- Volatility (chemistry)
Volatility in the context of
chemistry, physicsand thermodynamicsis a measure of the tendency of a substance to vaporize. It has also been defined as a measure of how readily a substance vaporizes. At a given temperature, substances with higher vapor pressures will vaporize more readily than substances with a lower vapor pressure. [ [http://www.bae.uky.edu/~snokes/BAE549thermo/gasesvapor.htm Gases and Vapor] ( University of Kentuckywebsite)] [ [http://www.coop.engr.uvic.ca/engrweb/whmis/terms.html#V Definition of Terms] ( University of Victoriawebsite)] [cite book|author=James G. Speight|title=The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum|Edition=4th Edition|publisher=CRC Press|date=2006|id=ISBN 0-8493-9067-2] [cite book|author=Kister, Henry Z.|title= Distillation Design|edition=1st Edition|publisher=McGraw-hill|year=1992|id=ISBN 0-07-034909-6]
Although usually applying to
liquids, volatility can apply to solidmaterials such as dry ice(solid carbon dioxide) and ammonium chloride, which can change directly from solid to vaporwithout becoming liquid. The direct transition of a solid to a vapor is called sublimation.
Relation between vapor pressures and normal boiling points of liquids
Vapor pressure is the
pressureof a vapor which is in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases (i.e., liquid or solid). Most often the term is used to describe a liquid's tendency to evaporate. It is a measure of the tendency of molecules and atoms to escape from a liquid or a solid. A liquid's atmospheric pressureboiling point corresponds to the temperatureat which its vapor pressure is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure and it is often called the normal boiling point.
The higher the vapor pressure of a liquid at a given temperature, the higher the volatility and the lower the normal boiling point of the liquid.
The vapor pressure chart to the right has graphs of the vapor pressures versus temperatures for a variety of liquids. [cite book|author=Perry, R.H. and Green, D.W. (Editors)|title=
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook|edition=7th Edition|publisher=McGraw-Hill|year=1997|id= ISBN 0-07-049841-5] As can be seen in the chart, the liquids with the highest vapor pressures have the lowest normal boiling points.
For example, at any given temperature,
propanehas the highest vapor pressure of any of the liquids in the chart. It also has the lowest normal boiling point(-43.7 °C), which is where the vapor pressure curve of propane (the purple line) intersects the horizontal pressure line of one atmosphere (atm) of absolute vapor pressure.
* [http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/volatility.html Volatility from ilpi.com]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.