Irbid Governorate

Irbid Governorate

Irbid or Irbed( _ar. إربد) is one of the governorates of Jordan. It is located north of Amman, Jordan's capital. The center of the governorate of Irbid is the city of Irbid.

Administrative Divisions

Irbid is divided into nine divisions caled Alweya which is plural of "Liwaa":
#Al-Qasabeh (or Qasabat Irbid) لواء القصبة
#Bani Obaid لواء بني عبيد
#Al-Mazar Al-Shamali لواء المزار الشمالي
#Ramtha لواء الرمثا
#Bani Kinaneh لواء بني كنانة
#Koura لواء الكورة
#Al-Aghwar Al Shamaliyyeh لواء الأغوار الشمالية
#Taybeh لواء الطيبة
#Wasatieh لواء الوسطية

Cities, Towns, and Villages

Irbid, the "Bride of the North," is considered as one of the most beautiful Jordanian cities. Its population amounts to 650,000 and situated on a plain land, 65 km. to the north of the capital, Amman. It is situated in the north west of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, surrounded by fertile agricultural lands from north, east, west and south. Irbid was named “The Daisy” after the daisy flower, which grows in its plains. Irbid witnessed human settlements 5000 B.C., such as settlements of the Edomites, Ghassanids and Southern Arab civilizations.

Many villages surround the city of Irbid including Kufr-Rahta( كفررحتا ), almazar alshamali (المزار الشمالي )Bushra or Bishra (بشرى ), Hareema (حريما), Kufrasad, Kufraan(كفرعان), Jumha, Kufryuba, Zahar, Qum, Sammou', Izmal, Kufrelma, Sawm, Saydoor, Samma, Ibser Abu Ali, Assarieh, Aidoon, Al Hisn, Baleela, Kitim, Beit Ras, Dowgarah, En-Nu`aymeh, Habaka, Houfa Al-Westiyyah, Qumaim, Huwwarah, Imrawah, Ramtha, Sal, Samad, Shajara, Turrah, hatim, melka, foauta , Zoubia, Rehaba, Kharja, Dair yousef, Dair abos'eed, Dair yosef, kufor kefia, summer, e'nbeh, Dair Esse'neh (دير السعنة).

History

Irbid was distinguished by the Greek, Roman and Islamic civilizations leaving behind them historical and archaeological sites. Roman and Greek cities such as Arabella (Irbid), Capitolias (Beit–Ras), Dion (Al Hisn) that contains the Roman artificial hill and small Roman lake (water reservoir), Gadara (Umm Qais), Pella (Tabeqt Fahel) and Abello (Qwailbeh) were established. They were members of the Decapolis: a pact that consists of the ten Roman cities in the area. Ghassanids had established their country in the north of Jordan covering Irbid, Golan and Horan plains. It was described as the most beautiful Syrian countries. Also it had the Islamic soldiers’ supplies. Christianity spread out there in the second and the third century A.D.

Irbid witnessed the Edomite and Ammonite civilizations. Its significance was reflected in the Hellenistic period. With the conversion work of Islam, the Islamic opening armies achieved an advance. As a result, Sharhabeel Bin Hasnaa made a glorious Islamic victory in 13 A.H (634 A.D.). He opened Irbid, Beit-Ras and Umm Qais. The Islamic leader Abu Obideh Amer Bin Al-Jarrah was able to open Pella. In 15 A.H. (636 A.D.) and in the prime of these victories, Khalid Bin Al-Walid managed to crush out the Roman armies in the long Battle of Yarmouk. Consequently, he managed to put an end to the Roman presence in the area. In 583 A.H (1187 A.D.) Saladin’s armies advanced to Hittin in which the most ferocious battle in the history of the Crusades took place, This battle was followed by recapturing Jerusalem and returning it back to the Islamic sovereignty.

During this time, Irbid played an essential role as a strategic area during the Mamluk period especially in serving the pilgrims’ caravans coming from Turkey, north of Iraq and south of Russia. It was an important communication hub and a gateway to Egypt, Hijaz and Palestine coast, especially during the time in which Irbid was linked with Damascus. This link had a positive effect on the cultural and scientific movement of Irbid, which was, as referred by historical writings, connected with Damascus and Jerusalem. In addition to the spread of a number of scientists and Islamic jurisprudence scholars, the Islamic expansion left many graves of the companions of the prophet Muhammad, many mosques and Islamic buildings such as Dar Assaraya (the former prison) which has been converted into a museum, Hibras Mamluk Mosque, Irbid Mamluke Mosque and Saham Umayyed Mosque.

Notes

Irbid governorate is characterized by its strategic site, its historical and archaeological significance and the economic role that it plays. Irbid is at the top of the Jordanian agricultural regions especially in the production of citrus, olives, wheat and bee honey.


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