- Ras (protein)
Symbol = Ras
caption = Triphosphate Structure of H-Ras p21 GNBP in complex with GppNHp and Mg2+ (PDB Code 5p21). Important sequence elements are highlighted.
PROSITE = PDOC00859
SCOP = 5p21
OPM protein= 1uad
PDB=PDB3|2folA:13-174 PDB3|1ukvY:10-171 PDB3|1yznA:10-171PDB3|2bcgY:10-171 PDB3|1g17B:22-182 PDB3|1g16C:22-182PDB3|3rabA:24-185 PDB3|1zbdA:24-185 PDB3|2ew1A:11-172PDB3|1x3sA:10-171 PDB3|1z0kA:10-171 PDB3|2bmeA:10-171PDB3|2bmdA:10-171 PDB3|1yu9A:10-171 PDB3|2aedA:13-174PDB3|1z0fA:13-174 PDB3|1z0aD:8-169 PDB3|2a5jA:8-169PDB3|1oivB:13-172 PDB3|1yzkA:13-174 PDB3|1oixA:13-172PDB3|1oiwA:13-172 PDB3|1z06A:35-201 PDB3|1huqA:23-182PDB3|1z0dC:23-183 PDB3|1z07A:23-182 PDB3|1r2qA:22-183PDB3|1n6rA:22-183 PDB3|1ek0A:9-173 PDB3|1yvdA:7-168PDB3|1z0jA:7-168 PDB3|2fg5A:7-168 PDB3|1z08A:21-182PDB3|1yztB:21-182 PDB3|1yzuB:21-182 PDB3|1z0iA:21-182PDB3|1yzqA:15-176 PDB3|1d5cA:13-172 PDB3|1t91C:10-175PDB3|1vg8D:10-175 PDB3|1vg9H:10-175 PDB3|1vg1A:10-175PDB3|1vg0B:10-175 PDB3|1ky3A:10-178 PDB3|1ky2A:10-178PDB3|1yzlA:9-174 PDB3|1wmsB:9-174 PDB3|1s8fB:9-174PDB3|2f7sA:11-183 PDB3|1z22A:11-171 PDB3|1z2aA:11-171PDB3|1plj :5-165 PDB3|1ctqA:5-165 PDB3|1crp :5-165PDB3|821p :5-165 PDB3|2eryB:16-177 PDB3|2fn4A:31-192PDB3|1x1sA:15-177 PDB3|1x1rA:15-177 PDB3|1u90A:16-177PDB3|1u8zA:16-177 PDB3|1u8yB:16-177 PDB3|1uadB:16-177PDB3|2bovA:16-177 PDB3|2a78A:16-177 PDB3|3rapR:5-166PDB3|1kao :5-166 PDB3|2rap :5-166 PDB3|1c1yA:5-167PDB3|1guaA:5-167 PDB3|1xtrA:8-169 PDB3|1xtqA:8-169PDB3|1xtsA:8-169 PDB3|2erxB:9-171 PDB3|1a4rB:5-178PDB3|1kmqA:7-180 PDB3|1tx4B:7-179 PDB3|1cxzA:7-180PDB3|1m7bA:25-199 PDB3|1gwnA:25-199 PDB3|2bkuA:12-170PDB3|3ranA:12-170 PDB3|1qg4B:12-170 PDB3|1byuA:12-170PDB3|2atvA:8-169
molecular biology, "Ras" is the name of a protein, the genethat encodes it, and the family and superfamily ("see Ras superfamily") of proteins to which it belongs. The ras oncogene is a signal transduction protein, which means that it communicates signals from outside the cell to the nucleus. Sometimes a DNA mutation turns the signal permanently on, which leads to unlimited cell growth and cancer. [ [http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/full/4/3/263 David S. Goodsell, Physician Education: The Molecular Perspective: The ras Oncogene, The Oncologist, Vol. 4, No. 3, 263-264, June 1999] Introductory article on molecular biology of ras oncogene for physicians. Illustrated. Full text free.] The Ras superfamily of small GTPases includes the Ras, Rho, Arf, Rab, and Ran families.
The "RAS" genes were first identified as the transforming
oncogenes, responsible for the cancer-causing activities of the Harvey (the "HRAS" oncogene) and Kirsten ("KRAS") sarcoma viruses, by Edward M. Scolnick and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These viruses were discovered originally in rats during the 1960's by Jennifer Harvey and Werner Kirsten, respectively. In 1982, activated and transforming human "RAS" genes were discovered in human cancer cells by Geoffrey M. Cooper at Harvard, Mariano Barbacid and Stuart A. Aaronson at the NIH and by Robert A. Weinberg of MIT. Subsequent studies identified a third human "RAS" gene, designated "NRAS", for its initial identification in human neuroblastoma cells.
The three human RAS genes encode highly related 188 to 189 amino acid proteins, designated H-Ras, N-Ras and K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B (the two K-Ras proteins arise from alternative gene splicing). Ras proteins function as binary molecular switches that control intracellular signaling networks. Ras-regulated signal pathways control such processes as actin cytoskeletal integrity, proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion,
apoptosis, and cell migration.
Ras and ras-related proteins are often deregulated in cancers, leading to increased invasion and
metastasis, and decreased apoptosis.
Ras activates a number of pathways but an especially important one seems to be the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, which themselves transmit signals downstream to other protein kinases and gene regulatory proteins.cite book | author=Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J | title=Molecular cell biology | publisher=W.H. Freeman | location=San Francisco | year=2000 | edition=4th | chapter=Chapter 25, Cancer | id=ISBN 0-7167-3706-X]
Activated and inactivated forms
Ras is a
G protein(specifically a small GTPase): a regulatory GTP hydrolase that cycles between two conformations – an activated or inactivated form, respectively RAS-GTP and RAS-GDP.
