have a satellite navigation system connected to a weather forecast feed, allowing the driver to choose the best areas to treat and to avoid areas in which rain is likely, which can wash away the grit used—the most advanced can even adapt to changing conditions, ensuring optimal gritter and plough settings.Institution of Civil Engineers, pp. 53–54] Most run on wheels, often with snow chains or studded tires, but some are mounted on caterpillar tracks, with the tracks themselves adapted to throw the snow towards the side of the road. [US patent reference|number=4174578|y=1979|m=11|d=20|inventor=Bernardino Grillo|title=Tracked Snowplow] Off-road winter service vehicles mounted on caterpillar tracks are known as snowcats. Snowcats are commonly fitted with snowploughs or snow groomers, and are used by ski resorts to smooth and maintain pistes and snowmobile runs, although they can also be used as a replacement for chairlifts. [Cite news|last=Kaplan|first=Mitch|title=Snowcat Skiing in Michigan?|publisher=Suite 101|date=2006-11-01]

Military winter service vehicles are heavily armoured to allow for their use in combat zones, especially in Arctic and mountain warfare, and often based on combat bulldozers or HMMWVs. [cite web|url=|title=High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle Snowplow|publisher=United States Army Corps of Engineers|format=PDF|accessdate=2007-04-22] Military winter service vehicles have been used by the United Nations, Kosovo Force, and the U.S. Army in Central Europe during the Kosovo War, [cite web|url=|title=Snow and Ice Control (SNIC) Equipment and Its Use by Military Units Worldwide|publisher=United States Army Corps of Engineers|format=PDF|accessdate=2007-04-22] while during the Cold War, the Royal Marines and Royal Corps of Signals deployed a number of tracked vehicles in Norway to patrol the NATO border with the Soviet Union. [cite web|url =|title= Aktiv Snow-Trac Info|publisher=4x4 UK|accessdate=2007-04-22] [cite web|url =|title= United Nations and NATO Peace Keeping|publisher=Royal Corps of Signals|accessdate=2007-04-22]

In most countries, winter service vehicles usually have amber light bars, which are activated to indicate that the vehicle is operating below the local speed limit or otherwise poses a danger to other traffic, either by straddling lanes or by spreading grit or de-icer. In some areas, such as the Canadian province of Ontario, winter service vehicles use the blue flashing lights associated with emergency service vehicles, rather than the amber or orange used elsewhere.cite web|url=|title=Ontario Highway Traffic Act R.S.O. 1990, CHAPTER H.8 section 62-31|publisher=Government of Ontario e-Laws website|accessdate=2007-02-13] Many agencies also paint their vehicles in high-contrast orange or yellow to allow the vehicles to been seen more clearly in whiteout conditions.


Winter service vehicles are operated by both government agencies and by private subcontractors. Public works in areas which regularly receive snowfall usually maintain a fleet of their own vehicles or pay retainers to contractors for priority access to vehicles in winter, while cities where snow is a less regular occurrence may simply hire the vehicles as needed.cite news|url= |title=City may ante up to ensure snow plowing|publisher=Edmonton Journal|date=April 14, 2007|accessdate=2007-04-17] Winter service vehicles in the United Kingdom are the only road-going vehicles entitled to use red diesel. Though the vehicles still use public highways, they are used to keep the road network operational, and forcing them to pay extra tax to do so would discourage private contractors from assisting with snow removal on public roads. [cite press release | title = Summary of Responses: Hydrocarbon oil duty - consultation on changes to Excepted Vehicle Schedule | publisher = Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs | date = 5 December 2005 | url = | format = §§5.22–24 |accessdate =2007-04-20] Winter service vehicle drivers in the United States must hold a Class A or Class B commercial driver's license.cite web|url=|title=Learning to drive a snowplow|first=Michele|last=Regenold|publisher="Go!" - Iowa State University|accessdate=2007-04-20] Although some agencies in some areas, such as the U.S. state of Minnesota, allow winter service vehicle drivers to operate without any extra training, [cite web|url=|title= Dream Job: Snowplow Driver||first=Amy|last=Furan|accessdate=2007-04-23] most provide supplemental lessons to drivers to teach them the most effective and safe methods of snow removal. Many require that trainee drivers ride-along with more experienced drivers, and some even operate specially designed driving simulators, which can safely replicate dangerous winter driving conditions. Other organisations require that all staff have a recognised additional licence or certificate—the United Kingdom Highways Agency for example requires that all staff have both a City & Guilds qualification and a supplemental Winter Maintenance Licence.cite web|url=|title=Winter Service Operations (City & Guilds 6159)|publisher=Skills Training Centre|accessdate=2007-09-25]

