Theistic Satanism

Theistic Satanism
Part of the seal of Lucifer from the Grimorium Verum, used as a symbol of Satan by some Theistic Satanists

Theistic Satanism, also known as Traditional Satanism, Spiritual Satanism or Devil Worship, is a form of Satanism with the primary belief that Satan is an actual deity or force to revere or worship.[1][2] Other characteristics of Theistic Satanism may include a belief in magic, which is manipulated through ritual, although that is not a defining criterion, and theistic Satanists may focus solely on devotion. Unlike the LaVeyan Satanism founded by Anton LaVey in the 1960s, Theistic Satanism is theistic as opposed to atheistic, believing that Satan (Hebrew: הַשָׂטָן ha-Satan, "the accuser") is a real being rather than a symbol of individualism.

The history of Theistic Satanism, and assessments of its existence and prevalence in history, is obscured by it having been grounds for execution at some times in the past, and due to people having been accused of it who did not consider themselves to worship Satan, such as in the witch trials in Early Modern Europe.


Possible history of Theistic Satanism

The worship of Satan was a frequent charge against those charged in the witch trials in Early Modern Europe and other witch-hunts such as the Salem witch trials. Worship of Satan was claimed to take place at the witches' sabbat.[3] The charge of Satan worship has also been made against groups or individuals regarded with suspicion, such as the Knights Templar, or minority religions.[4] It is not known to what extent accusations of groups worshiping Satan in the time of the witch trials identified people who did consider themselves Satanists, rather than being the result of religious superstition or mass hysteria, or charges made against individuals suffering from mental illness. Confessions are unreliable, particularly as they were usually obtained under torture.[5] However, noted scholar Jeffrey Burton Russell, Professor Emeritus of the University of California at Santa Barbara, has made extensive arguments in his book "Witchcraft in the Middle Ages"[6] that not all witch trial records can be dismissed and that there is in fact evidence linking witchcraft to gnostic heresies. Russell comes to this conclusion after having studied the source documents themselves. Individuals involved in the poison affair were accused of Satanism and witchcraft, and Eustache Dauger, one of those involved[citation needed], openly claimed to practice the black mass[citation needed], though his reason for making such claims is not known.

The Baphomet, adopted symbol of some Left-Hand Path systems, including Theistic Satanism.

Some members of Ordo Flammeus Serpens (OFS), a group that venerates demons, say that they were trained by a traditional family sect, or are generational demonolaters whose religion has been passed down through the family.[7] Claims such as these are unproven.[8] Tani Jantsang of "Satanic Reds" refers to herself as a generational Satanist,[9] but what she means by that is that her family would have been labelled Satanic by Christianity, although they are in fact "non-Islamic Turko-Tatar".[10] Theistic Satanists are inspired by incidences they see as evidence of previous followers of their faith. The concept of "Satan" may incorporate elements from older religions than Judaism. Ha-satan is the role of one of God's court, whose duties include testing the faith of humanity; the concept may be derived from a judicial function in Israeli court, similar to a prosecuting attorney.[11] The Jewish Encyclopedia says that parts of the Old Testament where Satan is seen to act independently of God may have been influenced by Zoroastrianism;[12] however, the same article states that "The Angelology of the Talmud, moreover, proves that, according to the older view (until about 200 C.E.), punishment was inflicted by angels and not by Satan. In the course of time, however, official Judaism, beginning perhaps with Johanan (d. 279), absorbed the popular concepts of Satan, which doubtless forced their way gradually from the lower classes to the most cultured."[13] and that according to later Talmudic tradition about Satan "He is the incarnation of all evil, and his thoughts and activities are devoted to the destruction of man; so that Satan, the impulse to evil ("yeẓer ha-ra'"), and the angel of death are one and the same personality. He descends from heaven and leads astray, then ascends and brings accusations against mankind."[13] Historically, "Satanist" was a pejorative term for those with opinions that differed from predominant religious or moral beliefs.[14] Paul Tuitean believes the idea of acts of "reverse Christianity" was created by the Inquisition,[15] but George Battaille believes that inversions of Christian rituals such as the Mass may have existed prior to the descriptions of them which were obtained through the witchcraft trials.[16]

Although John Milton was not a Theistic Satanist, his epic poem Paradise Lost is an inspiration for Satanism, to the extent that William Blake said of Milton "[he is] a true Poet, and of the Devil's party without knowing it."[17] As well as being the inspiration for the Satanic School of literature Milton, Dante, Marlowe, and Goethe, are said by Nikolas Schreck to be the foundation of the modern concept of Satan. He argues that these authors had "access to the Luciferian vision" and a "diabolical consciousness" that flourished due to their separation from the common man, "a radical disruption from the norm that allowed the effulgence of the black light to illuminate their work."[18]

Illustration by Martin van Maële, of a Witches' Sabbath, in the 1911 edition of La Sorciere, by Jules Michelet.

