List of monarchs of Kush

List of monarchs of Kush

This is an incomplete list for rulers with the titles of Qore (Empress Dowager), Qo (king] and Kandake (Empress) of Kush. Some of the dates are only rough estimates. While the chronological list is well known only a few monarchs have definite dates. These include those leaders that also ruled Egypt and those who ruled during famous invasions or famous trade expeditions. The others are based on estimates made by Fritz Hintze. The estimates are based on the average length of the reigns, which were then shortened or lengthened based on the size and splendour of the monarch's tomb. The assumption being that monarchs who reigned longer had more time and resources to build their burial sites. An added complication is that in recent years there have been disputes as to which monarch belongs to which tomb.

Dates are definite and accurate for the Kushite rulers of the 25th Dynasty Egypt, when Egypt was absorbed by the Kushite Empire. The dates are also certain for kings Aspelta, Arakamani, Nastasen, and the Kandakes Shanakdakhete, Amanirenas, Amanishakheto, Amanitore, and Amanikhatashan.

The early part of the chronology is incomplete. The graves and pyramid burials in Sudan consist of remains of at least fourteen (14)] monarchs of the Kushite Empire preceding Piankhi, the earliest of which tombs dates from about 1020 BCE. Two of these are known: Alara and Kashta who immediately preceded Piankhi. It is also possible that another of the burials may have been of Aserkamani, who was living in 950 BCE and who carried out expeditions in Egypt and the Mediterranean coast of North|date=October 2008

* Awawa (2000 BCE|1850 BCE)
* Nedjeh (1650 BCE|1550 BCE)
*(unknown) (1020 BCE)
* Kandake Makeda Nicaule (c. 1005 BCE-950 BCE)
*Aserkamani (950 BCE)
*(unknown) (Kandake Bilquis|Belghias?)

Capital at Napata

*Alara (c. 795 BCE to 752 BCE
*Kashta (c.765 BCE-752 BCE)
*Piye (1st Pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt; formerly known as "Piankhy") (752 BCE-721 BCE)
*Shabaka (2nd Pharaoh) (721 BCE-707 BCE/706 BCE)
*Shebitku (3rd Pharaoh) (707 BCE/706 BCE-690 BCE)
*Taharqa (4th Pharaoh) (690 BCE-664 BCE)
*Tantamani (5th and last Nubian Pharaoh) (664 BCE-653 BCE)
*Atlanersa (653 BCE-640 BCE)
*Senkamanisken (640 BCE-620 BCE)
*Anlamani (620 BCE-600 BCE)
*Aspelta (600 BCE-580 BCE)"Napata sacked by Egypt in 592 BC by Psamtik II. Nubian leadership moves south"

Capital transferred to Meroë.
*Aramatle-qo (568 BCE-555 BCE)
*Malonaqen (555 BCE-542 BCE)
*Analmaye (542 BCE-538 BCE)
*Amaninatakilebte (538 BCE-519 BCE)
*Karkamani (519 BCE-510 BCE)
*Amaniastabarqa (510 BCE-487 BCE)
*Siaspiqa (487 BCE-468 BCE)
*Nasakhma (468 BCE-463 BCE)
*Malewiebamani (463 BCE-435 BCE)
*Talakhamani (435 BCE-431 BCE)
*Amanineteyerike (431 BCE-405 BCE)
*Baskakeren (405 BCE-404 BCE)
*Harsiotef (404 BCE-369 BCE)
*(unknown Qore) (369 BCE-350 BCE)
*Akhraten alongside (unknown Kandake) Candace of Meroe (350 BCE-335 BCE)
*Nastasen (335 BCE-315 BCE)

*Aryamani (315 BCE-305 BCE)
*Piankhi-yerike-qa (305 BCE-290 BCE)
*Sabrakamani (290 BCE-280 BCE)

*Aktisanes alongside Kandake Alakhebasken (280 BCE-270 BCE)
*Arakamani (or Arkamani-qo Ergamenês or Ergamenês) (270 BCE-260 BCE)
*Amanislo (260 BCE-250 BCE)
*Aman-tekha (250 BCE-235 BCE)
*Arnekhamani (235 BCE-218 BCE)
*Arqamani (218-200 BCE)
*Tabriqo (Adikhalmani ?) (200 BCE-190 BCE)
*(unknown Qore) (190 BCE-185 BCE)
*(unknown Qore) (185 BCE-170s BCE)
*Kandake Shanakdakhete (177 BCE-155 BCE)
*(unknown Qore) (150s BCE-130 BCE)
*Naqyrinsan (130 BCE-110 BCE)
*Tanyidamani (110 BCE-90 BCE)
*(unknown Qore) alongside (unknown Kandake) (90 BCE-50 BCEs)
*Nawidemak 50s BCE
*Kandake Amanikhabale (50 BCE-40 BCE)
*Teriteqas alongside Kandake Amanirenas at Napata (40 BCE-10 BCE)
*Kandake Amanishakheto (10 BCE-1 CE)
*Kandake Amanitore (1 CE-12 CE)
*Natakamani (12 CE-20 CE)
*Shorkaror (c.20-30)
*Pisakar (c.30-40)
*Amanitaraqide (c.40-50)
*Amanitenmemide (c.50-62)
*Kandake Amanikhatashan (62-85)
*Teritnide (c.85-90)
*Teqerideamani I (c.90-114)
*Tamelerdeamani (114-134)
*Adeqetali (134-140)
*Takideamani (c.140-155)
*Tarekeniwal (c.155-170)
*Amanikhalika (c.170-175)
*Aritenyesbokhe (c.175-190)
*Amanikhareqerem (c.190-200)
*Teritedakhatey (c.200-215)
*Aryesbokhe (215-225)
*(unknown Qore) (225-246)
*(unknown Qore) (246)
*Teqerideamani II (246- [260s|266)
*Kandake Maleqorobar (266-283)
*Yesbokheamani (283-306)
*Kandake Lahideamani (306-314)
*King Maleqorobar (314-329)
*Akedaketival (329-340)
*(unknown) (340-355) ?
*(Unknown sequence thereafter)

ee also

*Viceroy of Kush

External links

* [ Fritz Hintze, "Meroitic Chronology: Problems and Prospects"]
* [ László Török, "Recent Progress in the Chronology of the Kingdom of Meroe"]
* [ Regnal Chronologies of Kush]
* [ Kandakes at digNubia]


* []

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