- Belinda Stronach
name = Belinda Caroline Stronach
caption = Belinda Stronach at the Liberal leadership convention, December 2006
parliament = Canadian
term_start = 2004 federal election
predecessor = "new riding"
birth_date = birth date and age |1966|05|02
birth_place = Newmarket,
party = Liberal (2005-present)
otherparty = Conservative (2004-2005)
spouse = Donald J. Walker (div.)
Johann Olav Koss(div.)
residence = Aurora
profession = CEO,
Belinda Caroline Stronach, PC, MP (born May 2, 1966 in
Newmarket, Ontario) is a Canadian businessperson, philanthropist, politician, and a Liberal Member of Parliament(MP) in the Canadian House of Commons. From May 17, 2005 to February 6, 2006, she was the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development and Minister responsible for Democratic Renewal. According to Canadian protocol, as a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, she is styled The Honourable Belinda Stronach.
Stronach is the daughter of
Magna Internationalfounder Frank Stronach, and is the former president and chief executive officerof the company. She graduated from Newmarket High Schooland attended York Universityin 1985, where she studied business and economics, but dropped out after one year to work at Magna. She speaks English and German fluently.
Business and public life
Stronach was a member of the
board of directorsof Magna from 1988 until 2004. She became a vice-president of the company in 1995 and executive vice-president in 1999, until her appointment as president and chief executive officer. She has chaired the boards of Decoma International Inc., Tesma International Inc., and Intier Automotive Inc., all in the auto parts sector. She was a founding member of the Canadian Automotive Partnership Council and served on the Ontario Task Force on Productivity, Competitiveness and Economic Progress. She is a director of the Yves Landry Foundation, which furthers technological education and skills training in the manufacturing sector.
In February 2001, she was appointed chief executive officer of Magna, succeeding her ex-husband
Donald J. Walker(who became CEO of Magna spinoff Intier Automotive Inc.), and in January 2002, she also became its president. While CEO, the company added 3,000 jobs in Canada, 1,000 of them being in the Newmarket-Aurora area she now represents in Parliament. In addition, under her leadership Magna had record sales and profits each year. Some attributed her success to her father's continued control of the company despite holding no formal operational role; during her reign at Magna, Frank Stronach remained as Chairman of the Board.
As a CEO, Stronach was more conciliatory to
organized labourthan her father, who was noted for his strong opposition to unions at Magna. While head of Magna, she ceased fighting the United Auto Workersin a dispute before the National Labor Relations Board, and the union organized numerous Magna workers in the United States.
Philanthropy and honours
In 2001, the "
National Post" named Stronach as the most powerful businesswoman in Canada; and, in the same year, the World Economic Forumnamed her a "Global Leader of Tomorrow". " Fortune Magazine" ranked her #2 in its list of the world's most powerful women in business in 2002. She was also named one of Canada's "Top 40 Under 40". In April 2004, " Time Magazine" ranked her as one of the world's 100 most influential people.
Stronach is honorary chair of the
Southlake Regional Health Centre fundraisingcampaign and a former honorary chair of the Howdown fundraising campaign. In 2003, she received one of Canada's oldest and most distinguished awards, the Beth Shalom Humanitarian Award, presented in recognition of outstanding achievement in humanitarianservice. She is a close friend of former U.S. President Bill Clinton, [Tony Allen-Mills. Bewitching blonde casts spell on Bill. "Times Online". May 28, 2006. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article669117.ece] ] former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, and former Ontario Premier Mike Harris.
On November 9, 2006 she co-chaired the Millennium Promise Convention in Montreal with Canadian Television personality
Rick Mercer. This event was a national campaign to enlist Canadians to help protect children in Africa from the ravages of malaria.cite web|url=http://www.belinda.ca/nm-show.asp?story=248|title=Belinda Co-Chairs Montreal Millennium Promise Conference|publisher=Belinda Stronach website|date= 2006-11-09|accessdate=2006-11-17]
Stronach is twice divorced; her first husband was current Magna CEO
Donald J. Walkerand her second was Norwegian speed skatinglegend Johann Olav Koss. She has two children from her first marriage, Frank and Nikki.