In the 18th century various kinds of popular "Satanic" literature began to be produced in France, including some well-known grimoires with instructions for making a pact with the devil. The Marquis de Sade describes defiling crucifixes and other holy objects, and in Justine gives a fictional account of the Black Mass [19] although Ronald Hayman has said Sade's need for blasphemy was an emotional reaction and rebellion from which Sade moved on, seeking to develop a more reasoned atheistic philosophy.[20] In the 19th century, Eliphas Levi published his French books of the occult, and in 1855 produced his well-known drawing of the Baphomet which continues to be used by some Satanists today (for example the sigil of Baphomet). Finally, in 1891, Joris-Karl Huysmans published his Satanic novel, Là-Bas, which included a detailed description of a Black Mass which he may have known first-hand was being performed in Paris at the time.,[21] or the account may have been based on the masses carried out by Étienne Guibourg, rather than by Huysmans attending himself.[22] Quotations from Huysmans' Black Mass are also used in some Satanic rituals to this day since it is one of the few sources that purports to describe the words used in a Black Mass. The type of Satanism described in Là-Bas suggests that prayers are said to the Devil, hosts are stolen from the Catholic Church, and sexual acts are combined with Roman Catholic altar objects and rituals, to produce a variety of Satanism which exalts the Devil and degrades the God of Christianity by inverting Roman Catholic rites. George Battaille claims that Huyman's description of the Black Mass is "indisputably authentic".[16] Not all Theistic Satanists today routinely perform the Black Mass, possibly because the mass is not a part of modern evangelical Christianity in Protestant countries[23] and so not such an unintentional influence on Satanist practices in those countries. If rites of blasphemy, such as blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, are used at all, they are often solely for beginners in Satanism to help them break away from any past Christian indoctrination or restrictive internalization of society's expectations for behaviour[citation needed].

Michael Aquino published a rare 1970 text of a Church of Satan black mass, the Missa Solemnis, in his book The Church of Satan,[24] and Anton LaVey included a different Church of Satan black mass, the Messe Noire, in his 1972 book The Satanic Rituals. LaVey's books on Satanism, which began in the 1960s, were for a long time the few available which advertised themselves as being Satanic, although others detailed the history of witchcraft and Satanism, such as The Black Arts by Richard Cavendish published in 1967 and the classic French work Satanism and Witchcraft, by Jules Michelet. Anton LaVey specifically denounced "devil worshippers" and the idea of praying to Satan.


Some Christians fear that references to Satan in popular culture and music inspire some people to Theistic Satanism.[25] Although no evidence has been published that music can convert a person to Satanism, Christopher Partridge has said that regardless of whether the heavy metal musicians concerned are genuinely Theistic Satanists, through hearing the lyrics for instance of Mercyful Fate and Coven[26] people may hear for the first time that there are people who are Theistic Satanists, and may be inspired to go on to learn more about and practice Theistic Satanism.[27] While they may first come upon the more obtainable works of Anton LaVey, who denied belief in the Devil, those who discover his writings may then go on to reach a traditional viewpoint.[28] Christians may fear that Satanists spend their time blaspheming Christianity,[29] but Satanists may not necessarily make that a regular practice.[30] Christians may fear that traditional Satanists may attempt to curse Christian meetings[29] using objects believed to be cursed or prayer, and indeed some Theistic Satanists do believe that they are practising "spiritual warfare" to accomplish Satan's will.[31]

Satanism and crime

The Satanic ritual abuse moral panic of the 1980s and '90s was centered on fears or beliefs about traditional Satanism sacrificing children and committing crimes as part of rituals involving devil worship.[32] Allegations included the existence of large networks of organized Satanists involved in illegal activities such as murder, child pornography and prostitution; iconic cases such as the McMartin preschool trial were launched after children were repeatedly and coercively interrogated by social workers, resulting in false allegation of child sexual abuse. No evidence was ever found to support any of the allegations of Satanism or ritual abuse, but the panic resulted in numerous wrongful prosecutions.