It is "activated" by
guanine exchange factors(GEFs, eg. CDC25, SOS1and SOS2, SDC25in yeast), which are themselves activated by mitogenic signals and through feedback from Ras itself. A GEF usually heightens the dissociation rate of the nucleotide – while not changing the association rate (effectively lower the affinity of the nucleotide) – thereby promoting its exchange. The cellular concentration of GTP is much higher than that of GDP so the exchange is usually GDP vs. GTP.
It is "inactivated" by
GTPase-activating proteins(GAPs, the most frequently cited one being RasGAP), which increase the rate of GTP hydrolysis, returning RAS to its GDP-bound form, simultaneously releasing an inorganic phosphate.
Ras is attached to the
cell membraneby prenylation, and in health is a key component in many pathways which couple growth factor receptors to downstream mitogenic effectors involved in cell proliferation or differentiation.cite journal | author=Reuter C, Morgan M, Bergmann L | title=Targeting the Ras signaling pathway: a rational, mechanism-based treatment for hematologic malignancies? | journal=Blood | volume=96 | issue=5 | pages=1655–69 | year=2000 | pmid=10961860] The C-terminal CaaX boxof Ras first gets farnesylated at its Cys residue in the cytosol and then inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmatic reticulum. The Tripeptid (aaX) is then cleaved from the C-terminus by a specific prenyl-protein specific endoprotease, the new C-terminus is then methylated by a methyltransferase. The so processed Ras is now transported to the plasma membrane. Most Ras forms are now further palmitoylated, while K-Ras with its long positively charged stretch interacts electrostaticly with the membrane.
Ras in cancer
Mutations in the Ras family of
proto-oncogenes (comprising H-Ras, N-Ras and K-Ras) are very common, being found in 20% to 30% of all human tumours. [cite journal | author=Bos J | title=ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review | journal=Cancer Res | volume=49 | issue=17 | pages=4682–9 | year=1989 | pmid=2547513]
Inappropriate activation of the gene
Inappropriate activation of the gene has been shown to play a key role in signal transduction, proliferation and malignant transformation. ]
Mutations in a number of different genes as well as RAS itself can have this effect.
Oncogenes such as p210BCR-ABL or the growth receptor erbB are upstream of Ras, so if they are constitutively activated their signals will transduce through Ras.
tumour suppressor gene NF1encodes a Ras-GAP – its mutation in neurofibromatosiswill mean that Ras is less likely to be inactivated. Ras can also be amplified, although this only occurs occasionally in tumours.
Finally, Ras oncogenes can be activated by point mutations so that its GTPase reaction can no longer be stimulated by GAP – this increases the half life of active Ras-GTP mutants. ]
Constitutively active Ras
"Constitutively active Ras" ("RasD") is one which contains mutations that prevent GTP hydrolysis, thus locking Ras in a permanently 'On' state.
The most common mutations are found at residue G12 in the
P-loopand the catalytic residue Q61.
* The glycine to valine mutation at "residue 12" renders the GTPase domain of Ras insensitive to inactivation by GAP and thus stuck in the "on state". Ras requires a GAP for inactivation as it is a relatively poor catalyst on its own, as opposed to other G-domain-containing proteins such as the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins.
* "Residue 61" [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=164790&a=164790_AllelicVariant0002 Omim - Neuroblastoma Ras Viral Oncogene Homolog; Nras ] ] is responsible for stabilizing the transition state for GTP hydrolysis. Because enzyme catalysis in general is achieved by lowering the energy barrier between substrate and product, mutation of Q61 necessarily reduces the rate of intrinsic Ras GTP hydrolysis to physiologically meaningless levels.
See also "dominant negative" mutants such as S17N and D119N.
Human proteins containing Ras domain
ARHE; ARHGAP5; CDC42; DIRAS1; DIRAS2; DIRAS3; ERAS; GEM; GRLF1; HRAS; KRAS; LOC393004; MRAS; NKIRAS1; NRAS; RAB10; RAB11A; RAB11B; RAB12; RAB13; RAB14; RAB15; RAB17; RAB18; RAB19; RAB1A; RAB1B; RAB2; RAB20; RAB21; RAB22A; RAB23; RAB24; RAB25; RAB26; RAB27A; RAB27B; RAB28; RAB2B; RAB30; RAB31; RAB32; RAB33A; RAB33B; RAB34; RAB35; RAB36; RAB37; RAB38; RAB39; RAB39B; RAB3A; RAB3B; RAB3C; RAB3D; RAB40A; RAB40AL; RAB40B; RAB40C; RAB41; RAB42; RAB43; RAB4A; RAB4B; RAB5A; RAB5B; RAB5C; RAB6A; RAB6B; RAB6C; RAB7A; RAB7B; RAB7L1; RAB8A; RAB8B; RAB9; RAB9B; RABL2A; RABL2B; RABL4; RAC1; RAC2; RAC3; RALA; RALB; RAN; RANP1; RAP1A; RAP1B; RAP2A; RAP2B; RAP2C; RASD1; RASD2; RASEF; RASL11A; RASL12; RBJ; REM1; REM2; RERG; RHEB; RHEBL1; RHOA; RHOB; RHOBTB1; RHOBTB2; RHOC; RHOD; RHOF; RHOG; RHOH; RHOJ; RHOQ; RHOU; RHOV; RIT1; RIT2; RND1; RND2; RND3; RRAD; RRAS; RRAS2; TC4;
* [http://www.ncic.cancer.ca/ncic/internet/mediareleaselist/0,,84658243_85783616_88058948_langId-en.html "Brain tumour findings offer hope of new strategy Canadian Cancer Society says" at ncic.cancer.ca]
* [http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20031104-3072.html "Novel cancer treatment gets NCI support" at arstechnica.com]
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