- Symphony No. 8 (Shostakovich)
The Symphony No. 8 in C minor (Opus 65) by
Dmitri Shostakovichwas written in the summer of 1943, and first performed on November 4 of that year by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestraunder Yevgeny Mravinsky, to whom the work is dedicated.
symphonyis vaguely in the tradition of C minor"tragedy to triumph" symphonies begun with Beethoven's Fifth and including Bruckner's Eighth and Mahler's Second; although, there is considerable dispute over just how optimistic the ending is, since it ends very quietly. Shostakovich's friend Isaak Glikman called the symphony "his most tragic work". [Wilson p. 174.]
The first movement is the longest at almost half an hour. Like the Beethoven symphony, it begins with a dramatic motif played fortissimo in
octaves, characterised by David Haas in his study as a "fate" motif: [Haas p. 128.] (Audio| |listen)
However, the motif is immediately replaced by the two subjects of this
sonata formmovement, both lyrical in character. In the development section, the second subject is brutalised before militaristic marches come to dominate. The recapitulation sees a dissonant version of the fate motif displaced by a cor anglaissolo which meanders towards a restatement of the second subject.
The composer described the short second movement
allegrettoas "a march with elements of a scherzo"; the third movement (conventionally described as a toccata[Haas p. 125.] ) is again short, driven onwards by motor rhythms: (Audio| |listen)
This movement has been interpreted as a depiction of battle, or (by
Kurt Sanderling) as "the crushing of the individual" by the Soviet system.It features an interesting quote of the Sabre Dancefrom Aram Khachaturian, composed the year before.It is linked to the penultimate movement, a passacaglia, which in turn (as in Beethoven's fifth) leads directly into the C majorfinale, around 15 minutes in length. However in contrast to Beethoven's exuberant conclusion, Shostakovich provides a pastoral rondoin which solo woodwinds again dominate. The movement begins with a passage for solo bassoon, and ends quietly with both pizzicatoand sustaining strings; for some additional color, a solo flutejoins in for the last note of the motive, at the very bottom of its range. The pizzicato material is an inverted version of the symphony's opening fate motif, and is connected by Haas to a similar passage for sopranovoice in the fifth movement of Mahler's Second. Here, however, there is no resurrection: "The hero who announced himself using the voices of cor anglais and bassoon has not clearly triumphed, merely survived". [Haas, p. 134.]
The weight of the first and final movements of the symphony is centered on simultaneous crescendos of the snare and bass drums, while trumpets call to the pinnacle which is overlayed by woodwind trills.
A second interval is used as a motif throughout the symphony: C B-flat C in the opening motif of the first movement, D-flat C D-flat in the theme of the second movement, E F E in the third movement (here separated by an octave), and C D C in the last movement.
The symphony is scored for a large orchestra which consists of 4
flutes (3rd and 4th doubling piccolos), 2 oboes, cor anglais, 2 clarinets, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, 3 bassoons (3rd doubling contrabassoon), 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, tambourine, cymbals, snare drum, triangle, xylophone, tamtam, and strings.
In a letter to Glikman, the composer parodied the response he expected from the government:
I am sure that it will give rise to valuable critical observations which will both inspire me to future creative work and provide insights enabling me to review that which I have created in the past. Rather than take a step backward I shall thus succeed in taking one forward." [Glikman p. 22.]
It was indeed not well received, although reviews were tepid rather than scathing. The bleak tone, and in particular the lack of an optimistic conclusion, made it unsuitable as
propagandaat home or abroad. Shostakovich's friend Ivan Sollertinskynoted that, "the music is significantly tougher and more astringent than the Fifth or the Seventh and for that reason is unlikely to become popular". [Mikheyeva, I.I. Sollertinsky:zhizn' i naslediye.] The government responded by giving it the subtitle the " StalingradSymphony" and portraying it as a memorial to those killed in that battle. The symphony was criticised by Prokofiev and others at a Composers' Plenum in March 1944, [Fay p. 138] and after the Zhdanov decreeof 1948 it was effectively banned until eight years later. The symphony was rehabilitated in October 1956, in a performance by the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestraconducted by Samuil Samosud. [Fay p. 205]
*Fay, Laurel (1999). "Shostakovich: A Life". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513438-9.
*Haas, David. "Shostakovich's Eighth:C minor Symphony against the Grain" in Bartlett (ed) "Shostakovich in Context".
*Shostakovich, Dmitri and Glikman, Isaak (2001). "Story of a Friendship: The Letters of Dmitry Shostakovich to Isaak Glikman". Cornell Univ Press. ISBN 0-8014-3979-5.
*Wilson, Elizabeth (1994). "Shostakovich: A Life Remembered". Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04465-1.
* [http://www.shostakovich.com/nov2000.html#sho8 London Shostakovich Orchestra]
* [http://musicinwords.free.fr/dschwords.htm An interpretation of the work in words]
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