Some studies of crimes have also looked at the theological perspective of those who commit religious or ritualised crime.[33] Criminals who explain their crimes by claiming to be Satanists have been said by sociologists to be "pseudo-Satanists,"[34] and attempts to link Satanism to crime have been seen by Theistic Satanists as scaremongering.[35] In the 1980s and the 1990s there were multiple allegations of sexual abuse of children or non-consenting adults in the context of Satanic rituals in what has come to be known as The Satanic Panic. In the United States, the Kern County child abuse cases, McMartin preschool trial and the West Memphis 3 cases were widely reported. One case took place in Jordan, Minnesota, in which children made allegations of manufacturing child pornography, ritualistic animal sacrifice, coprophagia, urophagia and infanticide, at which point the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was alerted. Twenty-four adults were arrested and charged with acts of sexual abuse, child pornography and other crimes claimed to be related to Satanic ritual abuse; three went to trial, two were acquitted and one convicted. Supreme Court Justice Scalia noted in a discussion of the case, "[t]here is no doubt that some sexual abuse took place in Jordan; but there is no reason to believe it was as widespread as charged," and cited the repeated, coercive techniques used by the investigators as damaging to the investigation.

Values in Theistic Satanism

Seeking knowledge is seen by some Theistic Satanists as important to Satan, due to his being equated with the Serpent in Genesis encouraging mankind to partake of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil.[36] Some perceive Satan as Baphomet, a hermaphroditic bestower of knowledge (gnosis.) Other Satanic groups, such as Luciferians[citation needed], and some individual Satanists also seek to gain greater gnosis. For some Satanists, this is a form of gnosticism where they view Yahweh as the demiurge and Satan as the transcendent being beyond, of whom they seek knowledge.[citation needed]

Self-development is important to Theistic Satanists. This is due to the Satanists' view of Satan, who is seen to encourage individuality and freedom of thought, and the quest to raise one's self up despite resistance, through means such as magic and initiative. They believe Satan wants a more equal relationship with his followers than the Christian God does with his. From a Theistic Satanist perspective, Christianity does not define "good" or "evil" in terms of benefit or harm to humanity, but rather on the submission to or rebellion against God.[37] Some Satanists seek to remove any means by which they are controlled or repressed by others and follow the herd, and reject non-governmental authoritarianism.[38]

As Satan in the Old Testament tests people, theistic Satanists may believe that Satan sends them tests in life in order to develop them as an individual. They value taking responsibility for oneself. Despite the emphasis on self-development, Theistic Satanists often feel that there is a will of Satan for the world and for their own lives. They may promise to help bring about the will of Satan,[39] and seek to gain insight about it through prayer, study or magic. In the temptation of Christ in the desert, Satan says that if Jesus worships him, he can give him all the kingdoms of the earth[editorializing]. Satan is known in the Bible as the prince of this world,[40] and Satanists may feel that he can help them meet their needs and desires if they pray or work magic. They would also have to do what they could in everyday life to achieve their goals, however.

Theistic Satanists may try not to project an image that reflects negatively on their religion as a whole and reinforces stereotypes, such as promoting Nazism found in a few groups, abuse or crime.[38] However, some groups, such as the Order of Nine Angles, believe the emphasis on promoting a good image for Theistic Satanism has led to attempts to dilute and sanitize it[editorializing]. In particular, there is argument over animal sacrifice, with most groups seeing it as both unnecessary and putting Satanism in a bad light, and distancing themselves from the few groups that practice it.[41]