Winter service vehicle drivers usually work part time, before and during inclement weather only, with drivers working a 12 to 16 hour shift. Main roads are typically gritted in advance, to reduce the disruption to the network. Salt barns are provided at regular intervals for drivers to collect more grit, and bedding is provided at road maintenance depots for drivers to use between shifts in heavy or prolonged storms.

Weather conditions typically vary greatly depending on altitude; hot countries can experience heavy snowfall in mountainous regions yet receive very little in low-lying areas, increasing the accident rate among drivers inexperienced in winter driving. In addition, road surface temperatures can fall rapidly at higher altitudes, precipitating rapid frost formation. As a result, gritting and ploughing runs are often prioritised in favour of clearing these mountain roads, especially at the start and end of the snow season. [cite book|url=|pages=pp. 414–421|format=PDF|title=Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control|accessdate=2007-04-21] The hazardous roads through mountain passes pose additional problems for the large winter service vehicles. The heavy metal frame and bulky grit makes hill climbing demanding for the vehicle, so vehicles have extremely high torque transmission systems to provide enough power to make the climb. Furthermore, because the tight hairpin turns found on mountain slopes are difficult for long vehicles to navigate, winter service vehicles for use in mountainous areas are shortened, usually from six wheels to four.



De-icers spray heated de-icing fluid, often propylene glycol or ethylene glycol, onto icy surfaces such as the bodies of aircraft and road surfaces.cite web|url=|title=Winter service team at Dresden Airport ready for the cold season|publisher=Dresden Airport|date=29 October 2004|accessdate=2007-02-09] These prevent ice from forming on the body of the aircraft while on the ground. Ice makes the surface of the wings rougher, reducing the amount of lift they provide while increasing drag. The ice also increases the weight of the aircraft and can affect its balance.

Aircraft de-icing vehicles usually consist of a large tanker truck, containing the concentrated de-icing fluid, with a water feed to dilute the fluid according to the ambient temperature. The vehicle also normally has a cherry picker crane, allowing the operator to spray the entire aircraft in as little time as possible; an entire Boeing 737 can be treated in under 10 minutes by a single de-icing vehicle.

Some road contractors also choose to use de-icers as an alternative to gritters; the vehicle carries a tank of brine, which is sprayed on the road surface. Brine acts faster than solid salt and does not require compression by passing traffic to become effective. The brine is also more environmentally friendly, as less salt is required to treat the same length of road. [cite news|url=|title=Gritty Gritty Bang Bang!|last=Kengt|first=Ann-Marie|publisher=Local Authority Plants and Vehicles Magazine|date=October 2005] Airport runways are also de-iced by sprayers fitted with long spraying arms. These arms are wide enough to cross the entire runway, and allow de-icing of the entire airstrip to take place in a single pass, reducing the length of time that the runway is unavailable. [cite web|url=| title=Airside nozzle sprayers|publisher=Schmidt Automotive|accessdate=2007-02-10]


