Haplogroup P (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup P (Y-DNA)

Infobox haplogroup
name = P
origin-date = 34,000 years BP [Tatiana M. Karafet, Fernando L. Mendez, Monica B. Meilerman, Peter A. Underhill, Stephen L. Zegura, and Michael F. Hammer (2008). New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree]
origin-place = Central Asia/Siberia
ancestor = K
descendants = Q, R
mutations = 92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27, S25
In human genetics, Haplogroup P (M45) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

This haplogroup contains the patrilineal ancestors of most Europeans and almost all of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It also contains approximately one third to two thirds of the males among various populations of Central Asia and Southern Asia.


Haplogroup P is a branch of Haplogroup K (M9). It is believed to have arisen north of the Hindu Kush, in Siberia, Kazakhstan, or Uzbekistan, approximately 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.

The descendant haplogroups of P include Q (M242) and R (M207).


Besides the typically European/South Asian Haplogroup R and South-Central Siberian/Native American Haplogroup Q, other patrilines derived from Haplogroup P-M45 are labeled for sake of convenience as Haplogroup P* and are reported to have been found at low to moderate frequency among modern populations of Central Asia, Siberia, East Asia, and the Russian Far East. There is a conspicuous presence of Haplogroup P* on the Isle of Hvar in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast of Croatia, which may be due to historical immigration of Avars from Central Asia. There have also been reports of Haplogroup P* from samples of Ashkenazi Jews, Native Americans, and some populations of South Asia and Oceania, but it is not entirely clear whether these were truly Haplogroup P* or rather instances of a rare haplogroup derived from Haplogroup P, such as Haplogroup R2 or Haplogroup Q.


The subclades of Haplogroup P with their defining mutation, according to the 2008 ISOGG tree:

*P (92R7, M45, M74, N12, P27)
**Q (M242)
***Q1 (P36.2)
****Q1a (MEH2)
*****Q1a1 (M120, M265/N14) "Found at low frequency among Chinese, Koreans, Dungans, and Hazara" [ [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7006/extref/nature02878-s2.doc Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations] , from the online supplementary material for [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7006/abs/nature02878.html the article] by Bo Wen et al., "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture," "Nature" 431, 302-305 (16 September 2004)] [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=56946&rendertype=table&id=T1 Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region] , from [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=56946 the article] by R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (August 28, 2001)]
*****Q1a2 (M25, M143) "Found at low to moderate frequency among some populations of Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Siberia"
*****Q1a3 (M346)
******Q1a3* "Found at low frequency in Pakistan and India"
******Q1a3a (M3) "Typical of indigenous peoples of the Americas"
*******Q1a3a1 (M19) "Found among some indigenous peoples of South America, such as the Ticuna and the Wayuu" [ [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Bortolini-AJHG-03-YAmer.pdf "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas,"] Maria-Catira Bortolini et al., "American Journal of Human Genetics" 73:524-539, 2003]
*******Q1a3a2 (M194)
*******Q1a3a3 (M199, P106, P292)
*****Q1a4 (P48)
*****Q1a5 (P89)
*****Q1a6 (M323) "Found in a significant minority of Yemeni Jews"
****Q1b (M378) "Found at low frequency among samples of Hazara and Sindhis"
**R (M207 (UTY2), M306 (S1), S4, S8, S9)
***R1 (M173)
****R1a (SRY10831.2 (SRY1532))
*****R1a1 (M17, M198) "Typical of Eastern Europeans, Central Asians, and South Asians"
******R1a1a (M56)
******R1a1b (M157)
******R1a1c (M64.2, M87, M204)
****R1b (M343) "Typical of Western Europeans"
*****R1b1 (P25)
******R1b1a (M18)
******R1b1b (M73)
******R1b1c (M269, S3, S10, S13, S17)
*******R1b1c1 (M37)
*******R1b1c2 (M65)
*******R1b1c3 (M126)
*******R1b1c4 (M153)
*******R1b1c5 (M160)
*******R1b1c6 (SRY2627 (M167))
*******R1b1c7 (M222)
*******R1b1c8 (P66)
*******R1b1c9 (S21)
********R1b1c9a (L1 (S26))
********R1b1c9b (S29)
*******R1b1c10 (S28)
******R1b1d (M335)
***R2 (M124) "Typical of South Asians, with a moderate distribution among populations of Central Asia and the Caucasus"


External links

* [https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=my044 Spread of Haplogroup P] , from The Genographic Project, "National Geographic"

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