Diversity of viewpoints within Theistic Satanism

The internet has increased awareness of different views among Satanists, and led to more diverse groups, which has led the Church of Satan to assert their authority and legitimacy. But Satanism has always been a pluralistic and decentralised religion.[42] Scholars outside Satanism have sought to study it by categorizing forms of it according to whether they are theistic or atheistic[43] and referred to the worship of the Devil as traditional Satanism or theistic Satanism.[1] It is generally a prerequisite to being considered a theistic Satanist that the Satanist accept a theological and metaphysical canon involving one or more God(s) who are either Satan in the strictest, Abrahamic sense, or a concept of Satan that incorporates gods from other religions (usually pre-Christian), such as Ahriman. Some Theistic Satanists believe in Satan as the All, a force filling the universe.[44] Many Theistic Satanists believe their own individualized concept based on pieces of all these diverse views of Satan, according to their inclination and spiritual guidance, rather than only believe in one suggested interpretation. Some may choose to live out the myths and stereotypes, but Christianity is not always the primary frame of reference for Theistic Satanists.[45] Their religion may be based on dark pagan, left hand path and occult traditions. Theistic Satanists who base their faith on Christian ideas about Satan may be referred to as "Reverse Christians" by other Satanists, often in a pejorative fashion.[46] However those labeled by some as "reverse Christians" may see their concept of Satan as not diluted or sanitized. They worship a stricter interpretation of Satan: that of the Satan featured in the Christian Bible. Wiccans may consider most Satanism to be reverse Christianity,[47] and the head of the Church of Satan, Peter H. Gilmore, considers "devil worship" to be a Christian heresy, that is, a divergent form of Christianity.[48] The diversity of individual viewpoints within Theistic Satanism, while being a cause for intense debates within the religion, is also often seen as a reflection of Satan, who encourages individualism.[49]

A notable group that outwardly considers themselves to be Traditional Satanists is the Order of Nine Angles.[50] Controversy meant this group were mentioned in the press and books, as they claimed to practice animal sacrifice [51] and agreed with human sacrifice.[52] Not surprisingly, they had an authoritarian, even fascist philosophy, one that attracted notoriety. Similar political views are held by the Joy of Satan, who led to some resignations from the National Socialist Movement when prominent members were discovered to be involved with the Joy of Satan,[53] to the extent of donations from both organizations when those individuals were involved in the NSM, being asked to be sent to the same post office box address and number.[54] The JoS have some idiosyncratic beliefs about spiritual entities being extra terrestrials, valuing the work of Zecharia Sitchin. A group with very different political views to the ONA is Satanic Reds, whose Satanism has a Communist element.[55] However they are not Theistic Satanist in the manner of believing in Satan as a god with a personality, but believe in dark deism,[56] the belief that Satan is a presence in nature. The First Church of Satan believe the philosophy propounded by Anton LaVey himself was deism or panentheism but is propounded as atheism by the leaders of the Church of Satan in order to distance themselves from what they see as pseudo-Satanists[57]

One other group is the Temple of the Black Light, formerly known as the Misanthropic Luciferian Order. The Temple espouses a philosophy known as "Chaosophy". Chaosophy asserts that the world that we live in, and the Universe that it lives in, all exists within the realm known as Cosmos. Cosmos is made of three spatial dimensions and one linear time dimension. Cosmos rarely ever changes and is a materialistic realm. Another realm that exists is known as Chaos. Chaos exists outside of the Cosmos and is made of infinite dimensions and unlike the Cosmos, it is always changing. Followers in the Temple believe that the realm of Chaos is ruled over by 11 dark Gods, the highest of them being Satan, all considered manifestations of a higher being. This higher being is known as Azerate, the Dragon Mother, and is all the 11 gods united as one. The Temple believes that Azerate will resurrect one day and destroy the Cosmos and let Chaos consume everything. The group has been connected to the band Dissection, particularly its front man Jon Nödtveidt. Nödtveidt was introduced to the group "at an early stage". The lyrics on the band's third album, Reinkaos, are all about beliefs of the Temple of the Black Light. Nödtveidt committed suicide in 2006.

Theistic Satanists may respectfully work with demons found in traditional grimoires.
Lucifer (in the lower right) shown in a defiant pose.

Luciferian groups such as the Church of Lucifer and the Children of the Black Rose are particularly inspired by Lucifer (from the Latin for "bearer of light"), who they may or may not equate with Satan. While some theologians believe the son of the dawn, Lucifer and other names were actually used to refer to contemporary political figures, such as a Babylonian King, rather than a single spiritual entity,[58][59][60] although on the surface the bible explicitly refers to the King of Babylon, those that believe it refers to Satan infer that by implication it also applies to the fall of Satan.[61] The Church of the Black Goat believe Satan and Lucifer are the same being in his light and dark aspects. Some writers equate the veneration of Set by the Temple of Set theistic Satanism,[1] however the Temple of Set do not identify as Theistic Satanists. They believe the Egyptian deity Set is the real Dark Lord behind the name Satan, of whom Satan is just a caricature. Their practices primarily centre on self-development. Within the temple of Set, the Black Flame is the individual's god-like core which is a kindred spirit to Set, and they seek to develop. In Theistic Satanism, the Black Flame is knowledge which was given to humanity by Satan, who is a being independent of the Satanist himself[62] and which he can dispense to the Satanist who seeks knowledge.[63]

The diversity of views amongst Satanists, and the theistic nature of some Satanists, was seen in a survey in 1995. Some spoke of seeing Satan not as someone dangerous to those who seek or worship him, but as someone that could be approached as a friend. Some refer to him as Father,though some other Theistic Satanists consider that to be confused or excessively subservient.[64] However, referring to Satan as his follower's father occurs in the Bible (John 8:44.) Satan is also portrayed as a father to his daughter, Sin, by Milton in Paradise Lost.