A gritter, also known as a sander, [cite web|url=|title=Cambridge Dictionary definition: Gritter|publisher="Cambridge University Press"|accessdate=2007-04-20] salt spreader or salt truck, is found on most winter service vehicles. Indeed, the gritter is so commonly seen on winter service vehicles that the terms are sometimes used synonymously. Gritters are used to spread grit, a mixture of sand and rock salt, onto roads. The grit is stored in the large hopper on the rear of the vehicle, with a wire mesh over the top to prevent foreign objects from entering the spreading mechanism and hence becoming jammed. The salt is generally spread across the roadway by an impeller, attached by a hydraulic drive system to a small onboard engine. However, until the 1970s, the grit was often spread manually using shovels by men riding on the back of the lorry, and some older spreading mechanisms still require grit be manually loaded into the impeller from the hopper.Pearson, p. 444–445] Salt reduces the melting point of ice by freezing-point depression, causing it to melt at lower temperatures and run off harmlessly to the edge of the road, while sand increases traction by increasing friction between car tires and roadways. The amount of salt dropped varies with the condition of the road; to prevent the formation of light ice, approximately 10 grams per square metre (0.3 oz/yd²) is dropped, while thick snow can require up to 40 g/m² (1.2 oz/yd²) of salt, independent of the volume of sand dropped. [Institution of Civil Engineers, p. 27] The grit is sometimes mixed with molasses to help adhesion to the road surface. However, the sweet molasses often attracts livestock, who lick the road.cite news|url=|title=New road grit popular - with sheep|publisher=Ananova|accessdate=2007-02-09] The grit is sometimes heated as it is passed out of the nozzle; this helps melt the ice and improves the solubility of the salt. Quieter rural roads may be considered too minor to grit, so grit bins are often provided, containing a mixture of sand and salt for drivers and pedestrians to shovel onto the road themselves. Different types of grit substrate can cause problems for some gritting machines with 'blocking' where sand/grit or salt is damp and clumps together, in these cases an augur or some form of vibrator has to be employed to enable continuous flow of substrate [see] .

Gritters are among the winter service vehicles also used in airports, to keep runways free of ice. However, the salt normally used to clear roads can damage the airframe of aircraft and interferes with the sensitive navigation equipment. As a result, airport gritters spread less dangerous potassium acetate onto the runways instead, as potassium acetate does not corrode the aircraft or the airside equipment.


Gritters cannot use sea-salt, as it is too fine and dissolves too quickly, [BS 3247:1991, British Standards Institution.] so all salt used in gritting comes from salt mines, a non-renewable source. Additionally, high concentrations of salt in soil kill plants, so it is in the interest of operators to limit gritting to an absolute minimum. As a result, road maintenance agencies have advanced networks of ice prediction stations, to prevent unnecessary gritting which not only wastes salt, but can damage the environment and disrupt traffic.cite news|url=|title=New facilities help guard against winter|publisher=Government News Network|date=3 December 2004|accessdate=2007-02-08] [cite web|url=|title=Winter Highway Gritting|publisher=Warrington Borough Council|accessdate=2007-02-08] The salt dropped is eventually washed away and lost, so it cannot be reused or collected after gritting runs, although the insoluble sand can be collected and recycled by street sweeping vehicles and mixed with new salt crystals to be reused in later batches of grit. [cite web|url=|title=Street Department|publisher=Town of Estes Park|accessdate=2007-04-19] As a result, operators must regularly purchase large quantities of rock salt, depleting a finite resource and damaging the environment through dangerous and polluting salt mining. [cite web|url=,frameless.htm?wbc_purpose=Basic&WBCMODE=PresentationUnpublished%23%23%23%23?PageVersion=PRINTERFRIENDLY| title=Minerals Local Plan - Chapter 9|publisher=Cheshire County Council|accessdate=2007-04-21]

In some areas of the world, including Berlin, dropping salt is prohibited altogether, except on the highest-risk roads; plain sand, without any melting agents, is spread instead. Although this protects the environment, it is more labour-intensive, as more gritting runs are needed; and as the sand is insoluble, it tends to accumulate at the sides of the road, making it more difficult for buses to pull in at bus stops.cite book|title=Highway Meteorology|others=co-edited by Perry, Allen Howard and Symons, Leslie|publisher=Spon Press|isbn=0419156704|origyear=1991|pages=pp. 28] Other areas use alternative chemicals which are less harmful to the environment and cause less corrosion damage to metallic structures. The U.S. state of Oregon uses magnesium chloride, a relatively cheap chemical similar in molecular structure to sodium chloride, but less reactive,cite web|url=|title=Winter Road Maintenance Practices|publisher=Oregon Department of Transportation|accessdate=2007-02-13] while New Zealand uses calcium magnesium acetate, which avoids the environmentally harmful chloride ion altogether.cite book|url=|pages=pp. 267–277|title=Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control|accessdate=2007-04-21] Urea is sometimes used to grit suspension bridges, as it does not react with iron or steel at all, but urea is less effective than salt, and can cost up to 7 times weight-for-weight. [Pearson, p. 436] Most grit is mixed with hydrous sodium ferrocyanide which, while harmless in its natural form, can undergo photodissociation in strong sunlight to produce the extremely toxic chemical hydrogen cyanide. Although sunlight is generally not intense enough to cause this in polar and temperate regions, salt deposits must kept as far as possible from waterways to avert the possibility of cyanide-tainted run-off entering fisheries or farms. [Pearson, p. 435] Gritting vehicles are also dangerous to overtake; as grit is scattered across the entire roadway, loose pieces can damage the paintwork and windows of passing cars. Loose salt does not provide sufficient traction for motorcycles, which can lead to skiding, especially around corners.

