- Latin American literature
Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as
magical realism. As such, the region's literature is often associated solely with this style (and its most famous exponent, Gabriel García Márquez). This largely obscures a rich and complex tradition of literary production that dates back many centuries.
Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the
Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quichéof Guatemala.
From the very moment of Europe's "discovery" of the continent, early explorers and
conquistadoresproduced written accounts and crónicasof their experience--such as Columbus's letters or Bernal Díaz del Castillo's description of the conquest of Mexico. At times, colonial practices stirred a lively debate about the ethics of colonization and the status of the indigenous peoples, as reflected for instance in Bartolomé de las Casas's "Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias".
During the colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruzwrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento(1816). The "libertadores" themselves were also often distinguished writers, such as Simón Bolívarand Andrés Bello.
The 19th Century was a period of "foundational fictions" (in critic
Doris Sommer's words), novels in the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, and which often focused on the indigenous question or the dichotomy of "civilization or barbarism," for which see, say, the Argentine Domingo Sarmiento's " Facundo" (1845), the Colombian Jorge Isaacs's "María", Ecuadorian Juan León Mera's " Cumandá" (1879), or the Brazilian Euclides da Cunha's " Os Sertões" (1902). Such works are still the bedrocks of national canons, and usually mandatory elements of high school curricula.
Another instance of 19th Century Latin American literature is
José Hernández's epic poem " Martín Fierro" (1872). The story of a poor gauchodrafted to fight a frontier war against Indians, " Martín Fierro" is an example of the "gauchesque", an Argentine genre of poetry centered around the lives of gauchos.
Modernismo and Boom precursors
In the late 19th Century, "
modernismo" emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío's " Azul" (1888). This was the first Latin American literary movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in that national differences were no longer so much at issue. José Martí, for instance, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico and the USA and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere. And in 1900 the Uruguayan José Enrique Rodówrote what became read as a manifesto for the region's cultural awakening, "Ariel".
Though modernismo itself is often seen as aestheticist and anti-political, some poets and essayists, Martí among them but also the Peruvians
Manuel González Pradaand José Carlos Mariátegui, introduced compelling critiques of the contemporary social order and particularly the plight of Latin America's indigenous peoples. So the early twentieth century also saw the rise of indigenismo, a movement dedicated to representing indigenous culture and the injustices that such communities were undergoing, as for instance with the Peruvian José María Arguedasand the Mexican Rosario Castellanos.
Jorge Luis Borgesinvented what was almost a new genre, the philosophical short story, and would go on to become one of the most influential of all Latin American writers. At the same time, Roberto Arltoffered a very different style, closer to mass culture and popular literature, reflecting the urbanization and European immigration that was shaping the Southern Cone.
Notable figures in Brazil at this time include the exceptional novelist and short story writer Machado de Assis, whose both ironic view and deep psychological analysis introduced a universal scope in Brazilian prose, the modernist poets
Mário de Andrade, Oswald de Andrade(whose " Manifesto Antropófago" praised Brazilian powers of transculturation), and Carlos Drummond de Andrade.
Mexican Revolutioninspired novels such as Mariano Azuela's " Los de abajo", a committed work of social realism and the revolution and its aftermath would continue to be a point of reference for Mexican literaturefor many decades. In the 1940s, the Cuban novelist and musicologist Alejo Carpentiercoined the term " lo real maravilloso" and, along with the Mexican Juan Rulfoand the Guatemalan Miguel Ángel Asturias, would prove a precursor of the Boom and its signature style of "magic realism."
Poetry after Modernismo
Twentieth-century poetry in Latin America has often expressed love and political commitment, particularly given the model provided by Chilean
Nobellaureate Pablo Neruda, and followed by such poets as the Nicaraguan Ernesto Cardenaland Salvadoran Roque Dalton.