Some groups are mistaken by scholars for Theistic Satanists, such as the First Church of Satan.[63] However, the founder of the FCoS considers what he calls "devil-worship" to often be a symptom of psychosis.[65] Other groups such as the 600 Club,[42] are accepting of all types of Satanist, as are the Sinagogue of Satan, which aims for the ultimate destruction of religions, paradoxically including itself, and encourages not self-indulgence, but self-expression balanced by social responsibility.[66][67][68]

Theistic Satanism often involves a religious commitment rather than being simply an occult practice based on dabbling or transient enjoyment of the rituals and magic involved.[34][69] Practitioners may choose to perform a self-dedication rite, although there are arguments over whether it is best to do this at the beginning of their time as a Theistic Satanist, or once they have been practicing for some time.[70]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  2. ^ Prayers to Satan
  3. ^,M1 Servants of Satan, page 2
  4. ^ Servants of Satan, page 22
  5. ^,M1 Servants of Satan, page 12
  6. ^
  7. ^ OFS Demonolatry
  8. ^ Black Goat Cabal: traditional Satanism
  9. ^ Lewis, James R.; Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2004). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 437. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  10. ^ Satanic Reds
  11. ^ Grenz, Stanley J. (2000). Theology for the Community of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 226. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  12. ^ "Jewish Encyclopaedia". 
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^ Behrendt, Stephen C. (1983). The Moment of Explosion: Blake and the Illustration of Milton. U of Nebraska Press. p. 437. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  15. ^ Tuitean, Paul; Estelle Daniels (1998). Pocket Guide to Wicca. The Crossing Press. p. 22. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  16. ^ a b Battaille, George (1986). Erotism: Death and Sensuality. City Lights. p. 126. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  17. ^ John Milton
  18. ^ [1] book review by Thomas M. Sipos of Flowers From Hell: A Satanic Reader.
  19. ^ Sade, Donatien (2006). The Complete Marquis De Sade. Holloway House. pp. 157–158. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  20. ^ Hayman, Ronald (2003). Marquis de Sade: The Genius of Passion. Tauris Parke. pp. 30–31. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  21. ^ Huysmans, Joris-Karl (1972). La Bas. Courier Dover. back cover. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  22. ^ Laver, James (1954). The First Decadent: Being the Strange Life of J.K. Huysmans. Faber and Faber. p. 121. 
  23. ^ Christiano, Kevin; William H. Swatos, Peter Kivisto (2001). Sociology of Religion: Contemporary Developments. Rowman Altamira. p. 319. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 
  24. ^ Aquino, Michael (2002). The Church of Satan. , Appendix 7.
  25. ^ Satan's Music
  26. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 150.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  27. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 121.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  28. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 122.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  29. ^ a b Smith, Sandra L. (2004). Deceptions And End Time Prophecy. p. 121. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  30. ^ Blasphemy, catharsis, and self-initiation
  31. ^ Concerning Spiritual Warfare
  32. ^ Frankfurter, D (2006). Evil Incarnate: Rumors of Demonic Conspiracy and Ritual Abuse in History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691113505. 
  33. ^ Yonke, David (2006). Sin, Shame, and Secrets: The Murder of a Nun, the Conviction of a Priest. p. 150.,+Shame,+and&lr=&sig=Zl4uyvBFnexFxEjqRKbS25QodPU. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  34. ^ a b Gallagher, Eugene V. (2004). The New Religious Movements Experience in America. p. 190.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  35. ^ Dawn Perlmutter and her Institute for the Research of Organized and Ritual Violence
  36. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 228.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  37. ^ Elliot Rose on "Evil"
  38. ^ a b Lewis, James R.; Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2004). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. pp. 446–447. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  39. ^ Mickaharic, Draja (1995). Practice of Magic: An Introductory Guide to the Art. Weiser. p. 62. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  40. ^ Ladd, George Eldon (1993). A Theology of the New Testament. p. 333. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  41. ^ Animal Sacrifice and the Law
  42. ^ a b Lewis, James R.; Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2004). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 429. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  43. ^ Gallagher, Eugene V. (2004). The New Religious Movements Experience in America. Greenwood Publishing. p. 190. ISBN 0313328072. 
  44. ^ Lewis, James R.; Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2004). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 438. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  45. ^ Lewis, James R.; Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2004). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 442. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  46. ^ Marburg Journal of Religion (June 2001) Lewis, James R
  47. ^ Metzger, Richard; Grant Morrisson (2003). Book of Lies: The Disinformation Guide to Magick and the Occult. The Disinformation Company. p. 266.,M1. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  48. ^ Satanism: The Feared Religion
  49. ^ Susej, Tsirk (2007). The Demonic Bible. p. 11.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  50. ^ Satanism: An Introduction, II. Modern Satanism, hosted on the The Religious Movements Homepage Project
  51. ^ Ryan, Nick (2004). Into a World of Hate: A Journey Among the Extreme Right. Routledge. p. 437. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  52. ^ Lewis, James R. (2001). Satanism Today: An Encyclopedia of Religion. ABC-CLIO. p. 234. ISBN 1576077594. 
  53. ^ Roanoke landlord resigns from National Socialist Movement -
  54. ^ National Socialist Movement: Tensions Lead to Expulsions and Splinter Groups
  55. ^ Lewis, James R. (2001). Satanism Today: An Encyclopedia of Religion. ABC-CLIO. p. 240. ISBN 1576077594. 
  56. ^ Devil Worship
  57. ^ Church of Satan Rap Sheet: The Official Site
  58. ^ Lucifer King Of Babylon
  59. ^ Satan, Devil and Demons - Isaiah 14:12-14
  60. ^ Apologetics Press - Is Satan “Lucifer"?
  61. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Devil
  62. ^ Ford, Michael (2005). Luciferian Witchcraft. p. 373.,M1. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  63. ^ a b Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.,M1. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  64. ^ Pike, Randall (2007). The Man with Confused Eyes. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  65. ^ Is Devil Worship a Symptom of Psychosis? by High Priest John Allee
  66. ^ Brown, Seth (2004). Think You're the Only One? Oddball Groups Where Outsiders Fit In. Barnes and Noble. pp. 99–100. ISBN 0760757089. 
  67. ^ John, Mitchell (2009). "Local writer compiles directory of unusual organizations". 
  68. ^ Mathews, Chris (2009). Modern Satanism: anatomy of a radical subculture. Praeger Publishers. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-313-36639-0. 
  69. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 83. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  70. ^ Pacts and self-initiation

