- Cartan connection
In the mathematical field of
differential geometry, a Cartan connection is a flexible generalization of the notion of an affine connection. It may also be regarded as a specialization of the general concept of a principal connection, in which the geometry of the principal bundleis tied to the geometry of the base manifold using a solder form. Cartan connections describe the geometry of manifolds modelled on homogeneous spaces.
The theory of Cartan connections was developed by
Élie Cartan, as part of (and a way of formulating) his method of moving frames(repère mobile). [Although Cartan only began formalizing this theory in particular cases in the 1920s Harv|Cartan|1926, he made much use of the general idea much earlier. In particular, the high point of his remarkable 1910 paper on Pfaffian systems in five variables is the construction of a Cartan connection modelled on a 5-dimensional homogeneous space for the exceptional Lie groupG2, which he an Engels had discovered independently in 1894.] It operates with differential forms and so is computational in character. The main idea is to develop a suitable notion of the connection forms and curvatureusing moving frames adapted to the particular geometrical problem at hand. For instance, in relativity or Riemannian geometry, orthonormal frames are used to obtain a description of the Levi-Civita connectionas a Cartan connection. For Lie groups, Maurer–Cartan frames are used to view the Maurer–Cartan formof the group as a Cartan connection.
Cartan reformulated the differential geometry of (pseudo)
Riemannian geometry, as well as the differential geometry of manifolds equipped with some non-metric structure, including Lie groups and homogeneous spaces. The term Cartan connection most often refers to Cartan's formulation of a (pseudo-)Riemannian, affine, projective, or conformal connection. Although these are the most commonly used Cartan connections, they are special cases of a more general concept.
Cartan's approach seems at first to be coordinate dependent because of the choice of frames it involves. However, it is not, and the notion can be described precisely using the language of principal bundles. Cartan connections induce covariant derivatives and other differential operators on certain associated bundles, hence a notion of parallel transport. They have many applications in geometry and physics: see the
method of moving frames, Cartan connection applicationsand Einstein–Cartan theoryfor some examples.
At its roots, geometry consists of a notion of "congruence" between different objects in a space. In the late 19th century, notions of congruence were typically supplied by the action of a
Lie groupon space. Lie groups generally act quite rigidly, and so a Cartan geometry is a generalization of this notion of congruence to allow for curvatureto be present. The "flat" Cartan geometries — those with zero curvature — are locally equivalent to homogeneous spaces, hence geometries in the sense of Klein.
Klein geometryconsists of a Lie group "G" together with a Lie subgroup "H" of "G". Together "G" and "H" determine a homogeneous space"G"/"H", on which the group "G" acts by left-translation. Klein's aim was then to study objects living on the homogeneous space which were "congruent" by the action of "G". A Cartan geometry extends the notion of a Klein geometry by attaching to each point of a manifolda copy of a Klein geometry, and to regard this copy as "tangent" to the manifold. Thus the geometry of the manifold is "infinitesimally" identical to that of the Klein geometry, but globally can be quite different. In particular, Cartan geometries no longer have a well-defined action of "G" on them. However, a Cartan connection supplies a way of connecting the infinitesimal model spaces within the manifold by means of parallel transport.
Consider a smooth surface "S" in 3-dimensional Euclidean space R3. Near to any point, "S" can be approximated by its tangent plane at that point, which is an
affine subspaceof Euclidean space. The affine subspaces are "model" surfaces — they are the simplest surfaces in R3, and are homogeneous under the Euclidean group of the plane, hence they are "Klein geometries" in the sense of Felix Klein's Erlangen programme. Every smooth surface "S" has a unique affine plane tangent to it at each point. The family of all such planes in R3, one attached to each point of "S", is called the congruence of tangent planes. A tangent plane can be "rolled" along "S", and as it does so the point of contact traces out a curve on "S". Conversely, given a curve on "S", the tangent plane can be rolled along that curve. This provides a way to identify the tangent planes at different points along the curve by affine (in fact Euclidean) transformations, and is an example of a Cartan connection called an affine connection.
Another example is obtained by replacing the planes, as model surfaces, by spheres, which are homogeneous under the Möbius group of conformal transformations. There is no longer a unique sphere tangent to a smooth surface "S" at each point, since the radius of the sphere is undetermined. This can be fixed by supposing that the sphere has the same
mean curvatureas "S" at the point of contact. Such spheres can again be rolled along curves on "S", and this equips "S" with another type of Cartan connection called a conformal connection.