In a "
Toronto Star" interview published January 8, 2005, Stronach confirmed that she was dating deputy Conservative leader Peter MacKay. After she left the Conservative Party, the Canadian Pressreported that she and MacKay were taking "a break from their relationship". The "National Post" reported that MacKay was "gobsmacked" by her decision to join the Liberals. In October 2006, there was further fallout from this relationship, when backbench MP Mark Hollandsaid that a Liberal colleague, David McGuintyasked MacKay about the impact of pollution on humans and animals by asking, "What about your dog?", in a joking manner (MacKay had been featured allegedly "posing" with his dog in the National Post newspaper after Stronach's defection). That is when Holland claims that MacKay made reference to Stronach's empty chair (as she was absent that day) and said "You already have her". Holland lodged a complaint with the Commons Speaker and demanded an apology be made by MacKay. In an interview with the press the following day, Stronach said that the comment is disrespectful not only to her, but to women and Canadians. She demanded an apology herself, which she would accept if given. MacKay has denied directly referring to Stronach as a "dog".cite news|title=MacKay denies comments|url=http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/10/19/mackay-stronach.html |publisher=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|date= 2006-10-19|accessdate=2006-10-20] The alleged comment was not heard by Speaker of the House Peter Millikenand it was not recorded in the official Hansard. Afterwards, Milliken and his staff said that he could not hear the remarks on the tape recording.cite web|url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ArticleNews/freeheadlines/LAC/20061021/MACKAY21/national/National|title=MacKay denies calling Stronach a dog|last=Galloway|first=Gloria|publisher= The Globe and Mail|date= 2006-10-21|accessdate=2006-11-17] .
On September 21, 2006, the "
Globe and Mail" reported that Stronach has a relationship with former Toronto Maple Leafshockey player Tie Domi.cite web|url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20060921.wxstronach21/BNStory/National/home|title=Domi dating Stronach|publisher= The Globe and Mail|date= 2006-09-21|accessdate=2006-11-18] On September 26, 2006, these allegations were also made by Tie Domi's ex-partner, who is seeking to recover in the civil courts.cite web|url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20060925.wdominach0925/BNStory/National/home|title=Stronach unfazed by adultery accusation|publisher=The Globe and Mail|date= 2006-09-25|accessdate=2006-11-18] Though Stronach has refused to comment on the issue, along with other alleged romantic partners, she has stated "Let's face it. I don't sit at home and knit on Friday nights." A decade before Belinda Stronach met Tie Domi, she had an affair with another ex-NHL player, Jerome Dupont; his ex-wife says. "It's obviously a pattern for her," said Caroline Dupont, who has two children, aged 15 and 17, with the former Leaf and Chicago Blackhawk.cite web|url=http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2006/10/03/1942782-sun.html|title=Belinda had second Leaf|last=Pazzano|first=Sam|publisher=CANOE Inc.|accessdate=2006-11-18] In September of 2007, newspapers reported that Stronach and Domi were no longer dating.
In January, 2004, Larry Zolf of CBC news reported that Stronach admitted that she used marijuana. [Larry Zolf. Stronach makes it a race. "CBC News". January 21, 2004. [http://www.cbc.ca/news/viewpoint/vp_zolf/20040121.html] ] She maintains a
vegandiet. [cite news|url=http://www.georginaadvocate.com/News/Newmarket/article/78169|publisher=Yorkregion.com|title=Belinda overcomes drama, cancer|last=Mangion|first=Patrick|accessdate=2008-07-12|date=2008-07-12]
On June 23, 2007, the "
Toronto Star" reported that Stronach had been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ, a form of breast cancer, in April 2007, and had undergone a mastectomyon June 19 in an undisclosed Toronto hospital. [Susan Delacourt. MP Stronach is battling breast cancer. "The Toronto Star". June 23, 2007. [http://www.thestar.com/News/article/228673] ]
According to a September 14, 2007 article from
CTV News, Stronach travelled to the United States for breast cancer surgery in June 2007. According to the article, Stronach's spokesperson Greg MacEachern said that the United States was the best place to have this type of surgery done. The article also says that Stronach paid for the surgery out of her own pocket. [Stronach went to U.S. for cancer treatment: report. "CTV.ca". September 14, 2007. [http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20070914/belinda_Stronach_070914/20070914?hub=TopStories] ]
Early political career
In the 2000
Canadian Alliance leadership election, she supported Preston Manning. In his memoir "Think Big", Manning recalls Stronach at his second-ballot campaign launch in Toronto delivering "a substantive introduction in which she clearly explained why she wanted the Alliance and my candidacy to succeed", and he later thanked her for "unflagging support" in that campaign.
