- British military rifles
The origins of the modern British military rifles are within its predecessor the
Brown Bess musket. While a musket was largely inaccurate due to a lack of rifling and generous tolerance to allow for muzzle-loading it was cheaper to produce, loaded quickly, and the use in volley fire by massed troops meant accuracy was largely irrelevant. Ironically, a similar tactical preference would be a factor in considerations regarding rifle design in the late 19th century and early 20th century, when rate of fire would be a key design consideration for British bolt action rifles.
Beginning in the late 1830s, the superior characteristics of the rifle caused the
British militaryto phase out the venerable .75 calibre Brown Bess musketin favour of muzzle loading rifles in smaller calibres. Early rifles were non-standard and frequently adaptations from components of the Brown Bess, including, locks, stocks and new rifled barrels. It was not until the late nineteenth century that the rifle fully supplanted the musket as the primary weapon of the infantryman.
Rifles before 1800
Civilian rifles had on rare occasions been used by marksmen during the
English Civil War(1642-51). In the 1750s, a few German rifles were used by British light infantry regiments in the French and Indian War.
Pattern 1776 Infantry Rifle
In January 1776, 1000 rifles were ordered to be built for the British Army. A pattern by gunsmith William Grice, based on German rifles in use by the British Army, was approved for official issue as the Pattern 1776 Infantry Rifle. The barrel is 30.5" with hook breech in .62 calibre. Eight hundred were delivered through 4 Birmingham producers: William Grice, Mathias Barker, Galton & Sons and Bejamin Willets. Two hundred more were obtained from Hannover.
This weapon was issued to the light company of each regiment in the British Army during the
American Revolution; these were probably present at most battles in the conflict.
Also in 1776 Major
Patrick Fergusonpatented his breech-loading Ferguson rifle, based on old French and Dutch designs of the 1720s and 1730s. One hundred of these, of the two hundred or so made, were issued to a special rifle corps in 1777, but the cost, production difficulties and fragility of the guns, coupled with the death of Ferguson at the Battle of Kings Mountainmeant the experiment was short lived.
The Baker Rifle
Baker riflewas a muzzle-loading flintlock weapon used by the British Army in the Napoleonic Wars, notably by the 95th (Rifles) Regiment of Foot and the 5th Battalion, 60th Regiment of Foot. This rifle was an accurate weapon for its day with reported kills being taken at 100 to convert|300|yd away. The rifle was in service in the British Army until the 1840s.
Brunswick riflewas a .704 calibre muzzle-loadingpercussion riflemanufactured for the British Armyat the Royal Small Arms Factoryat Enfield in the early 1800s. The weapon was introduced to replace the Baker rifleand weighed from over 9 to over 10 pounds without its bayonet attached, depending on the pattern. The weapon was described as inaccurate and difficult to load but remained in production for about 50 years (1836 to 1885) and was used in both England and assorted colonies and outposts throughout the world.
The Brunswick had a two groove barrel designed to accept a "belted" round ball. There are four basic variants of the British Brunswick Rifle (produced in .654 and .704 calibre, both oval bore rifled and smoothbore). They are the Pattern 1836, the Pattern 1841 , the Pattern 1848 and the Pattern 1840 Variant.
Early Enfield rifles
Throughout the evolution of the British rifle the name Enfield is prevalent; this refers to the
Royal Small Arms Factoryin the town of Enfield north of London, where the British Government produced various patterns of muskets from components manufactured elsewhere beginning in 1804. The first rifle produced in whole to a set pattern at Enfield was the Baker rifle. Brunswick rifles were also produced there, but prior to 1851 rifles were considered specialty weapons and served alongside the muskets which were issued to regular troops.
In 1851 the Enfield factory embarked upon production of the .702-inch Pattern 1851 Minié rifle using the conical Minie bullet, which replaced the Pattern 1842 .753 calibre smoothbore musket as the primary weapon issued to regular troops. The Pattern 1851 was referred to as a rifled musket and was longer than previous production rifles, conforming to the length of prior muskets which allowed for consistency in standards for firing in ranks and bayonet combat. Relatively few of these were produced since a new design was adopted within two years. The rifle used the lock and bayonet mount from the Pattern 1842, with a convert|39|in|mm|sing=on barrel.