Differential geometers in the late 19th and early 20th century were very interested in using model families such as planes or spheres to describe the geometry of surfaces. A family of model spaces attached to each point of a surface "S" is called a congruence: in the previous examples there is a canonical choice of such a congruence. A Cartan connection provides an identification between the model spaces in the congruence along any curve in "S". An important feature of these identifications is that the point of contact of the model space with "S" "always moves" with the curve. This generic condition is characteristic of Cartan connections.
In the modern treatment of affine connections, the point of contact is viewed as the "origin" in the tangent plane (which is then a vector space), and the movement of the origin is corrected by a translation, and so Cartan connections are not needed. However, there is no canonical way to do this in general: in particular for the conformal connection of a sphere congruence, it is not possible to separate the motion of the point of contact from the rest of the motion in a natural way.
In both of these examples the model space is a homogeneous space "G"/"H".
* In the first case, "G"/"H" is the affine plane, with "G" = Aff(R2) the
affine groupof the plane, and "H" = GL(2) the corresponding general linear group.
* In the second case, "G"/"H" is the conformal (or celestial) sphere, with "G" = O"+"(3,1) the (orthochronous) Lorentz group, and "H" the stabilizer of a null line in R3,1.The Cartan geometry of "S" consists of a copy of the model space "G"/"H" at each point of "S" (with a marked point of contact) together with a notion of "parallel transport" along curves which identifies these copies using elements of "G". This notion of parallel transport is generic in the intuitive sense that the point of contact always moves along the curve.
In general, let "G" be a group with a subgroup "H", and "M" a manifold of the same dimension as "G"/"H". Then, roughly speaking, a Cartan connection on "M" is a "G"-connection which is generic with respect to a reduction to "H".
Klein geometries as model spaces
Erlangen programmesuggested that geometry could be regarded as a study of homogeneous spaces: in particular, it is the study of the many geometries of interest to geometers of 19th century (and earlier). A Klein geometry consisted of a space, along with a law for motion within the space (analogous to the Euclidean transformations of classical Euclidean geometry) expressed as a Lie groupof transformations. These generalized spaces turn out to be homogeneous smooth manifolds diffeomorphic to the quotient spaceof a Lie group by a Lie subgroup. The extra differential structure that these homogeneous spaces possess allows one to study and generalize their geometry using calculus.
The general approach of Cartan is to begin with such a "smooth Klein geometry", given by a Lie group "G" and a Lie subgroup "H", with associated Lie algebras and , respectively. Let "P" be the underlying
principal homogeneous spaceof "G". A Klein geometry is the homogeneous space given by the quotient "P"/"H" of "P" by the right action of "H". There is a right "H"-action on the fibres of the canonical projection:"π": "P" → "P"/"H"given by "R""h""g" = "gh". Moreover, each fibre of "π" is a copy of "H". "P" has the structure of a principal "H"-bundle over "P"/"H". [Harvnb|Chevalley|1946| p=110.]
A vector field "X" on "P" is "vertical" if d"π"("X") = 0. Any "ξ" ∈ gives rise to a canonical vertical vector field "X""ξ" by taking the derivative of the right action of the 1-parameter subgroup of "H" associated to ξ. The
Maurer-Cartan form"η" of "P" is the -valued one-form on "P" which identifies each tangent space with the Lie algebra. It has the following properties:
# Ad("h") "R""h"*"η" = "η" for all "h" in "H"
# "η"("X""ξ") = "ξ" for all "ξ" in
# for all "g"∈"P", "η" restricts a linear isomorphism of T"g""P" with (η is an absolute parallelism on "P").
In addition to these properties, "η" satisfies the structure (or structural) equation:
Conversely, one can show that given a manifold "M" and a principal "H"-bundle "P" over "M", and 1-form "η" with these properties, then "P" is locally isomorphic as an "H"-bundle to the principal homogeneous bundle "G"→"G"/"H". The structure equation is the
integrability conditionfor the existence of such a local isomorphism.
A Cartan geometry is a generalization of a smooth Klein geometry, in which the structure equation is not assumed, but is instead used to define a notion of
curvature. Thus the Klein geometries are said to be the flat models for Cartan geometries. [ See R. Hermann (1983), Appendix 1–3 to Harvtxt|Cartan|1951.]