Conservative leadership bid
Throughout the summer and into the fall of 2003, talks were undertaken by officials of the Progressive Conservatives and the
Canadian Alliancewith respect to a merger of those parties. Vote-splitting between the two right-wing parties had enabled the Liberals to dominate Canadian politics for a decade. Meetings between the parties were overseen by a facilitator, who was later revealed to have been Stronach. She was among many who had called for PC leader Peter MacKay and Canadian Alliance leader Stephen Harperto undertake the merger talks in the first place.
In 2004, Stronach contested the leadership of the newly formed Conservative Party. As a candidate for leadership of the new party, she drew a great deal of publicity to the race. However, many in the media saw her first foray into politics as sophomoric, flubbing obviously-practiced lines, and approaching the podium well before the
teleprompterwas ready. In one of her first appearances, Stronach stood before the microphone mute for several minutes before the prompter began.
Critics also accused her of being a "manufactured candidate", dependent on a high-priced network of professional campaign staff and Magna associates. Insinuations about her paid membership organizers in the province of
Quebechit particularly hard, recalling to some Tom Long's controversial 2000 Canadian Alliance leadership campaign.
Some of the media reaction to Stronach's candidacy was criticized. Casting Stronach as an "heiress" with a "coddled career" — to the point of joking comparisons to
Paris Hilton— and the attention paid to her physical appearance and personal life, was described by a commentator as patronizing and sexist. cite web|url=http://www.expressnews.ualberta.ca/expressnews/articles/ideas.cfm?p_ID=5562&s=a|title=Memo to Belinda Stronach: You're being framed|last=Trimble|first=Linda|publisher= The Globe and Mail|date= 2004-02-14|accessdate=2006-11-17] The Canadian media, though generally considered to exercise much greater reserve and discretion about the private lives of public figures than the media of other countries, paid considerable attention to rumours and innuendo about Stronach's personal life, particularly her relationship with Bill Clinton- a story that has received the attention of " the New York Times" following a dinner at B.L.T. Steak in Midtown Manhattan at which Clinton and Stronach attended.
Supporters touted her youth and style, corporate experience, private life as a "
soccer mom", and her potential to win new and swing voters, especially moderate, socially progressive voters in the province of Ontario.
On February 11, 2004, she declined to participate in a debate between the Conservative party candidates, leaving
Tony Clementand Stephen Harper to debate each other on a Canadian Broadcasting Corporationbroadcast. She later also skipped a March 14 debate on the Global Television Network. She argued that she ought only to participate in party-sponsored debates, rather than picking and choosing among those organized by outside sponsors. Critics saw this as her way of avoiding a debate with the other two candidates.
In her major speech at the leadership convention on March 19, 2004, she promised to serve only two terms if she became Prime Minister, and to draw no salary. She made a major gesture of "throwing away the script", but then undercut this when she was seen referring to cue cards. On March 20, 2004, she finished second to Harper with 35% of the vote.
In the 2004 federal election, she was narrowly elected as the MP for
Newmarket—Auroraby a margin of 689 votes over Liberal Martha Hall Findlay. She was appointed the International Trade critic in the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet.
Political positions as an MP
Before crossing the floor of the House of Commons, Stronach represented the socially liberal face of the Conservative Party. Along with
Peter MacKay, she was seen as giving the Conservatives a more progressive image.