The new Minie ammunition allowed much faster loading so that rifles were no longer slower to load than smoothbore muskets. Previous rifles such as the Baker and the Brunswick were designated for special troops such as skirmishers or snipers, while the majority of shoulder arms remained smoothbore muskets.
Pattern 1853 Enfieldused a smaller .577 calibre Minie bullet. Several variations were made, including infantry, navy and artillery versions, along with shorter carbines for cavalry use. The Pattern 1851 and Pattern 1853 were both used in the Crimean War, with some logistical confusion caused by the need for different ammunition. The Pattern 1853 was popular with both sides of the American Civil War; both the Confederacy and the Union imported these through agents who contracted with private companies in Britain for production.
The Pattern 1858 naval rifle was developed for the British Admiralty in the late 1850's with a heavier 5-grooved barrel. The heavier barrel was designed to withstand the leverage from the naval cutlass bayonet but may have contributed to accuracy.
The Enfield “Short Rifle” was a percussion rifle used extensively by the North and South in the US Civil War. It was generally well regarded for its accuracy, even with its short barrel. It was also used by British Army.
Pattern 1861 Enfield Musketoon
Pattern 1861 Enfield Musketoonwas an alteration to the Pattern 1853 Enfield Musketoon. The alteration gave the Pattern 1861 a faster twist, which gave it more accuracy than the longer infantry rifle. In England, it was issued to artilleryunits, who required a weapon for personal defence. It was imported by the Confederacy and issued to artillery and cavalryunits.
In 1866 the
Snider-Enfieldwas produced as a conversion of Enfield Pattern 1853 with a hinged breechblockand barrel designed for a .577 cartridge. Later Sniders were newly manufactured on the same design.
The action was invented by an American,
Jacob Snider, and adopted by Britain as a conversion system for the 1853 Enfield. The conversions proved both more accurate than original muzzle-loading Enfields and much faster firing as well. Converted rifles retained the original iron barrel, furniture, locks and cap-style hammers. The rifles were converted in large numbers, or assembled new with surplus pattern 53 iron barrels and hardware. The Mark III rifles were made from all new parts with steel barrels, flat nosed hammers and are the version equipped with a latch locking breech block. The Snider was the subject of substantial imitation, approved and otherwise, including: Nepalese Sniders, the Dutch Sniders, Danish Naval Sniders, and the "unauthorized" adaptations resulting in the French Tabatiere and Russian Krnka rifles.
The Snider-Enfield Infantry rifle was particularly long at over convert|54|in|mm. The breech block housed a diagonally downward sloping firing pin which was struck with a front-action side mounted hammer. The firer cocked the hammer, flipped the block out of the receiver with a breech block lever, and then pulled the block back to extract the spent case. There was no ejector, the case had to be pulled out, or more usually, the rifle rolled onto its back to allow the case to fall out. The Snider saw service throughout the
British Empire, until it was gradually phased out of front line service in favor of the Martini-Henry, in the mid-1870s. The design continued in use with colonial troops into the twentieth century.