Cartan connections and pseudogroups
Cartan connections are closely related to
pseudogroupstructures on a manifold. Each is thought of as "modelled on" a Klein geometry "G"/"H", in a manner similar to the way in which Riemannian geometryis modelled on Euclidean space. On a manifold "M", one imagines attaching to each point of "M" a copy of the model space "G"/"H". The symmetry of the model space is then built in to the Cartan geometry or pseudogroup structure by positing that the model spaces of nearby points are related by a transformation in "G". The fundamental difference between a Cartan geometry and pseudogroup geometry is that the symmetry for a Cartan geometry relates "infinitesimally" close points by an "infinitesimal" transformation in "G" (i.e., an element of the Lie algebra of "G") and the analogous notion of symmetry for a pseudogroup structure applies for points that are physically separated within the manifold.
The process of attaching spaces to points, and the attendant symmetries, can be concretely realized by using special
coordinate systems. [This appears to be Cartan's way of viewing the connection. Cf. Harvnb|Cartan|1923|p=362; Harvnb|Cartan|1924|p=208 especially "..un repère définissant un système de coordonnées projectives..."; Harvnb|Cartan|1951|p=34. Modern readers can arrive at various interpretations of these statements, cf. Hermann's 1983 notes in Harvnb|Cartan|1951|pp=384–385, 477.] To each point "p" ∈ "M", a neighborhood "U"p of "p" is given along with a mapping φp : "U"p → "G"/"H". In this way, the model space is attached to each point of "M" by realizing "M" locally at each point as an open subset of "G"/"H". We think of this as a family of coordinate systems on "M", parametrized by the points of "M". Two such parametrized coordinate systems φ and φ′ are "H"-related if there is an element "h"p ∈ "H", parametrized by "p", such that: φ′p = "h"p φp. [More precisely, "h"p is required to be in the isotropy groupof φp("p"), which is a group in "G" isomorphic to "H".] This freedom corresponds roughly to the physicists' notion of a gauge.
Nearby points are related by joining them with a curve. Suppose that "p" and "p"′ are two points in "M" joined by a curve "p"t. Then "p"t supplies a notion of transport of the model space along the curve. [In general, this is not the rolling map described in the motivation, although it is related.] Let τt : "G"/"H" → "G"/"H" be the (locally defined) composite
t = φpt o φp0-1.Intuitively, τt is the transport map. A pseudogroup structure requires that τt be a "symmetry of the model space" for each "t": τt ∈ "G". A Cartan connection requires only that the
derivativeof τt be a symmetry of the model space: τ′0 ∈ g, the Lie algebra of "G".
Typical of Cartan, one motivation for introducing the notion of a Cartan connection was to study the properties of pseudogroups from an infinitesimal point of view. A Cartan connection defines a pseudogroup precisely when the derivative of the transport map τ′ can be integrated, thus recovering a true ("G"-valued) transport map between the coordinate systems. There is thus an
integrability conditionat work, and Cartan's method for realizing integrability conditions was to introduce a differential form.
In this case, τ′0 defines a differential form at the point "p" as follows. For a curve γ("t") = "p"t in "M" starting at "p", we can associate the
tangent vector"X", as well as a transport map τtγ. Taking the derivative determines a linear
So θ defines a g-valued differential 1-form on "M".
This form, however, is dependent on the choice of parametrized coordinate system. If "h" : "U" → "H" is an "H"-relation between two parametrized coordinate systems φ and φ′, then the corresponding values of θ are also related by:where ωH is the Maurer-Cartan form of "H".
A Cartan geometry modelled on a homogeneous space "G"/"H" can be viewed as a "deformation" of this geometry which allows for the presence of "curvature". For example:
* a Riemannian manifold can be seen as a deformation of
Lorentzian manifoldcan be seen as a deformation of Minkowski space;
* a conformal manifold can be seen as a deformation of the conformal sphere;
* a manifold equipped with an
affine connectioncan be seen as a deformation of an affine space.
There are two main approaches to the definition. In both approaches, "M" is a smooth manifold of dimension "n", "H" is a Lie group of dimension "m", with Lie algebra , and "G" is a Lie group "G" of dimension "n"+"m", with Lie algebra , containing "H" as a subgroup.