Other significant poets include the Cuban
Nicolás Guillén, the Puerto Rican Giannina Braschi, and the Uruguayan Mario Benedetti, not to mention the Nobel laureates Gabriela Mistraland Octavio Paz, the latter also a distinguished critic and essayist, famous particularly for his book on Mexican culture, " The Labyrinth of Solitude".
World War II, Latin America enjoyed increasing economic prosperity, and a new-found confidence also gave rise to a literary boom. From 1960 to 1967, the major works of the boom were published. Many of these novels were somewhat rebellious from the general point of view of Latin America culture. Authors crossed traditional boundaries, experimented with language, and often mixed different styles of writing in their works.
Structures of literary works were also changing. Inspired by North American and European authors such as
William Faulkner, James Joyce, and Virginia Woolf, Boom novels were often non-linear, disregarding conventional rules, and introducing techniques such as internal monologues. Latin American authors were also inspired by each others' works; many of the authors knew one another and influenced each other's styles.
The Boom really put Latin American literature on the global map. It was distinguished by daring and experimental novels such as
Julio Cortázar's "Rayuela" (1963), that were frequently published in Spain and quickly translated into English. From 1966 to 1968, Emir Rodríguez Monegalpublished his influential Latin American literature monthly " Mundo Nuevo", with excerpts of unreleased novels from then-new writers such as Guillermo Cabrera Infanteor Severo Sarduy, including two chapters of Gabriel García Márquez's "Cien años de soledad" in 1966. In 1967, the published book was the Boom's defining novel, which led to the association of Latin American literature with magic realism, though other important writers of the period such as Mario Vargas Llosaand Carlos Fuentesdo not fit so easily within this framework. Arguably, the Boom's culmination was Augusto Roa Bastos's monumental " Yo, el supremo" (1974). Other important novelists of the period include the Chilean José Donosoand the Cuban Guillermo Cabrera Infante.
Though the literary boom occurred while Latin America was having commercial success, the works of this period tended to move away from the positives of the modernization that was underway. Instead literary works focused on the problems and injustices that people were suffering across Latin America.
Political turmoil in Latin American countries such as
Cubaat this time influenced the literary boom as well. Some works anticipated an end to the prosperity that was occurring, and even predicted old problems would resurface in the near future. Their works foreshadowed the events to come in the future of Latin America, with the 1970s and 1980s dictatorships, economic turmoil, and Dirty Wars.
Post-Boom and Contemporary Literature Anchor|Post-Boom and Contemporary Literature
Post-Boom literature is sometimes characterized by a tendency towards irony and towards the use of popular genres, as in the case of the work of
Manuel Puig. Some writers felt the success of the Boom to be a burden, and spiritedly denounced the caricature that reduces Latin American literature to magical realism. Hence the Chilean Alberto Fuguetcame up with McOndoas an antidote to the Macondo-ism that demanded of all aspiring writers that they set their tales in steamy tropical jungles in which the fantastic and the real happily coexisted. In a mock diary by post-modernist Giannina Braschi the Narrator of the Latin American Boom is shot by a Macy's make-up artist who accuses the Boom of capitalizing on her solitude.  Other writers, however, have traded on the Boom's success: see for instance Laura Esquivel's pastiche of magical realism in "Como agua para chocolate".
Overall, contemporary literature in the region is vibrant and varied, ranging from the best-selling
Paulo Coelhoand Isabel Allendeto the more avant-garde and critically acclaimed work of writers such as Diamela Eltit, Giannina Braschi, Luisa Valenzuela, Ricardo Piglia, Roberto Ampuero, Jorge Marchant L., Alicia Yánez, Jaime Marchán, Jaime Bayly, Manfredo Kempff, Edmundo Paz S., Gioconda Belli, Jorge Franco, Mario Mendozaor Roberto Bolaño. Other important figures include the Argentine César Airaor the Colombian Fernando Vallejo, whose "La virgen de los sicarios" depicted the violence in a Medellín under the influence of the drug trade.