Stronach was generally to the left of her Conservative caucus colleagues, supporting
abortionrights, gun control and same-sex marriage. During her Conservative leadership campaign, she called for a free votein parliament, with votes cast individually and not along party lines, on same-sex marriage. She spoke and voted in favour of same-sex marriage when the issue came to the House of Commons in 2005; a position she re-affirmed as a Liberal in 2006. Social conservativeelements in Canada were critical of Stronach, calling her a " Red Tory". During Stronach's leadership campaign, REAL Women of Canadasaid: "If Ms. Stronach is elected as leader of the Conservative Party, social conservatives will no longer have a voice in Canada." [http://www.realwomenca.com/alerts.htm] Stronach, for her part, promised after the leadership race that she would do her best to keep the party from moving too far to the right.cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2004/03/20/conserv_040320.html|title=Defeated Conservatives call for party unity|publisher= Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|date= 2004-03-21|accessdate=2006-11-17] She cited discomfort with Stephen Harperand the Conservatives policies as one of her reasons for crossing the floor.
Stronach supports trade with the United States but would like to re-examine and review parts of the
North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) to ensure, in her view, that Canadians can stand on a more equal footing with U.S. competitors. She has not offered any specific details on this plan. During her leadership campaign she said the country needed to consider changes to the Medicare system that would respect the principles of the Canada Health Act"as our standard, not our straitjacket". [ [http://www.lilithgallery.com/articles/harperpromises_to_privatizehealthcare.html Stephen Harper Promises To Privatize Canadian Healthcare ] ]
Crossing the floor
In May 2005, Stronach suggested publicly that forcing an early election, especially before passing that year's federal budget, was risky and could backfire on the Tories.cite web|url=http://sympaticomsn.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1115128357918_22?hub=topstories|title=Push for quick election risky, Stronach says|publisher=CTV News|date=
2005-05-03|accessdate=] Harper wanted to force an early election in the wake of testimony at the Gomery Commissiondamaging to the Liberals. The Tories planned to bring down the government by voting against an amendment to the budget that the Liberals had made to gain New Democratic Party(NDP) support. Since this would be a loss of supply, it would have brought down the government.
However, on May 17, 2005, two days before the crucial vote, Stronach announced that she was
crossing the floorand joining the Liberal Party. Her decision to join the Liberals was facilitated by former Ontario Liberal Premier David Peterson. Stronach immediately joined the cabinet as minister of Human Resources and Skills Development and minister responsible for Democratic Renewal. In the latter portfolio, she was charged with overseeing the implementation of the Gomery Inquiryrecommendations, upon their release.
Her decision to leave the Conservative Party came after an uneasy relationship with Stephen Harper. In a press conference after leaving the party, she said that Harper was not sensitive to the needs of all parts of the country, and was jeopardizing national unity by allying himself with the
Bloc Québécoisto bring down the government.cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/05/17/stronach-liberals050517.html|title=Conservative Stronach joins Liberals|publisher= Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|date= 2005-05-18|accessdate=2006-11-18] She also stated that the party was too focused on Western Canadaand " Western alienation" instead of having broader focus. Her disdain for Harper was obvious in her press conference with Martin; she never once referred to him by name, only as "the leader of the Conservative Party."
Stronach's move shifted the balance of power in Parliament and allowed Martin's Liberal
minority governmentto survive. On May 19, 2005, two crucial confidence motions were voted on in the House of Commons. The first vote, on Bill C-43, the original budget proposal approved by all parties, was passed as expected, with 250 for and 54 against. The second vote was on a new budget amendment ( Bill C-48) that included C$4.6 billion in additional spending the Liberals negotiated with NDP leader Jack Layton, to secure the support of NDP MPs. It was on this amendment that the Conservative/Bloc alliance planned to bring down the government. However, the initial vote resulted in a 152-152 tie. It then fell to the Speaker, Peter Milliken, to cast the deciding vote, which he cast in favour of continuing debate, resulting in the survival of the government. The vote carried with a final count of 153 for and 152 against.