Gritters can also be used in hot weather, when temperatures are high enough to melt the bitumen used in asphalt. The grit is dropped to provide a protective layer between the road surface and the tires of passing vehicles, which would otherwise damage the road surface by "plucking out" the bitumen-coated aggregate from the road surface.cite news|url=|title=Gritters to combat melting roads|publisher=BBC News|date=July 12, 2005|accessdate=2007-02-08]

now blower

Snow blowers, also known as rotating snowploughs or snow cutters, [cite web|url=|title= Attachable snow clearing|publisher=Schmidt Automotive|accessdate=2007-02-10] can be used in place of snowploughs on winter service vehicles. A snow blower consists of a rapidly spinning blade which cuts through the snow, forcing it out of a funnel attached to the top of the blower. Snow blowers typically clear much faster than ploughs, with some clearing in excess of 5000 tonnes of snow per hour, and can cut through far deeper snow drifts than a snowplough can.cite web|url= |title=Supra 5001 specification|publisher=Schmidt Automotive|accessdate=2007-02-10] In addition, snow blowers can remove snow from the roadway completely, rather than piling it at the side of the road, making passage easier for other road users and preventing the windrow from blocking driveways. [cite web|url=|title=Snow Plowing Policy|publisher=City of Plymouth Public Works|accessdate=2007-11-28]

now groomer

A snow groomer is a machine designed to smooth and compact the snow, rather than removing it altogether. Early snow groomers were used by residents of rural areas to compress the snow close to their homes,cite news|title=Snow Removal Equipment Changes Over Time|publisher=Brattleboro Reformer|first=Wayne|last=Carhart] and consisted of a heavy roller hauled by oxen which compacted the snow to make a smooth surface for sledging. With the invention of the motor car, snow groomers were replaced by snowploughs and snow blowers on public thoroughfares, but remained in use at ski resorts, where they are used to maintain smooth, safe trails for various wintersports, including skiing, snowboarding and snowmobiling. Snow groomers remained unchanged throughout the 20th century, with most consisting of heavy roller which could be attached to a tractor or snowcat and then hauled across the area to be groomed.cite book|title=Classic New Hampshire: Preserving the Granite State in Changing Times|first=Linda|last=Landry|year=2003|pages=189–191|publisher=University Press of New England|isbn=1584653493] The development of more advanced electronic systems in the 1980s allowed manufacturers to produce snow groomers which could work on and replicate a much wider range of terrains, with the most modern even able to produce half-pipes and ramps for snowboarding. Snow groomers are also used in conjunction with snow cannons, to ensure that the snow produced is spread evenly across the resort. [cite web|url=|title=How Snow Makers Work|publisher=HowStuffWorks|first=Tom|last=Harris|accessdate=2007-04-20] However, snow groomers have a detrimental effect on the environment within the resort. Grooming removes nutrients and minerals from the soil underneath the snow and the regular pressure from the grooming vehicle increases the infiltration rate of the soil while decreasing the field capacity. This increases the rate at which water can soak through the soil, making it more prone to erosion. [cite book|title=Nature-Based Tourism, Environment, and Land Management|first=Ralph|last=Buckley|coauthors=Pickering, Catherine; Weaver, David Bruce;|year=2003|publisher=CAB International|isbn=0851997325]

now melter

A snow melting vehicle works by scooping snow into a melting pit located in a large tank at the rear of the vehicle. Around the melting pit is a smaller tank full of boiling water, heated by a powerful burner. The gases from the burner are bubbled through the water, causing some of the water to spill over into the melting pit, melting the snow instantly. The meltwater is discharged into the storm drains. [cite web|url=|title=Principle of Operation|publisher=Trecan Combustion|accessdate=2007-02-09]