There has also been considerable attention paid to the genre of testimonio, texts produced in collaboration with subaltern subjects such as
Finally, a new breed of chroniclers is represented by the more journalistic
Carlos Monsiváisand Pedro Lemebel, who draw also on the long-standing tradition of essayistic production as well as the precedents of engaged and creative non-fiction represented by, say, the Uruguayan Eduardo Galeanoand the Mexican Elena Poniatowska.
Arguably the most eminent Latin American author of any century is the Argentine
Jorge Luis Borges. According to literary critic Harold Bloom, "Of all Latin American authors in this century, he is the most universal... If you read Borges frequently and closely, you become something of a Borgesian, because to read him is to activate an awareness of literature in which he has gone farther than anybody else." [1|The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994.] Perhaps the most important novel to emerge out of Latin America in the 20th century is Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "Cien Anos de Soledad"; Borges opined that it was "the Don Quixote of Latin America." [2|Jorge Luis Borges: Conversations. Ed. Richard Burgin. Univ Of Miss. 1998.] Among the greatest poets of the 20th century is Pablo Neruda; according to Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Neruda "is the greatest poet of the 20th century, in any language."
The most important literary prize of the Spanish language is widely considered to be the
Cervantes Prizeof Spain. Latin American authors who have won this prestigious award include: Juan Gelman(Argentina), Sergio Pitol(Mexico), Gonzalo Rojas(Chile), Álvaro Mutis(Colombia), Jorge Edwards(Chile), Guillermo Cabrera Infante(Cuba), Mario Vargas Llosa(Perú), Dulce María Loynaz(Cuba), Adolfo Bioy Casares(Argentina), Augusto Roa Bastos(Paraguay), Carlos Fuentes(Mexico), Ernesto Sabato(Argentina), Octavio Paz(Mexico), Juan Carlos Onetti(Uruguay), Jorge Luis Borges(Argentina) and Alejo Carpentier(Cuba).
Latin American authors who have won the most prestigious literary award in the world, the
Nobel Prize for Literature, include: Octavio Paz(Mexico), Gabriel García Márquez(Colombia), Pablo Neruda(Chile), Miguel Ángel Asturias(Guatemala), and Gabriela Mistral(Chile).
Neustadt International Prize for Literature, perhaps the most important international literary award after the Nobel Prize, counts several Latin American authors among its recipients; they include: Claribel Alegría (Nicaragua), Álvaro Mutis (Colombia), João Cabral de Melo Neto (Brazil), Octavio Paz (Mexico), and Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia). Candidates for the prize include: Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Marjorie Agosin (Chile), Eduardo Galeano (Uruguay), Homero Aridjis(Mexico), Luis Fernando Verissimo (Brazil), Augusto Monterroso (Guatemala), Ernesto Cardenal (Nicaragua), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Jorge Amado (Brazil), Ernesto Sábato (Argentina), Carlos Drummond de Andrade (Brazil), and Pablo Neruda (Chile).
Other important international literary awards are the
Jerusalem Prize, whose winners include: Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Octavio Paz (Mexico), and Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina); the Romulo Gallegos Prize, whose winners include: Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Fernando del Paso(Mexico), Abel Posse (Argentina), Manuel Mejía Vallejo (Colombia), Arturo Uslar Pietri (Venezuela), Mempo Giardinelli (Argentina), Ángeles Mastretta(Mexico), Roberto Bolaño (Chile), Fernando Vallejo (Colombia), and Elena Poniatowska(Mexico); and the Juan Rulfo Prize: Nicanor Parra (Chile), Juan José Arreola(Mexico), Eliseo Diego (Cuba), Julio Ramón Ribeyro (Peru), Nélida Piñón (Brazil), Augusto Monterroso (Guatemala), Olga Orozco (Argentina), Sergio Pitol(Mexico), Juan Gelman (Argentina), Juan García Ponce(Mexico), Cintio Vitier (Cuba), Rubem Fonseca (Brazil), Tomás Segovia(Mexico), Carlos Monsiváis(Mexico), and Fernando del Paso (Mexico).