Further information at: [http://www.militaryrifles.com/Britain/Snider.htm http://www.militaryrifles.com/Britain/Snider.htm]
Martini-Henry riflewas adopted in 1871, featuring a falling-blocksingle-shot breech-loading action, actuated by a lever beneath the wrist of the buttstock. The Martini-Henry evolved as the standard service rifle for almost 20 years, with variants including carbines. Unlike the Snider it replaced, the Martini-Henry was designed from the ground up as a breech-loading metallic cartridge firearm. This robust weapon uses a falling block, with a self-cocking, lever operated, single-shot action designed by a Swiss, Friedrich von Martini, as modified from the Peabody design. The rifling system was designed by Scotsman, Alexander Henry. The Mark I was adopted for service in 1871. There were four main variations of the Martini-Henry rifle including the Mark II, III and IV with sub variations of these called patterns. In 1877 a carbine version entered service with five main variations including cavalry and artillery versions. Initially, Martinis used the short chamber Boxer-Henry .45 calibre black powder cartridge made of a thin sheet of brassrolled around a mandrel, which was then soldered to an iron base. Later, the rolled brass case was replaced by a solid brass version which remedied a myriad of problems.Further information [http://www.militaryrifles.com/Britain/Martini.htm http://www.militaryrifles.com/Britain/Martini.htm]
Martini-Metford & Martini-Enfield
Martini-Enfield rifles were mostly conversions of the Zulu War era .450/577 Martini-Henry, rechambered to the .303 British calibre, although a number were newly manufactured. Early Martini-Henry conversions, began in 1889, using Metford rifled barrels (Martini-Metford rifles), which were more than suitable for the first black powder .303 cartridges, but they wore out very quickly when fired with the more powerful smokeless ammunition introduced in 1895, so that year the Enfield rifled barrel was introduced, which was suitable for smokeless ammunition. The Martini-Enfield was in service from 1895-1918 (Lawrence of Arabia's Arab Irregulars were known to have used them during the Arab Revolt of 1916-1918), and it remained a reserve arm in places like India and New Zealand well into World War II.
The first British repeating rifle incorporated a bolt-action and a box-magazine ; this was developed through trials beginning in 1879, and adopted as the Magazine Rifle Mark I in 1888. This rifle is commonly referred to as the
Lee-Metfordor MLM (Magazine Lee-Metford).
The "Lee" comes from
James Paris Lee(1831-1904), a Scottish-born Canadian inventor who designed an easy to operate turnbolt and a high capacity box magazine to work with it. The box magazine, either Lee or Mannlicherdesigned, proved superior in combat to the Kropatschekstyle tube magazine used by the French in their Lebel rifle, or the Krag-Jørgensenrotary magazine used in the first US bolt action rifle (M1892). The initial Lee magazine was a straight stack, eight-round box, which was superseded by the staggered, ten round box in later versions, in each case more than were accommodated by Mannlicher box magazine designs.
The “Metford” comes from
William Ellis Metford(1824-1899), an English engineer who was instrumental in perfecting the .30 calibre jacketed bullet and rifling to accommodate the smaller diameter.
During the development of the Lee-Metford
smokeless powderwas invented. The French and the Germans were already implementing their second generation bolt action rifles, the 8 mm Lebel in 1886 and 7.92 mm Gewehr 88 in 1888 respectively, using smokeless powderto propel smaller diameter bullets. The British followed the trend of using smaller diameter bullets, but the Lee-Metford design process overlapped the invention of smokeless powder, and was not adapted for its use. However, in 1895 the design was modified to work with smokeless powder resulting in the Lee-Enfield.
A contrast between this design and other successful bolt actions of the time such as the
Mausers and US Springfield is the rear locking lug. This puts the lug in close proximity to the bolt handle, where the pressure is applied by the operator, in essence the force is close to the fulcrum point. Without great explanation, this results in an easier and swifter operation versus the Mauser design, resulting in a greater rate of fire. However, the sacrifice is strength as the fulcrum point has moved away from the force of the explosion, thus making the length of the bolt a leverworking against the holding power of the rear lug. This would always be a limiting factor in the ballisticscapacity of this design, and in some minds a critical short coming as a weapons system.
Another difference between the Lee and the Mauser designs was the use of "cock-on-closing", which also helped to speed cycling by making the initial opening of the breech very easy. The closing stroke, which is generally more forceful than the opening stroke, cocks the rifle, adding to the ease of use. The Lee design also featured a shorter bolt travel and a 60 degree rotation of the bolt; these attributes also led to faster cycle times.
Over the service life of the design, proponents and opponents would stress rate-of-fire versus ballistics respectively, with the former persevering in the end. The basic Lee design with some tinkering was the basis for most British front-line rifles until after
World War II.