Definition via gauge transitions
A Cartan connection consists [Harvnb|Sharpe|1997.] [Harvnb|Lumiste|2001a.] of a coordinate atlas of open sets "U" in "M", along with a g-valued 1-form θU defined on each chart such that
# θU : T"U" → g.
# θU mod h : Tu"U" → g/h is a linear isomorphism for every "u" ∈ "U".
#For any pair of charts "U" and "V" in the atlas, there is a smooth mapping "h" : "U" ∩ "V" → "H" such that:::where ωH is the
Maurer-Cartan formof "H".By analogy with the case when the θU came from coordinate systems, condition 3 means that φU is related to φV by "h".
The curvature of a Cartan connection consists of a system of 2-forms defined on the charts, given by:ΩU satisfy the compatibility condition::If the forms θU and θV are related by a function "h" : "U" ∩ "V" → "H", as above, then ΩV = Ad("h"-1) ΩU
The definition can be made independent of the coordinate systems by forming the
quotient space:of the disjoint union over all "U" in the atlas. The equivalence relation~ is defined on pairs ("x","h"1) ∈ "U"1 × "H" and ("x", "h"2) ∈ "U"2 × "H", by:("x","h"1) ~ ("x", "h"2) if and only if "x" ∈ "U"1 ∩ "U"2, θ"U"1 is related to θ"U"2 by "h", and "h"2 = "h"("x")-1 "h"1.Then "P" is a principal "H"-bundle on "M", and the compatibility condition on the connection forms θU implies that they lift to a g-valued 1-form η defined on "P" (see below).
Definition via absolute parallelism
Let "P" be a principal "H" bundle over "M". Then a Cartan connection [This is the standard definition. Cf. Hermann (1983), Appendix 2 to Harvnb|Cartan|1951; Harvnb|Kobayashi|1970| p=127; Harvnb|Sharpe|1997; Harvnb|Slovák|1997.] is a -valued 1-form "η" on "P" such that
# for all "h" in "H", Ad("h")"R""h"*"η" = "η"
# for all "ξ" in , "η"("X""ξ") = "ξ"
# for all "p" in "P", the restriction of "η" defines a linear isomorphism from the tangent space T"p""P" to .
The last condition is sometimes called the Cartan condition: it means that "η" defines an absolute parallelism on "P". The second condition implies that "η" is already injective on vertical vectors and that the 1-form "η" mod , with values in , is horizontal. The vector space is a representation of "H" using the adjoint representation of "H" on , and the first condition implies that "η" mod is equivariant. Hence it defines a bundle homomorphism from T"M" to the associated bundle .The Cartan condition is equivalent to this bundle homomorphism being an isomorphism, so that "η" mod is a
The curvature of a Cartan connection is the -valued 2-form "Ω" defined by:
Note that this definition of a Cartan connection looks very similar to that of a
principal connection. There is one important difference however, in 1. above. The g-valued 1-form η is equivariant under the action of "H" (not "G"). Intuitively, this means that η yields information about the behavior of additional directions in the principal bundle (rather than simply being a projection operator onto the vertical space). Concretely, the existence of a solder form binds (or solders) the Cartan connection to the underlying differential topologyof the manifold.
An intuitive interpretation of the Cartan connection in this form is that it determines a "fracturing" of the tautological principal bundle associated to a Klein geometry. Thus Cartan geometries are deformed analogues of Klein geometries. This deformation is roughly a prescription for attaching a copy of the model space "G"/"H" to each point of "M" and thinking of that model space as being "tangent" to (and "infinitesimally identical" with) the manifold at a point of contact. The fibre of the tautological bundle "G" → "G"/"H" of the Klein geometry at the point of contact is then identified with the fibre of the bundle "P". Each such fibre (in "G") carries a Maurer-Cartan form for "G", and the Cartan connection is a way of assembling these Maurer-Cartan forms gathered from the points of contact into a coherent 1-form η defined on the whole bundle. The fact that only elements of "H" contribute to the Maurer-Cartan equation Ad("h")"R""h"*"η" = "η" has the intuitive interpretation that any other elements of "G" would move the model space away from the point of contact, and so no longer be tangent to the manifold.
From the Cartan connection, defined in these terms, one can recover a Cartan connection as a system of 1-forms on the manifold (as in the gauge definition) by taking a collection of local trivializations of "P" given as sections "s"U : "U" → "P" and letting θU = "s"*η be the pullbacks of the Cartan connection along the sections.