The Liberals used Stronach's defection to paint the Conservative Party as being too extreme for moderate voters in Ontario. The Liberals enjoyed a modest upswing in the polls after earlier being damaged by the early testimony from
Gomery Commission. Some political pundits suggested that shortly after Stronach's defection would have been the ideal time for the Liberals to call the election, as Stephen Harper had lost some of his momentum after narrowly failing to bring down the government. Instead, the Liberals were forced into an election when they were brought down by a vote of non-confidence later that year, after revelations from the Gomery Inquiry damaged their popularity. Columnist Andrew Coynesuggested that while her defection helped the Liberals in the short-run to stay in power, it also made Martin appear as a "grasping conniver willing to do and say anything to hang onto power". [ [http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/financialpost/story.html?id=1184e345-8003-45f4-9c7a-89cbcc6d468d&k=43779 Stronach heading back to big business ] ]
Reaction to Stronach's move
Stronach's party switch mere days before the confidence vote made her the target of considerable criticism both within the Conservative Party and in the media in general. Many were cynical about her reasons for leaving and believed that her move to the Liberals was motived more by ambition than by moral or political principles. In a press conference following the announcement, Harper speculated that Stronach had left the party simply to further her own career. Some likewise accused her of being an opportunist who had never been a true conservative, but had been willing to use the party as a vehicle to achieve political prominence. During the confidence vote the Conservative caucus openly booed Stronach as she stood to show her vote of support for the Liberal government.
Considerable media attention was paid to
Peter MacKay, MP, and the deputy leader of the Conservative Party, with whom Stronach had a relationship of several months. Interviewed the day after Stronach's departure from his party, he stated that he had learnt of her intention to cross the floor mere hours before the public announcement. In an interview conducted at his father's farm, MacKay showed discernible emotion.cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/05/18/mackay050518.html|title='My heart's a little banged up': MacKay|publisher=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|date= 2005-05-18|accessdate=2006-11-18]
There was additional criticism of Stronach's attendance at a Conservative election strategy planning workshop on the weekend immediately prior to her switch of allegiance, prompting allegations of unethical behaviour from John Reynolds, the Conservative campaign co-chair. Some even accused Stronach of being a Liberal mole.
The day after Stronach crossed the floor, the reaction in Newmarket—Aurora was mixed. Some of her constituents were upset and expressed a sense of betrayal. Protesters picketed her riding office for several days, demanding a
by-election. However some of her constituents supported her move because they did not want an election and supported the budget.
Stronach's move to the Liberal Party and the speed with which she was given a senior-level cabinet position renewed calls from both parliamentarians and the general public for legislation to prevent such "party-hopping." One month after Stronach crossed the floor, a
private member's billwas tabled that would require a by-electionto be held within thirty-five days of a member of parliament quitting a party. According to this proposed legislation, the MP would have to sit as an independent until the by-election.
Pat Martinrequested an investigation of Stronach, speculating that she had been promised a senior cabinet post in return for her defection. The Ethics Commissioner of Canada, Dr. Bernard Shapiro, refused to investigate her floor-crossing, citing that it was a constitutional right of a Prime Minister to appoint opposition members to Cabinet.
The Conservatives targeted Stronach for defeat in the 2006 election as part of their larger goal of a breakthrough in Ontario, especially in the Toronto suburbs (popularly known as the 905s). However, while the Conservatives won a minority government, Stronach defeated her Conservative challenger,
Lois Brown, by an eight-point margin. Chuck Strahl, commenting on his party's election victory, called it "poetic justice" that Stronach and Scott Brisonwould be going to the opposition benches. Strahl was referring to both politicians being rewarded handsomely following their defection from the Conservative Party, and he joked that they were "like fish out of water" when their party was defeated not long afterwards.