As they have to carry the large water tank and fuel for the burner, snow melting machines tend to be much larger and heavier than most winter service vehicles, at around 18 metres (59 ft), with the largest being hauled by semi-trailer tractor units. [cite web|url=|title=500-PD specifications|publisher=Trecan Combustion|accessdate=2007-02-09] In addition, the complicated melting process means that snow melting vehicles have a much lower capacity than the equivalent plough or blower vehicle; the largest snow melter can remove 500 tonnes of snow per hour, compared to the 5000 tonnes per hour capacity of any large snow blower. However, snow melters are far more environmentally friendly than gritters, as they do not spray hazardous materials, and pollutants from the road surface can be separated from the meltwater and disposed of safely. In addition, as the snow is melted on board, the costs of removing the collected snow from the site is removed. [cite web|url=|title=Economics of Snow Melting|publisher=Trecan Combustion|accessdate=2007-02-09]


Many winter service vehicles can be fitted with snowploughs, to clear roads which are blocked by deep snow. In most cases, the ploughs are mounted on hydraulically-actuated arms, allowing them to be raised, lowered, and angled to better move snow. Most winter service vehicles include either permanently fixed ploughs or plough frames: 75% of the UK's Highways Agency vehicles include a plough frame to which a blade can be attached. Winter service vehicles with both a plough frame and a gritting body are known as "all purpose vehicles", and while these are more efficient than using dedicated vehicles, the weight of the hopper often decreases the range of the vehicle. Therefore, most operators will keep at least a few dedicated ploughing vehicles in store for heavy storms. In the event that specially designed winter service vehicles are not available for ploughing, other service or construction vehicles can be used instead: among those used by various authorities are graders, bulldozers,cite web |url= |title=Transportation Division - Snow Operations |publisher=City of Prince George |accessdate=2007-04-18] skid loaders,cite web |url= |title= Washington and Jefferson College snow response plan |format=PDF |publisher=Washington and Jefferson College |accessdate=2007-04-18] and rubbish trucks. [cite web |url= |title= Sanitation to begin winter night plow schedule|publisher=New York City Department of Sanitation |date=2006-11-09 |accessdate=2007-04-18] Front-end loaders can also be used to plough snow. Either a snowplough attachment can be mounted on the loader's arm in place of the bucket, or the bucket or snowbasket can be used to load snow into the rear compartment of a snowplough or dump truck, which then hauls it away. [US patent reference |number=5129169 |y=1992 |m=07 |d=14 |inventor=Aubichon Andre |title=Attachment for snow removal] Snowploughs are dangerous to overtake; often, the oncoming lane may not be completely free of snow. In addition, the plough blade causes considerable spray of snow on both sides, which can obscure the vision of other road users.

now sweeper

A snow sweeper uses brushes to remove thin layers of snow from the pavement surface. Snow sweepers are used after ploughing to remove any remaining material missed by the larger vehicles in areas with very low snow-tolerance, such as airport runways and racing tracks,cite web|url= |title=Jet sweeper|publisher=Dresden Airport|accessdate=2007-07-22] as the flexible brushes follow the terrain better than the rigid blades of snowploughs and snow blowers.cite web|url=|title=Snow Sweeper|publisher=Egholm Maskiner|accessdate=2007-07-22] These brushes also allow the vehicle to be used on the tactile tiles found at traffic lights and tram stops, without damaging the delicate surface.cite web|url=|title=Providing Information to Pedestrians|publisher=FHWA|accessdate=2007-09-25] Unlike other winter service vehicles, snow sweepers do not compress the snow, leaving a rough, high friction, surface behind them. This makes snow sweepers the most efficient method of snow removal for snow depths below 10 centimetres (4 in). [cite web|url=|title=Snow sweepers|publisher=Grünig Industriemaschinen|accessdate=2007-07-22] Snow deeper than this however can clog the brushes, and most snow sweepers cannot be used to clear snow deeper than 15 centimetres (6 in). A more advanced version of the snow sweeper is the jet sweeper, which adds an air-blower just behind the brushes, in order to blow the swept snow clear of the pavement and prevent the loosened snow from settling.