Further information at [http://www.militaryrifles.com/Britain/Metford.htm http://www.militaryrifles.com/Britain/Metford.htm]
In 1895, the Lee-Metford design was reinforced to accommodate the higher chamber pressures of smokeless powder; more critically, the barrel rifling was changed to one developed by the Enfield factory due to the incompatibility of the Metford barrel design with smokeless powder (the barrels becoming unusable after less than 5,000 rounds). The designation was changed to Rifle, Magazine,
Lee-EnfieldMark I or MLE (magazine Lee Enfield). The sights also had to be changed to reflect the flatter trajectory and longer ranges of the improved cartridge.
The Martini-Henry, Lee-Metford, and Lee-Enfield rifles have an overall length just under convert|50|in|mm. In each case several variants of carbines were offered in the under convert|40|in|mm|sing=on range for uses by
cavalry, artillery, constabularies and special troops.
Starting in 1909 MLE and MLM rifles were converted to use charger loading, which was accomplished by modifying the bolt, modifying the front and rear sights, and adding a charger guide bridge to the action body, thereby allowing the use of chargers to more rapidly load the magazines. Upgraded to a more modern standard, these rifles served in combat in the First World War.
The Short Magazine Lee-Enfield (SMLE) – also known as Rifle, Number 1
World War I, the Rifle, Short, Magazine Lee-Enfield, or SMLE, was developed to provide a single rifle to offer a compromise length between rifles and carbines, and to incorporate improvements deemed necessary from experience in the Boer War. With a length of convert|44.5|in|mm, the new weapon was referred to as a "short rifle"; the word "short" refers to the length of the rifle, not the length of the magazine. From 1903 to 1909, many Metford and Enfield rifles were converted to the SMLE configuration with shorter barrels and modified furniture. Production of the improved SMLE Mk III began in 1907. Earlier Mk I and Mk II rifles were upgraded to include several of the improvements of the Mk III. The compromise length was consistent with military trends as the US Springfield M1903 was only produced in the compromise length and the Germans adopted the kurz (short) rifle concept between the world wars for the Mauser 98k(model 1898 short).
Training Rifle – Rifle, Number 2
To conserve resources in training, the British Army converted many .303 rifles to .22 calibre for target practice and training purposes after the
First World War. In 1926, the British government changed the nomenclature of its rifles, designating the .303 calibre SMLE as No. 1 Rifles and the .22 calibre training rifles as No. 2 Rifles. For practical purposes "SMLE" and "No. 1 Rifle" are alternate names for the same weapon, but a purist would define a No. 1 as post-1926 production only.
Pattern 1913 Enfield
Pattern 1913 Enfield(P13) was an experimental rifle developed by the British Army ordnance department serve as a replacement for the Short Magazine Lee-Enfield (SMLE). Although a completely different design from the Lee-Enfield, the Pattern 1913 rifle was designed by the Enfield engineers. In 1910, the British War Officeconsidered replacing the SMLE based on its inferior performance compared to the Mauser rifles used by the enemy in the Boer War. The major shortcoming was long range performance and accuracy due to the ballistics of the .303 round, but the bolt system of the SMLE was not believed to have the strength to chamber more potent ammunition. A rimless .276 cartridge, which was comparable to the 7 mm Mauser, was developed.
Pattern 1914 – also known as Rifle, Number 3
With the outbreak of the First World War, the change to the ammunition for the Pattern 1913 was abandoned; however, to supplement SMLE production the new design was to be produced chambered for .303. In 1914, the Pattern 1914 rifle (Pattern 13 chambered for .303) was approved for production by British companies, but production was superseded by other war priorities, and three US firms Winchester, Eddystone, and Remington began production in 1916.
The Pattern 14 rifle did not gain widespread acceptance with the British since it was larger and heavier, held fewer rounds and was slower to cycle than the SMLE. The P14 was well-regarded as a sniper rifle (with telescopic and fine adjustment iron sights) but largely disregarded outside of emergency use.