Characterization in the media
Some of the criticism of Stronach's party switching also came under fire. Political scientist
Linda Trimblehas argued that the reaction to Stronach's defection to the Liberals was "offensive and sexist", referring to the comments of two provincial legislature members PC MPP Bob Runcimanand AlbertaPC Tony Abbott. Runciman told the Toronto radio station CFRBthat, "She sort of defined herself as something of a dipstick, an attractive one, but still a dipstick."cite web|url=http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1116347413338_5/?hub=TopStories|title=Surprise defection triggers Conservative anger|publisher=CTV News|date= 2005-05-18|accessdate=2006-11-18] He apologized for his comments and later elaborated, saying that Stronach failed to adequately express her reasons for defecting from the Conservative Party. Abbott said that Stronach had "whored herself out for power."cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/05/18/stronach-sexism050518.html|title=Sexism cited in reaction to Stronach move|publisher=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|date= 2005-05-18] |accessdate=2006-11-18] He apologized for the statement the next day saying that the term "whoring" had been misunderstood from context, and noting that it could be equally used for men and women.
Women's groups argued that the media also unfairly characterized the transition. The "
National Post" used the front page headline "Blonde Bombshell", and political cartoonists made reference to Stronach prostituting herself to the Liberal party. Stronach's critics downplayed the sexism of their remarks and accused the Liberals of politicizing the issue in order to legitimize her crossing the floor.
Since she started her career in politics, Stronach has made several television appearances poking fun at herself. This includes appearances on the CBC television comedy "
This Hour Has 22 Minutes" and a skate on the Rideau Canalwith Rick Mercerfor his series " Rick Mercer Report". She also played a political reporter in the television mini-series "". In November 2005 she appeared on an episode of "This Hour Has 22 Minutes". At one point in the show, she remarked "You know, I recommended to Stephen [Harper] once that to rise in his polls he should take a little Viagra but the pill got stuck in his throat and all he got was a stiff neck."cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/11/10/stronach-this-hour051110.html|title=Stronach aims Viagra remark at Harper|publisher=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|date= 2005-11-10|accessdate=2006-11-17]
As a Liberal MP
Although the Liberals lost the 2006 federal election, Stronach won re-election as a Liberal candidate by a greater margin than she had in the 2004 election as a Conservative.
Following the Liberal's defeat in the 2006 election, Paul Martin announced that he would be stepping down as party leader. It was widely speculated that Stronach would seek the Liberal leadership at the 2006 leadership convention, having been endorsed by such Liberals as
Reg Alcockand Brigitte Legault, who heads the Quebec party's youth wing.
However, on April 6, 2006, she announced that she would not seek the leadership, citing her objections to the delegate-based selection process. "I could have raised the money, I was working on my French, but I realized that I was not going to be free to speak my mind on party renewal", said Stronach. She said that renewal would involve giving all party members a direct vote on its direction and leadership, among other things. "If there was a one-member, one-vote system, I would run."cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2006/04/06/stronach-leadership060406.html|title=Stronach will sit out Liberal race|publisher=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|date=
2006-04-06|accessdate=2006-11-18] However, a report by CTV reporter Robert Fifesuggested that her candidacy was hampered by her weak grasp of French, one of Canada's two official languages, and the fact that she believed the Liberals would be defeated in the next election. Several Liberal Party officials had also warned that they would enforce the new rules, which placed limits on donations and spendings by contenders, which would have nullified Stronach's largest advantage over other potential rivals.
Not seeking re-election
On April 11, 2007, Stronach announced that she would not seek re-election, and will instead return to Magna International as Executive Vice Chairperson. This decision came at a time when Magna was in the midst of teaming up with
Onex Corporationto consider a bid to buy Chrysler. [ [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070411.wmagna0411/BNStory/Business/home Globe and Mail April 11, 2007] ] Stronach further cited her wish to spend more time with her growing children, and the creation of a personal foundation to end poverty and disease in Africa. [ [http://www.nafla.ca/images/clientupload/BS%20SD%20Letter.pdf Newmarket-Aurora Federal Liberal Association April 11, 2007] ] She has indicated she will remain in Parliament until the next election.
* [http://www.belinda.ca/ Belinda Stronach Constituency Website]
* [http://www.nafla.ca/ Newmarket-Aurora Federal Liberal Association]
* [http://www2.parl.gc.ca/Parlinfo/Files/Parliamentarian.aspx?Item=78cbea60-90f3-4f15-88d2-a32c0b74026a&Language=E&Section=FederalExperience Parliament Webpage]
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