urface friction tester

The surface friction tester is a small fifth wheel attached to a hydraulic system mounted on the rear axle of the vehicle, used to measure road slipperiness. The wheel, allowed to roll freely, is slightly turned relative to the ground so that it partially slides. Sensors attached to the axis of the wheel calculate the friction between the wheel and the pavement by measuring the torque produced by the rotation of the wheel. Surface friction testers are used at airports and on major roadways before ice formation or after snow removal.cite web|url=|title=MK IV rear axle system|publisher=Airport Surface Friction Testers|accessdate=2007-02-09] The vehicle can relay the surface friction data back to the control centre, allowing gritting and clearing to be planned so that the vehicles are deployed most efficiently. [cite web|url=|title= Aircraft De-icing|publisher=Dresden Airport|accessdate=2007-02-09] Surface friction testers often include a water spraying system, to simulate the effects of rain on the road surface before the rain occurs. The sensors are usually mounted to small compact or estate cars or to a small trailer, rather than the large trucks used for other winter service equipment, as the surface friction tester works best when attached to a lightweight vehicle. [cite web|url=|title=ASFT VW Sharan Road Surface Friction Tester|publisher=Airport Surface Friction Testers|accessdate=2007-04-19] [cite web|url=|title=ASFT T-10 Trailer Road Surface Friction Tester|publisher=Airport Surface Friction Testers|accessdate=2007-04-19]


Further reading

*cite book|title=Handbook of Snow: Principles, Processes, Management and Use|first=Donald|last=Gray|coauthors=Male, David|year=1981|publisher=Pergamon|isbn=0080253741
*cite book|title=Highway Maintenance Handbook|chapter=Winter Maintenance|publisher=Thomas Telford|first= Derek|last= Pearson|year= 1990|isbn=0727725319
*cite book|title=Highway Meteorology|coauthors=Perry, Allen Howard|last=Symons|first=Leslie|publisher=Spon Press|isbn=0419156704|year=1991
*cite book|title=Chemical Deicers and the Environment|first=Frank M.|last=D'Itri|year=1992|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=0873717058
*cite book|title=Snow in the Cities: A History of America's Urban Response|first=Blake|last=McKelvey|date=December 7, 1995|publisher=University of Rochester Press|isbn=1878822543
*cite book|title=Snow Engineering: Recent Advances|first=Ronald L.|last=Sack|coauthors=Izumi, Masanori; Nakamura, Tsutomu|year=1997|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=9054108657
*cite book|title=Snow and Ice Control Manual for Transportation Facilities|first=L. David|last=Minsk|year=1998|publisher=McGraw Hill|isbn=0070428093
*cite book|title=Highway Winter Maintenance: ICE Design and Practice Guide|publisher=Thomas Telford|author=Institution of Civil Engineers|year=2000|isbn=0727729578
*cite paper |author=A Bergström, Kungl|title=Winter Maintenance and Cycleways|publisher=Royal Institute of Technology|date=May 28, 2002|url=|format=PDF
*cite book|title=Snow and Ice Control: Guidelines for Materials and Methods|last=Blackburn|first=Robert R.|publisher=Transportation Research Board|year=2004|isbn=0309087996
*cite book|title=Winter Highway Operations|last=Conger|first=Steven M.|publisher=Transportation Research Board|year=2005|isbn=0309097479

External links

* [ Snow removal site links] —National Snow and Ice Data Center

;Road snow removal
* [ Master Plan for Snow and Ice Control] —City of Sapporo
* [ Driving in adverse weather conditions] —The Highway Code
* [ Winter Service] —The Highways Agency
* [ XII International Winter Roads Congress] —World Road Association
* [ XIII International Winter Roads Congress] —World Road Association
* [ Snow Removal and Snow Driving] —Virginia Department of Transportation
* [ Photograph: Road rolling-about 1885-under direction of James Little, overseer of highways, Calumet Township, Michigan, USA] -The Bentley Historical Library

;Airport snow removal
* [ Winter services at Dresden Airport] —Dresden Airport
* [ Snow & Ice Control Procedures] —St. Louis Downtown Airport
* [ Snow clearance at Vnukovo International Airport] —Vnukovo International Airport

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