US M1917 "Enfield"
To minimize retooling, the US Army contracted with Winchester and Remington to continue producing a simplified Pattern 14 rifle chambered for US
.30-06ammunition. This weapon was known as the US .30 cal. Model of 1917 ( M1917 Enfield rifle). Ironically more of these were produced and used by the US Army during the First World War than the official US battle rifle, the Springfield M1903. The M1917 continued in use during World War IIas second line and training rifles as the semi-automatic M1 Garands and carbines were phased-in.
Ross riflewas a straight-pull bolt-action .303 calibre rifle produced in Canada from 1903 until the middle of the First World War, when it was withdrawn from service in Europe due to its unreliability under wartime conditions, and its widespread unpopularity among the soldiers. Although the Ross .303 was a superior marksman rifle, its components proved too easily clogged in the adverse environment imposed by trench warfare in the First World War. It was also possible for a careless user to disassemble the bolt for cleaning and then reassemble it with the bolt-head on back to front, resulting in a highly dangerous and sometimes fatal failure of the bolt to lock in the forward position on firing. Snipers, however, who were able to maintain their weapons carefully and use them to maximum effect, retained a considerable fondness for the weapon.
Ross rifles were also used by Home Guard units in the Second World War and many weapons were shipped to Britain after Dunkirk in the face of serious shortages of small arms.
Rifle, Number 4
Beginning shortly after the First World War the SMLE went through a series of experimental upgrades that eventually resulted in the Rifle, No. 4 Mk I, which was adopted in 1939 just after the beginning of the Second World War. The changes included receiver-mounted aperture rear sights similar to that of the Pattern 1914 rifle, a "free-floating barrel" to improve accuracy during extended use, and changed screw threads, making nearly all threaded components incompatible with those of the SMLE (No. 1) rifle. In addition, the No. 4 rifle had a heavier barrel, stronger steel in the action body and bolt body, and a short “grip-less” (or "spike") bayonet that mounted directly to the barrel, rather than to a separate nosecap. The latter was the most prominent visual change.
During the Second World War, the British government also contracted with the US and Canadian manufacturers (notably Long Branch and Savage) to produce the No. 4 Mk I* rifle. US-manufactured rifles supplied under the Lend Lease program were marked U.S. PROPERTY on the left side of the receiver.
This rifle remained in use until the mid 1980s, having been refitted to fire the NATO 7.62 mm round, with the wooden foregrip along the barrel's bottom shortened to reduce the rifle's weight, and a chin rest added to the stock. The last version, designated the L42A1, was used in the Falklands War.
Rifle, Number 5 & Further Variants
In 1943, trials began on a shortened and lightened No. 4 rifle, leading to the adoption in 1944 of the No. 5 Mk I Rifle, or “
Jungle Carbine,” as it is commonly known. The No. 5 rifle was manufactured from 1944 until 1947.
The end of the Second World War saw the production of the Rifle, No. 6, an experimental Australian version of the No. 5, and later the Rifle, No. 7, Rifle, No. 8, and Rifle, No. 9, all of which were .22 rimfire trainers.
Production of SMLE variants continued until circa 1956 and in small quantities for specialty use until circa 1974. In the mid-1960s, a version was produced for the 7.62 mm NATO cartridge by installing new barrels and new extractors, enlarging the magazine wells slightly, and installing new magazines. This was also done by the Indian rifle factory at Ishapore, which produced a strengthened SMLE in 7.62 mm NATO, as well as .303 SMLEs into the 1980s.
It is interesting to note that while the Mausers and Springfields were being replaced by semi-automatic rifles during the Second World War, the British did not feel the need to replace the faster firing SMLE weapons with the new technology.
Of all British military rifles ever produced, the No. 5 had the shortest actual service life, only being issued for 5 years or so. The weapon gained a reputation for a "wandering zero" and violent
Rifle No 8
A .22 subcalibred No. 4 used for cadet training and match shooting. It supported the Parker Hale sight.
No9 rifle(Enfield EM2)
EM-2 Bullpup Rifle, or "Janson rifle", was an experimental British assault rifle. It was designed to fire the experimental .280 Britishround that was being considered to replace the venerable .303 British, re-arming the British and allied forces with their first assault rifles and new machine guns. The EM-2 never entered production due to the United Statesrefusing to standardise on the .280 as "lacking power", but the bullpup layout was used later in the SA80.