Cartan connections as principal connections
Another way in which to define a Cartan connection is as a principal connection on a certain principal "G"-bundle. From this perspective, a Cartan connection consists of
* a principal "G"-bundle "Q" over "M"
* a principal "G"-connection "α" on "Q" (the Cartan connection)
* a principal "H"-subbundle "P" of "Q" (i.e., a reduction of structure group)such that the pullback "η" of "α" to "P" satisfies the Cartan condition.
The principal connection "α" on "Q" can recovered from the form "η" by taking "Q" to be the associated bundle "P" ×"H" "G". Conversely, the form η can be recovered from α by pulling back along the inclusion "P" ⊂ "Q".
Since "α" is a principal connection, it induces a connection on any
associated bundleto "Q". In particular, the bundle "Q" ×"G" "G"/"H" of homogeneous spaces over "M", whose fibers are copies of the model space "G"/"H", has a connection. The reduction of structure group to "H" is equivalently given by a section "s" of "E" = "Q" ×"G" "G"/"H". The fiber of over "x" in "M" may be viewed as the tangent space at "s"("x") to the fiber of "Q" ×"G" "G"/"H" over "x". Hence the Cartan condition has the intuitive interpretation that the model spaces are tangent to "M" along the section "s". Since this identification of tangent spaces is induced by the connection, the marked points given by "s" always move under parallel transport.
Definition by an Ehresmann connection
Yet another way to define a Cartan connection is with an
Ehresmann connectionon the bundle "E" = "Q" ×"G" "G"/"H" of the preceding section. [Harvnb|Ehresmann|1950, Harvnb|Kobayashi|1957, Harvnb|Lumiste|2001b.] A Cartan connection then consists of
fibre bundleπ : "E" → "M" with fibre "G"/"H" and vertical space V"E" ⊂ T"E".
*A section "s" : "M" → "E".
*A G-connection θ : T"E" → V"E" such that ::"s"*θx : Tx"M" → V"s"("x")"E" is a linear isomorphism of vector spaces for all "x" ∈ "M".This definition makes rigorous the intuitive ideas presented in the introduction. First, the preferred section "s" can be thought of as identifying a point of contact between the manifold and the tangent space. The last condition, in particular, means that the tangent space of "M" at "x" is isomorphic to the tangent space of the model space at the point of contact. So the model spaces are, in this way, tangent to the manifold.
This definition also brings prominently into focus the idea of development. If "x"t is a curve in "M", then the Ehresmann connection on "E" supplies an associated
parallel transportmap τt : "E"xt → "E"x0 from the fibre over the endpoint of the curve to the fibre over the initial point. In particular, since "E" is equipped with a preferred section "s", the points "s"("x"t) transport back to the fibre over "x"0 and trace out a curve in "E"x0. This curve is then called the "development" of the curve "x"t.
To show that this definition is equivalent to the others above, one must introduce a suitable notion of a
moving framefor the bundle "E". In general, this is possible for any "G"-connection on a fibre bundle with structure group "G". See Ehresmann connection#Associated bundlesfor more details.
Special Cartan connections
Reductive Cartan connections
Let "P" be a principal "H"-bundle on "M", equipped with a Cartan connection η : T"P" → g. If g is a reductive module for "H", meaning that g admits an Ad("H")-invariant splitting of vector spaces g=h⊕m, then the m-component of η generalizes the solder form for an
affine connection. [For a treatment of affine connections from this point of view, see Harvtxt|Kobayashi|Nomizu|1996|loc= Volume 1.] In detail, η splits into h and m components: :η = ηh + ηm.Note that the 1-form ηh is a principal "H"-connection on the original Cartan bundle "P". Moreover, the 1-form ηm satisfies::ηm("X") = 0 for every vertical vector "X" ∈ T"P". (ηm is "horizontal".):Rh*ηm = Ad("h"-1)ηm for every "h" ∈ "H". (ηm is "equivariant" under the right "H"-action.)In other words, η is a solder formfor the bundle "P".
Hence, "P" equipped with the form ηm defines a (first order) "H"-structure on "M". The form ηh defines a connection on the "H"-structure.
