Wrocław gate


Coat of arms
Motto: Miasto w dobrym stylu
A town in good style
Oleśnica is located in Poland
Coordinates: 51°12′N 17°23′E / 51.2°N 17.383°E / 51.2; 17.383
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Lower Silesian
County Oleśnica County
Gmina Oleśnica (urban gmina)
Established 13th century
Town rights 1255
 - Mayor Jan Bronś
 - Total 20.96 km2 (8.1 sq mi)
Elevation 150 m (492 ft)
Population (2006)
 - Total 36,951
 - Density 1,762.9/km2 (4,566/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 56-400
Area code(s) +48 71
Car plates DOL
Website http://www.olesnica.pl

Oleśnica [ɔlɛɕˈnit​͡sa] (German: Oels or Öls) is a town in the Trzebnickie Hills in southwestern Poland with 36,951 inhabitants (2006). It is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Wrocław Voivodeship). It is the seat of Oleśnica County, and also of the rural district of Gmina Oleśnica (although it is not part of the territory of the latter, the town being an urban gmina in its own right).

The city has been part of an important trade route between Wrocław and the Greater Poland region, and had close ties with Kraków.[citation needed] It was the site of an important printing press and gymnasium. From the 13th century, it had a coin mint.



The town's name comes from the world Olcha(Alder), in the past it was named Olesznica. Olcha is a slavic word for this common plant and tree[1][2]


The ducal castle with a nearby trading settlement was first mentioned in 1189. In the 13th century, the area was settled by Germans.[3] On 22 February 1255, the village received city rights (Civitatem nostram Olesnicz)[4] from Henryk III the White, son of Henry II the Pious. From 1320 it was the capital of the Duchy of Oleśnica and the seat of Konrad of Oleśnica. After the 1492 death of Konrad Biały Młodszy, last of the local Piast dynasty, the duchy was sold to the Bohemian Poděbrady dynasty. In 1647 was inherited by the Dukes of Württemberg, and in the 18th century by the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

As Oels, the city was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1742 during the First Silesian War and administered within the Province of Silesia. Following administrative reform in 1807 during the Napoleonic Wars, Oels became the seat of Landkreis Oels. The city became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany.

After World War I, Oels was included within the Province of Lower Silesia. It was heavily damaged by the Red Army in 1945 during World War II, having approximately 60-80% of its buildings destroyed. The city was placed in Poland's borders after the Potsdam Conference and its official name became Oleśnica. The remaining German-speaking population was subsequently expelled and resettled with Poles many of whom were expelled from Eastern Poland annexed in 1945 by the Soviet Union.

Notable residents

Twin cities

Oleśnica is twinned with:

See also


  1. ^ www.poradniajezykowa.us.edu.pl
  2. ^ www.olesnica.pl
  3. ^ Eberl, Immo (1993). Immo Eberl, Ministry for Internal Affairs, Baden-Württemberg (Germany). ed (in German). Flucht, Vertreibung, Eingliederung. Thorbecke. pp. 26. ISBN 3799525009. 
  4. ^ http://alo.uibk.ac.at/webinterface/library/ALO-BOOK_V01?objid=19012 page 333

External links

Coordinates: 51°12′N 17°23′E / 51.2°N 17.383°E / 51.2; 17.383

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  • Olesnica — Oleśnica …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • OLESNICA — (Ger. Oels), town in Silesia, Poland. The first mention of a synagogue dates from 1417. Five members of the local community were accused of desecration of the host in breslau in 1453. The Jews were expelled in 1492, but by 1521 seven families… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • Olesnica — 1 Original name in latin Olenica Name in other language State code PL Continent/City Europe/Warsaw longitude 50.45357 latitude 21.06457 altitude 182 Population 1800 Date 2010 09 30 2 Original name in latin Olenica Name in other language Oels,… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Oleśnica County — Powiat oleśnicki   County   …   Wikipedia

  • Oleśnica (disambiguation) — Oleśnica may refer to the following places: Oleśnica, Poddębice County in Łódź Voivodeship (central Poland) Oleśnica, Wieluń County in Łódź Voivodeship (central Poland) Oleśnica in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (south west Poland) Oleśnica, Lesser… …   Wikipedia

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