British L1A1 SLR
The L1A1 SLR (Self Loading Rifle) is the British version of the
FN FAL(Fusil Automatique Leger) - Light Automatic Rifle, one of the most famous and widespread military rifle designs of the late 20th century. Developed by the Belgian Fabrique NationaleCompany (FN), it was used by some 70 or more countries, and was manufactured in at least 10 countries. The FAL type rifle is no longer in front line service in the developed world, but is still in use in poorer parts of the world.
The history of the FAL began circa 1946, when FN began to develop a new assault rifle, chambered for German 7.92x33 mm kurz intermediate cartridge. In the late 1940s the Belgians joined with Britain and selected a British .280 (7x43 mm) intermediate cartridge for further development. In 1950 both the Belgian FAL prototype and the British
EM-2 bullpupassault rifles were tested against other rifle designs by the US Army. The EM-2 performed well and the FAL prototype greatly impressed the Americans, but the idea of the intermediate cartridge was at that moment incomprehensible for them, and USA insisted on a full size cartridge, the 7.62 NATO, as a standard in 1953-1954. Despite the British Defence minister announcing the intention to adopt the EM-2 and the intermediate cartridge, Winston Churchillpersonally opposed the EM-2 and .280 cartridge in the belief that a split in NATOshould be avoided, and that the US would adopt the FAL in 7.62 as the T48. The first 7.62 mm FALs were ready in 1953. Britain adopted the FAL in 1957 designating it the L1A1 SLR, and produced their own rifles at the RSAF Enfield and BSA factories.
Canada also used the FN, designated the FNC1 and FNC1A1, and like Britain/Australia/New Zealand/India, retained the semi-automatic-only rifle well after other armies turned to full automatic assault rifles such as the M16 and
During the 1970s, Enfield engineers designed an assault rifle to replace the L1A1 in the Bullpup configuration but chambered in the .190 calibre(4.85mm). This rifle actually had better range and ballistics than the 5.56mmx45 although it retained the same cartridge but necked-down for the then new calibre. Like the previous EM-2, It was a bullpup and also canceleled due to NATO standardization. However the L64 was later chambered in 5.56x45NATO as the XL70 and is the main rifle that formed the basis of the SA80.
Sterling Armaments of Dagenham who were famous for producing submachine guns and copies of the AR18 went on to developing the LAR(Lightweight Assault Rifle) chambered in 5.56mm NATO. The weapon itself was an AR18 derivative made from pressed steel as means of cheap mass production to supply foreign armed forces and came with a fixed/folding stock alongside a 9mm submachine gun conversion kit. Although this weapon had impressive performance, It was cancelled due to the adoption of the SA80 and the British Government forbidding to have a national firearms industry. Only just less than 100 have been produced.
A80 - L85A1/L85A2
Bullpupdesign creatively decreases total weapon length compared with standard assault rifles. It is comfortable to use not only on the battlefield, but also in areas with limited space, such as armoured personnel carriers.
In 1951 the British officially adopted the
EM-2bullpup design as the "Rifle, Automatic, No.9 Mk.1". However, American insistence on the use of 7.62x51 NATO cartridges as the NATO standard meant that the rifle, which used 7 mm rounds, was shelved and the Belgian FN FAL rifle adopted. It was expected that the US would also adopt the FAL then under trial as the T48 but they selected the M14. Another Enfield attempt in the 1970s was the L64/65.
Britain started a programme to find a family of related weapons to replace the L1A1 battle rifle and the
Brengun titled "Small Arms for the 1980s" or SA80. The L85 is designed for the 5.56 x 45 mm NATO cartridge. The gas operated action has a short stroke gas piston, located above the barrel with its own return spring. The gas system has a three position gas regulator, one position for a normal firing, second for a firing in adverse conditions, and the third for launching rifle grenades (gas port is shut off).