Parabolic Cartan connections
If g is a
semisimple Lie algebrawith parabolic subalgebra p (i.e., p contains a maximal solvable subalgebra of g) and "G" and "P" are associated Lie groups, then a Cartan connection modelled on ("G","P",g,p) is called a parabolic Cartan geometry, or simply a parabolic geometry. A distinguishing feature of parabolic geometries is a Lie algebra structure on its cotangent spaces: this arises because the perpendicular subspace p⊥ of p in g with respect to the Killing formof g is a subalgebra of p, and the Killing form induces a natural duality between p⊥ and g/p. Thus the bundle associated to p⊥ is isomorphic to the cotangent bundle.
Parabolic geometries include many of those of interest in research and applications of Cartan connections, such as the following examples.
Conformal connections: Here "G" = "SO"("p"+1,"q"+1), and "P" is the stabilizer of a null ray in Rn+2.
Projective connections: Here "G" = "PGL"(n+1) and "P" is the stabilizer of a point in RPn.
CR structures: "G" = "PSU"("p"+1,"q"+1), "P" = stabilizer of a point on the projective null hyperquadric.
Associated differential operators
Suppose that "M" is a Cartan geometry modelled on "G"/"H", and let ("Q","α") be the principal "G"-bundle with connection, and ("P","η") the corresponding reduction to "H" with "η" equal to the pullback of "α". Let "V" a representation of "G", and form the vector bundle V = "Q" ×"G" "V" over "M". Then the principal "G"-connection "α" on "Q" induces a covariant derivative on V, which is a first order
linear differential operator:where denotes the space of "k"-forms on "M" with values in V so that is the space of sections of V and is the space of sections ofHom(T"M",V). For any section "v" of V, the contraction of the covariant derivative ∇"v" with a vector field "X" on "M" is denoted ∇"X""v" and satisfies the following Leibniz rule::for any smooth function "f" on "M".
The covariant derivative can also be constructed from the Cartan connection "η" on "P". In fact, constructing it in this way is slightly more general in that "V" need not be a fully fledged representation of "G". [See, for instance, Harvtxt|Čap|Gover|2002|loc=Definition 2.4.] Suppose instead that that "V" is a (, "H")-module: a representation of the group "H" with a compatible representation of the Lie algebra . Recall that a section "v" of the induced vector bundle V over "M" can be thought of as an "H"-equivariant map "P" → "V". This is the point of view we shall adopt. Let "X" be a vector field on "M". Choose any right-invariant lift to the tangent bundle of "P". Define:.
In order to show that ∇"v" is well defined, it must:
# be independent of the chosen lift
# be equivariant, so that it descends to a section of the bundle V.
For (1), the ambiguity in selecting a right-invariant lift of "X" is a transformation of the form where is the right-invariant vertical vector field induced from . So, calculating the covariant derivative in terms of the new lift , one has
since by taking the differential of the equivariance property at "h" equal to the identity element.
For (2), observe that since "v" is equivariant and is right-invariant, is equivariant. On the other hand, since "η" is also equivariant, it follows that is equivariant as well.
The fundamental or universal derivative
Suppose that "V" is only a representation of the subgroup "H" and not necessarily the larger group "G". Let be the space of "V"-valued differential "k"-forms on "P". In the presence of a Cartan connection, there is a canonical isomorphism:given by where and .
For each "k", the exterior derivative is a first order operator differential operator:and so, for "k"=0, it defines a differential operator:Because "η" is equivariant, if "v" is equivariant, so is "Dv" := "φ"(d"v"). It follows that this composite descends to a first order differential operator "D" from sections of V="P"×"H""V" to sections of the bundle . This is called the fundamental or universal derivative, or fundamental D-operator.
Example: Affine connections
affine connectionon a manifold "M" is a Cartan connection modelled on the Klein geometry of affine space. [The material in this section is standard, and essentially based on Harvtxt|Kobayashi|Nomizu|1996|loc=Volume 1, with changes made to fit with the general Cartan connection concept. Kobayashi and Nomizu call an affine connection "linear", and its prolongation "affine". We shall not adopt this convention here.]
affine group"G" = "Aff"("n") consists of all transformations of an "n"-dimensional vector space "V", of the form:φ("x") = "Ax" + "x"0,where "A" is a general linear transformation. The affine group consists then of general linear transformations combined with translations. The stabilizer group of the origin in "V" is a copy "H" = "GL"("n") of the general linear group sitting inside "G". We can also describe "G" and "H" as matrix groups by introducing a basis of "V" to identify it with Rn. First embed Rn in the natural way into Rn+1 as the hyperplane "x"n+1 = 1. With these identifications:
Likewise, the Lie algebras g = aff("n") and h = gl("n") are given as:
Note that g admits an Ad("H")-invariant splitting :g = h ⊕ Rn, (*)and at the group level "G" is a
semidirect productof "H" and Rn. [Such geometries are called reductive and play a special role in the differential geometry of Cartan connections.]