Winners of Mexico's
Alfonso Reyes Prizeinclude: Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Alejo Carpentier (Cuba), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Ernesto Mejía Sánchez (Nicaragua), José Luis Martínez(Mexico), Rubén Bonifaz Nuño(Mexico), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Alí Chumacero(Mexico), Gutierre Tibón(Mexico), Ramón Xirau(Mexico), Adolfo Bioy Casares (Argentina), Andrés Henestrosa(Mexico), Arnaldo Orfila Reynal (Argentina), Joaquín Diez Canedo(Mexico), Germán Arciniegas (Colombia), Juan José Arreola(Mexico), Arturo Uslar Pietri (Venezuela), Miguel León-Portilla(Mexico), Rafael Gutiérrez Girardot (Colombia), José Emilio Pacheco(Mexico), and Antonio Candido (Brazil).
Latin American authors who figured in prominent literary critic Harold Bloom's "The Western Canon" list of the most enduring works of world literature include: Rubén Dário, Jorge Luis Borges, Alejo Carpentier, Guillermo Cabrera Infante, Severo Sarduy, Reinaldo Arenas, Pablo Neruda, Octavio Paz, César Vallejo, Miguel Angel Asturias, José Lezama Lima, José Donoso, Julio Cortázar, Gabriel Garcia Márquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Carlos Fuentes, and Carlos Drummond de Andrade.
Brazilian authors who have won the Camoes Prize, the most prestigious literary award in the Portuguese language, include: João Cabral de Melo Neto, Rachel de Queiroz, Jorge Amado, Antonio Candido, Autran Dourado, Rubem Fonseca, and Lygia Fagundes Telles. Some notable authors who have won Brazil's
Prêmio Machado de Assisinclude: Rachel de Queiroz,Cecília Meireles, João Guimarães Rosa, Érico Veríssimo, Lúcio Cardoso, and Ferreira Gullar.
Chronology: Late 19th Century-Present Day
*1915 "Los de abajo"
*1922 "Paulicéia desvairada"
Mário de Andrade(Brasil)
*1924 "La vorágine"
José Eustasio Rivera(Colombia)
*1926 "Don Segundo Sombra"
*1929 "Doña Bárbara"
*1929 "Los siete locos"
*1940 "La invención de Morel"
Adolfo Bioy Casares(Argentina)
*1940 "Mamita Yunai"
Carlos Luis Fallas(Costa Rica)
Jorge Luis Borges(Argentina)
*1946 "El señor presidente"
Miguel Ángel Asturias(Guatemala)
*1948 "El túnel"
*1948 "Adán Buenosayres"
*1949 "Hombres de maiz"
Miguel Angel Asturias(Guatemala)
*1949 "El Aleph"
Jorge Luis Borges(Argentina)
*1949 "El reino de este mundo"
*1950 "Canto general"
*1950 "El laberinto de la soledad"
*1950 "La vida breve"
Juan Carlos Onetti(Uruguay)
*1953 "Los pasos perdidos"
*1955 "Pedro Páramo"
*1956 "La hora 0"
*1958 "Gabriela, cravo e canela"
*1962 "Sobre héroes y tumbas"
*1963 "La ciudad y los perros"
Mario Vargas Llosa(Peru)
*1965 "Tres tristes tigres"
Guillermo Cabrera Infante(Cuba)
Jose Lezama Lima(Cuba)
*1966 "Todos los fuegos el fuego"
*1967 "Cien años de soledad"
Gabriel Garcia Marquez(Colombia)
*1967 "Cambio de piel"
*1969 "El mundo alucinante"
*1970 "El Obsceno Pajaro de la Noche"
*1974 "Yo, el supremo"
Augusto Roa Bastos(Paraguay)
*1974 "El limonero real"
Juan José Saer(Argentina)
*1981 "La guerra del fin del mundo"
Mario Vargas Llosa(Peru)
*1982 "La casa de los espíritus"
*1985 "El Desfile del Amor"
*1988 "Escenas de pudor y liviandad"
*1992 "Antes que anochezca"
*1995 "Maqroll el gaviero"
*1998 "Los detectives salvajes"
*2002 "Ojos, de otro mirar: poemas"
Dulce María Loynaz(Cuba)
List of Latin American writers
Latin American poetry
Latin American Boom
Latin American culture
The Dictator Novel