The L85A1 was improved in 1997 after constant complaints from the troops. The main problems were difficult maintenance and low reliability. Improvements were made during 2000 - 2002 when 200,000 of the existing 320,000 L85A1 Automatic Rifles were upgraded. Improvements were made to the working parts (cocking handle, firing pin etc.), gas parts and magazines. A very small number of L85A2's were designed for left hand users for their tactical advantage in situations such as moving clockwise around a building.
The improved rifle is named L85A2. It is regarded by many as the most reliable and accurate standard rifle in service. During the 2003 International shooting meet at
Bisley, the British Army team won after firing over 62,000 rounds with no stoppages. During active service, the A2 can be fitted with a 40 mm grenade launcher, a light attachment and a laser red-dot sighting device. Sighting systems include the SUSAT; (pictured) with 4x magnification and a Trilux gas filled conical reticule or Iron Sight; consisting of a foresight and rear sight with adjustable rear sight for low light conditions.
It is anticipated that the SA80 will remain in front-line service well into the second decade of the 21st Century.
L96 + L115 Sniper Rifles
L96(or super magnum) is a precision rifle or sniper rifle produced by the British firm Accuracy International, which was designed by Olympic marksman Malcolm Cooper. This weapon was adopted in British Service in the early 1980s as a replacement for the ageing Lee-Enfield-derived L42, after a close competition with an entry from Parker-Hale. L96 is the army's designation, it was known as, and derived from, the Accuracy International PM rifle.
It has since been adopted by a number of countries with derivatives chambered for various calibres including the .338 Lapua Magnum, known in British Army sevice as the L115 Long Range Rifle (LRR). The Swedish PSG-90, L96A1, and very successful Accuracy International Arctic Warfare series were developed from this line.
Units of the
Special Air Serviceserving in Afghanistan briefly adopted the Canadian C7A1 in 2002, citing the SA-80 as unreliable. The Canadian C7 family are license built versions of the M16A2 incorporating over 100 modifications to the US design and manufactured by Diemacoin Canada.
* [http://www.therifleshoppe.com/(509).htm TheRiflesShoppe.com]
* [http://militaryrifles.com/MAINIndx.htm MilitaryRifles.com] allows attributed use of his photography
* [http://www.adamsguns.com/ AdamsGuns.com] allows attributed use of his photography
* [http://www.95th-rifles.co.uk/rifle_1.htm 95th Rifles site]
* [http://www.lobsterback.org/arms.html 16th Light Dragoons site]
* [http://www.17thlight.com/arms.htm 17th Light Dragoons site]
*British Military Flintlock Rifles 1740-1840 by De Witt Bailey Ph. D.
*Percussion guns & rifles;: An illustrated reference guide by De Witt Bailey
*British Enfield Rifles, Vol. 1, SMLE (No.1) Mk I and Mk III, by Charles R. Stratton
*British Enfield Rifles Vol II 2nd Ed. by Charles Stratton
*British Enfield Rifles, Vol. 4, Pattern 1914 and U.S. Model of 1917 by Charles R. Stratton
*.577 Snider-Enfield Rifles & Carbines; British Service Longarms, 1866-c.1880
*Martini-Henry .450 Rifles & Carbines by Dennis Lewis
*British Enfield Rifles, by E.G.B. Reynolds
*British Infantry Equipments (1), 1808-1908 by Mike Chappell
*British Military Rifles: 1800 - 2000 by Peter Duckers
German military rifles
Pattern 1913 Enfield
Pattern 14 Rifle
FN FAL(generic term for L1A1)
Alexander Henry (gunsmith)
M1903 Springfield rifle
M1917 Enfield rifle
Royal Small Arms Factory
* [http://www.militaryheritage.com/enfield1853.htm Loading and Firing British Muskets in the Crimean War 1854-1856]
* [http://www.antiquestopic.com/martini-henry-rifle-1881/ Martini Henry rifle 1881]
* [http://www.antiquestopic.com/martini-metford-mkiv-1886/ Martini Metford MkIV 1886]
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