Further reading

  • Ellis, Bill, Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions and the Media (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2000).
  • Hertenstein, Mike; Jon Trott, Selling Satan: The Evangelical Media and the Mike Warnke Scandal (Chicago: Cornerstone, 1993).
  • Brown, Seth; Think you're the only one? (Barnes & Noble Books 2004)
  • Medway, Gareth J.; The Lure of the Sinister: The Unnatural History of Satanism (New York and London: New York University Press, 2001).
  • Michelet, Jules, Satanism and Witchcraft: A Study in Medieval Superstition (English translation of 1862 French work).
  • Palermo, George B.; Michele C. Del Re: Satanism: Psychiatric and Legal Views (American Series in Behavioral Science and Law) . Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd (November 1999)
  • Pike, Albert, Morals and Dogma (1871)
  • Richardson, James T.; Joel Best; David G. Bromley, The Satanism Scare (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1991).
  • Vera, Diane, Theistic Satanism: The new Satanisms of the era of the Internet
  • Karlsson, Thomas (February 2008). Qabalah, Qliphoth and Goetic Magic. ISBN 0972182012. 
  • Ford, Michael (March 2005). Luciferian Witchcraft. ISBN 1411626389. 
  • Baddeley, Gavin; Lucifer Rising, A Book of Sin, Devil Worship and Rock 'n' Roll (Plexus Publishing, November 1999)
  • Webb, Don (March 1999). Uncle Setnakt's Essential Guide to the Left Hand Path. ISBN 1885972105. 
  • Zacharias, Gerhard (1980). The Satanic Cult. ISBN 0041330080.  Translated from the German "Satanskult und Schwarze Messe" by Christine Trollope.

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