List of essential oils

List of essential oils

Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. Essential oils are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. Essential oils are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques such as distillation (including steam distillation), cold pressing, or extraction (maceration). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.

* Agar oil, distilled from Agarwood ("Aquilaria malaccensis"). Highly prized for its fragrance. [cite web
* Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of Bishop’s weed ("Carum copticum"). Oil contains 35-65% thymol. [ [ Ajwain Essential Oil] , from the [] Web site, which sells essential oils.]
* Angelica root oil, distilled from the "Angelica archangelica". [cite web
title=Angelica Root
* Anise oil, from the "Pimpinella anisum", rich odor of licorice, used medicinally. [cite web
* Asafoetida, used medicinally and to flavor food.
* Balsam oil, from the "Myroxylon pereirae". [cite web
title=Balsam, Peru
* Basil oil is used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy
* Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
* Black Pepper essential oil is distilled from the berries of "Piper nigrum". The warm,soothing effect makes it ideal for treating muscle aches, pains and strains.
* Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally.
* Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles. [ [ Hemp: A New Crop with New Uses for North America] , from the [ Purdue University NewCROP Web site] .]
* Caraway oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent. [ [ Caraway oil] , from the [ Victoria, Australia Department of Primary Industries Web site] .]
* Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc. [ [ Cardamom Oleoresin] , from the [] Web site, which sells essential oils.]
* Carrot seed oil (essential oil), used in aromatherapy.
* Cedarwood oil, primarily used in perfumes and fragrances. [ [ Common Uses of Cedarwood Oil] from the [ Texarome] Web site. Texarome manufactures essential oils from cedarwood, sandalwood, vetiver and lime.]
* Chamomile oil, There are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy- Roman and German. Both have similar healing properties but German chamomile contains a higher level of azulin (an anti-inflammatory agent).
* Calamus Root, used medicinally
* Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring and medicinally.
* "Cistus" species
* Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent, as well as medicinally.
* Clary Sage
* Clove leaf oil, used as a topical anesthetic to relieve dental pain.
* Coffee, used to flavor food.
* Coriander
* Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), from the "Tanacetum balsamita" [cite web|url=|title=Costmary: A Historical and Useful herb|accessdate=2006-08-05] [cite web|url=|title=Costmary Oil|accessdate=2006-08-05]
* Costus Root, used medicinally
* Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.
* Cubeb, used medicinally and to flavor foods.
* Cumin oil/Black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products. Also used in veterinary medicine.
* Cypress
* Cypriol
* Curry Leaf, used medicinally and to flavor food.
* Davana oil, from the "Artemisia pallens", used as a perfume ingredient and as a germicide. [cite web
title=Davana oil
publisher=The Good Scents Company
* Dill oil, chemically almost identical to caraway seed oil. High carvone content.
* Elecampane, used medicinally.
* Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide. Commonly used in cough medicine, among other medicinal uses. [ [,1525,778,00.html Eucalyptus oil] , from the [ Whole Health MD Web site] .]
* Fennel seed oil, used medicinally, particularly for treating colic in infants.
* Fenugreek oil, used medicinally and for cosmetics from ancient times.
* Fir
* Frankincense oil, used for aromatherapy and in perfumes.
* Galangal, used medicinally and to flavor food.
* Galbanum
* Geranium oil, used medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy, used for hormonal imbalance, for this reason geranium is often considered to be "female" oil.
* Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures.
* Goldenrod
* Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene. [ [ About Grapefruit Essential Oil] , from the [ FrontierCoop Web site] ]
* Henna oil, used medicinally. [ [ Shamana Fragrances] , from the [] Web site. Description of henna, and their henna oil product (branded Shamana Perfume Oil).]
* Helichrysum
* Hyssop
* Idaho Tansy
* Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.
* Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor. Also used medicinally, including traditional medicine.
* "Laurus nobilis"
* Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance. Also used medicinally. [cite book|url=|author=Julia Lawless|title=Lavendar oil|publisher=HarperCollins|date=1994]
* "Ledum"
* Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used medicinally, as an antiseptic, and in cosmetics. [ [ Lemon Essential Oil] , from the [ FrontierCoop Web site] ]
* Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highy fragrant grass from India. In India, it is used to help treat fevers and infections. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.
* "Litsea cubeba" oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy.
* Marjoram
* Melaleuca See Tea tree oil
* Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil used primarily medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy.
* "Mentha arvensis" oil/Mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. [ [ "Mentha arvensis" Oil] , from the Web page of the Nepalese company [ Natural Resources Industry] ]
* Mountain Savory
* Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin. [ [ Mugwort oil ("Artemisia vulgaris")] , from the [ EssentialOils Web site] (which sells essential oils).]
* Mustard oil (essential oil), containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard
* Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell. Used medicinally.
* Myrtle
* Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.
* Nutmeg
* Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods. [ [ Orange Oil Applications] from the [ Florida Chemical] Web site. Florida Chemical sells citrus oils.]
* Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol, making it a useful fungicide. Also used to treat digestive problems. [ [,1525,10116,00.html Oregano oil] , from the [ Whole Health MD Web site] .]
* Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris ("Iris florentina") and used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally. [cite web
publisher=Encyclopaedia Britannica
title=Orris oil
* Palo Santo
* Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men’s fragrances. [ [ Parsley Herb] , from the [ Essential 7] Web site. (Essential 7 sells essential oils).]
* Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.
* Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50-60% perillaldehyde.
* Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage. [ [ Pennyroyal oil (Mentha pulegium)] , from the [ EssentialOils Web site] ]
* Peppermint oil, used in a wide variety of medicinal applications.
* Petitgrain
* Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.
* Ravensara
* Red Cedar
* Roman Chamomile
* Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, Used primarily as a fragrance.
* Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the "Rosa rubiginosa" or "Rosa mosqueta". Used medicinally.
* Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of "Rosmarinus officinalis". Used in aromatherapy, topically to sooth muscles, and medicinal for its antibacterial and antifungal properties. [ [,1525,872,00.html Rosemary] , from the [ Whole Health MD Web site] .]
* Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Also used medicinally.
* Sage oil, used medicinally.
* Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance. [cite book|url=|title=Flavours and fragances of plant origin|chapter=Sandalwood oil|accessdate=2006-07-25|author=FAO]
* Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, "inter alia".
* Savory oil, from Satureja species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications.
* Schisandra oil, from "Schisandra chinensis", used medicinally.
* Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.
* Spikenard, used medicinally.
* Spruce
* Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. [cite book|title=Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography|author=J.E. Simon, A.F. Chadwick and L.E. Craker|chapter=Anise|date=1984|url=, cited on the [ Purdue Center for New Crops Web site] ] 90% of the world's star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for avian flu
* Tangerine
* Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus, used medicinally.
* Tea tree oil, distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, used medicinally.
* Thyme oil, used medicinally. Being powerful antiseptic, antibacterial and antiviral agent, tea tree's ability to fight infection is second to none.
* Tsuga
* Turmeric, used medicinally and to flavor food
* Valerian, used medicinally
* Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy
* Western red cedar
* Wintergreen
* Yarrow oil is used medicinally, to relieve joint pain
* Ylang-ylang
* Zedoary, used medicinally and to flavor food


* Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy and Herbalism (ISBN 1852307218)


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