An affine connection on a manifold "M" consists of a principal "H"-bundle "P", along with a g-valued 1-form ω on "P" such that:# ω is nondegenerate.:# R"h"*ω = Ad("h"-1) ω for all "h" ∈ "H".:# ω("X"ξ) = ξ for all ξ ∈ h, generating the vertical vector field "X"ξ.
To get a clearer picture of these three conditions, we decompose ω using the splitting (*). In this way, write ω = σ + θ, where σ is a 1-form with values in h and θ is a 1-form with values in Rn. Stated in terms of σ and θ, properties 1.–3. can be rewritten
:1σ. σ is a surjective h-valued 1-form:2σ. R"h"*σ = Ad("h"-1) σ for all "h" ∈ "H".:3σ. σ("X"ξ) = ξ for all ξ ∈ h.
:1θ. θ is a surjective Rn-valued 1-form:2θ. ("R"h)*θ("X") = "h"-1θ(X) for any "X" ∈ "TP".:3θ. ("R"h)*θ("X"ξ) = 0 for any vertical vector "X"ξ
Note in particular that properties 1σ.–3σ. correspond precisely to the definition of σ being a principal connection on "P". [This is not, as it happens, a general feature of Cartan connections, but rather a consequence of the reductivity of aff("n").]
Properties 1θ.–3θ. are what "distinguish" affine connections from more general principal connections. They bind the structure of the principal bundle "P" (and the affine connection) to the underlying differentiable structure of "M", and θ is aptly named a solder form.
The key to seeing this is property 3θ. Suppose that "x" ∈ "M" and "u" ∈ "P""x", the fibre over "x". If "X" is a tangent vector to "M" at "X", then we can unambiguously define θu("X"), since θu is insensitive to the addition of vertical vectors. Incorporating now property 1θ:: defines a linear isomorphism of vector spaces.In other words, for each choice of "u" in the fibre, θ"u" defines a frame of T"x""M".
Finally, property 2θ. ensures that θ has the correct tensorial transformation law to identify the principal bundle "P" with the bundle of linear frames of "M".
Prolongation and development
Associated with an affine connection (or much more generally, any Cartan connection: see below) is a notion of development. Development corresponds to the intuitive idea of "rolling" the tangent copies of the model space along curves in the manifold. Recall the example of the affine tangent plane rolling along a curve in a surface. Here, as the plane moves, the point of contact traces out a curve in the affine plane. So for each curve in the surface, there is a development of that curve into the model affine space. In a general setting, the development of a Cartan connection along a curve is a way of lifting the curve in a natural way to the model space (which may be thought of as the generalization of "rolling" the model space along the curve). [In greater generality, we can also talk about developments of higher dimensional submanifolds or even the whole manifold itself, into the model space. However, such developments will not always exist, and depend on some
integrability conditionsof the curvature.]
Developments are most naturally conceived using the technique of prolongation of a Cartan geometry. Later in the article, this will be discussed for arbitrary Cartan geometries. The way it works for affine connections is as follows.
From the preceding section, we have seen that once equipped with the data of an affine connection, the bundle "P" → "M" is realized as the bundle of linear frames of "M". The prolongation of this Cartan geometry is a geometric structure defined on the bundle of "affine frames" of "M".
Here we regard the tangent spaces of "M" as "affine spaces" rather than vector spaces. This defines the "affine tangent bundle" A"M". An affine frame of "M" at a point "x" consists of a choice of base point (or origin) "p" ∈ A"x""M" and a choice of linear frame ("X"1, ..., "X"n) attached to the base point "p".
Cartan connections generalize affine connections in two ways.
* The action of "H" on R"n" need not be effective. This allows, for example, the theory to include spin connections, in which "H" is the
spin groupSpin("n") rather than the orthogonal groupO("n").
* The group "G" need not be a semidirect product of "H" with R"n".
*springer|id=a/a010950|title=Affine connection|author=Ü. Lumiste
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.