- Yakov Knyazhnin
Yakov Borisovich Knyazhnin (Russian: Я́ков Бори́сович Княжни́н,
November 3 1742or 1740, Pskov– January 1, 1791, St Petersburg) was Russia's foremost tragic authorduring the reign of Catherine the Great. Knyazhnin's contemporaries hailed him as the true successor to his father-in-law Alexander Sumarokov, but posterity, in the words of Vladimir Nabokov , tended to view his tragedies and comedies as "awkwardly imitated from more or less worthless French models" ["Eugene Onegin: A Novel in Verse: Commentary". Princeton University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-691-01904-5. Page 82.] .
Knyazhnin was born into the family of the vice-governor of
Pskov. From 1750 he studied in the gymnasium at the Academyin St Petersburg. In 1755 he was a cadet of the Justice Board; and in 1757 translator at the Construction Office. In 1762 he was in military service as a secretary of Kirill Razumovsky.
In 1773 he was sentenced to death for spending 6,000 roubles of fiscal money, however the sentence was reduced: he was deprived of the rank of officer and his
nobility. In 1777 he obtained the forgiveness of the Empress Catherine II, and received back his nobility and officer rank. He was employed by Ivan Betskoyas his secretary. Soon he left into the resignation. He taught Russian Literatureat the Military School. He was a member of Russian Academyfrom 1783.
The son of Knyazhnin in a biographic essay about this father wrote that he died of "catarrhal fever". This seems to be more accurate than another version, propagated by
Pushkin, which claims that Knyazhnin died from torture at the hands of the secret police.
Knyazhnin's contemporary success rested largely on his witty comedies "The Braggart" (1786) and "The Cranks" (1790). The latter revolves around the theme of favouritism, of the unexpectedly quick rise in rank, which was topical in Catherine's reign, and considered risqué. [Robert Leach, Victor Borovsky. "A History of Russian Theatre". Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-43220-0. Page 70.]
He also wrote six
comic operas operas and eight tragedies, which, as D.S. Mirskyput it, "breathe an almost revolutionary spirit of political freethinking" [ D.S. Mirsky. "A History of Russian Literature". Northwestern University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8101-1679-0. Page 54.] . Almost everything he wrote was immediately published by the decree of Catherine the Great. Most of his plays and operas were staged at the Hermitage Theatrein St Petersburg.
Among his other works are poems and translations including works by
Voltaireand Corneille. Writing his plays and opera librettos, Knyaznin often borrowed some ideas from Voltaire, Metastasio, Molièreand Carlo Goldonideveloping them and putting in different context. He imitated these models so extensively that Alexander Pushkinlater referred to him as "Knyazhnin the Borrower" (or "derivative Knyazhnin" — «переимчивый Княжнин», see [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0691019045&id=wt3L9-Wy9MwC&pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&vq=knyazhnin&dq=nabokov+onegin&sig=qQGuErq_-Sgcnab_Rs5vf2yro_Q details] ).
Knyazhnin's last tragedy, "Vadim of Novgorod" (1789), was inspired by Catherine II's treatment of Vadim's revolt against
Rurikin her own play "From Ryurik's Life". Disputing with her, Knyazhnin depicted Vadim as a champion of Novgorod's ancient liberties who has to stab himself in the face of triumphant authoritorianism. When the play was posthumously published in 1793, the Empress had it banned as a "literary revolt". Against the background of the French Revolution, it was decided wise to burn all the copies. "Vadim of Novgorod" was never staged and was not reprinted in Russia until 1914.
*"Dido" ("Дидона – Didona"), a tragedy 1769. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/01.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/01.htm Comments.]
*"Olga" ("Ольга"), a tragedy 1776–1778. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/02.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/02.htm Comments.]
*"Rosslav" ("Росслав"), a tragedy in 5 acts, publ. 1784 St Petersburg [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/03.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/03.htm Comments.]
Vadim the Boldor Vadim of Novgorod (Вадим Новгородский – Vadim Novgorogsky), a tragedy 1788 or 1789, publ. 1793. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/04.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/04.htm Comments.]
* "The Braggart" ("Хвастун" – Khvastun), a comedy 1784–1785 publ. 1786. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/05.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/05.htm Comments.]
*"The Cranks" ("Чудаки – Chudaki"), a comedy c1790, publ. 1793. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/06.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/06.htm Comments.]
*"The Carriage Accident" ("Несчастие от кареты – Neschactye ot karety") opera with music by
Vasily Pashkevich, premiere: November 7 1779, Hermitage Theatre. St Petersburg[http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/07.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/07.htm Comments.]
*"The Miser" ("Скупой – Skupoy") opera with music by
Vasily Pashkevich, c 1782. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/08.htm Fragments] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/08.htm Comments.]
SbitenVendor" ("Сбитенщик – Sbitenshchik") opera with music by Anton Bullandtalso known as Antoine Bullantor Jean Bullant 1783. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/09.htm Fragments] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/09.htm Comments.]
*"Orpheus" ("Орфей – Orfey") opera-melodrama with music by
Giuseppe Torelli, premiere April 30, 1763, later with music by Yevstigney Fomin, premiere: February 5 1795. [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/01text/01theatre/10.htm Text.] [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/02comm/10.htm Comments.]
:"Волшебный край! там в стары годы,:Сатиры смелый властелин,:Блистал Фонвизин, друг свободы,:И переимчивый Княжнин;":
:"Enchanted land! There like a lampion:That king of the satiric scene,:Fonvizin sparkled, freedom's champion,:And the derivative Knyazhnín." :
Alexander Pushkin, Eugene Onegin, (Chapter I, XVIII), translated by Charles H. Johnston")
*"Fomin, Yevstigney Ipat'yevich" by
Richard Taruskin, in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie( London, 1992) ISBN 0-333-73432-7
*ru icon [http://www.hrono.ru/biograf/knyazhnin.html Biography]
*ru icon [http://politzeki.mypeople.ru/users/politzeki/wiki/istoriia/ Political prisoners]
*ru icon [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/ Russian library online]
*ru icon [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/toc.htm Selected works]
*ru icon [http://www.rvb.ru/18vek/knyazhnin/03article/intro.htm Life and work]
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