* for writers living in the States and/or writing in English
*The Cambridge companion to the Latin American novel / ed. Efraín Kristal., 2005
*A companion to the literatures of colonial America / ed. Susan P Castillo., 2005
*Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean literature, 1900-2003 / ed. Daniel Balderston., 2004
*Literary cultures of Latin America : a comparative history / ed. Mario J. Valdés., 2004
*Latin American writers at work (Interviews) / ed. George Plimpton., 2003
*Literatures of Latin America: from antiquity to the present / Willis Barnstone., 2003
*Concise encyclopedia of Latin American literature / ed. Verity Smith., 2000
*Latin American literature and its times (12 Volumes) / Joyce Moss., 1999
*Mutual impressions : writers from the Americas reading one another / ed. Ilan Stavans., 1999
*Passion, memory, and identity / ed. Marjorie Agosín., 1999
*A cultural history of Latin America / ed. Leslie Bethell., 1998
*Encyclopedia of Latin American literature / ed. Verity Smith., 1997
*From romanticism to modernismo in Latin America / ed. David William Foster., 1997
*Theoretical debates in Spanish American literature / David William Foster., 1997
*Twentieth-century Spanish American literature to 1960 / David William Foster., 1997
*Twentieth-century Spanish American literature since 1960 / David William Foster., 1997
*The Cambridge history of Latin American literature / ed. Roberto González Echevarría., 1996
*Modern Latin-American fiction writers / ed. William Luis., 1994
*Handbook of Latin American literature / ed. David William Foster., 1992
*Feminist readings on Spanish and Latin-American literature / ed. Lisa P Condé., 1991
*Past, present, and future : selected studies on Latin American Indian literatures / ed. Mary M. Preuss., 1991
*Magical realism and beyond : the contemporary Spanish and Latin American novel / ed. Roy C Boland., 1991
*Modern Latin American fiction (The Critical Cosmos Series) / ed. Harold Bloom., 1990
*Latin American writers (3 Volumes) / ed. Carlos A Solé., 1989
*Philosophy and literature in Latin America : a critical assessment of the current situation / ed. Jorge Gracia., 1989
*Latin American literature in the 20th century : a guide / ed. Leonard S Klein., 1988
*Modern Latin American fiction : a survey / ed. John King., 1987
*In retrospect : essays on Latin American literature / ed. Elizabeth S Rogers., 1987
*Latin America in its literature / ed. César Fernández Moreno., 1980
*Latin American fiction today : a symposium / ed. Rose S Minc., 1979
*Tradition and renewal : essays on twentieth-century Latin American literature and culture / ed. Merlin H Forster., 1975
*Modern Latin American literature (A Library of Literary Criticism) / David William Foster., 1975
*Modern Latin American literature / David Patrick Gallagher., 1973
*Contemporary Latin American literature; a conference / ed. Harvey Leroy Johnson., 1973
"For additional secondary literature bibliographies in English and languages other than English see
Further reading on Latin American Literature"
* [http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/region/literature/ Literature from Latin America] , from LANIC
* [http://www.palabravirtual.com Palabra virtual] Latin American Poetry.
* [http://www.minitextos.org miniTEXTOS.org] Contemporary short-stories, poetry, essays and theatre.
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