- Bar-tailed Godwit
name = Bar-tailed Godwit
status = LC | status_system = IUCN3.1
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
genus = "Limosa"
species = "L. lapponica"
binomial = "Limosa lapponica"
binomial_authority = (Linnaeus,
The Bar-tailed Godwit, "Limosa lapponica", is a large
waderin the family Scolopacidae, which breeds on Arcticcoasts and tundra mainly in the Old World, and winters on coasts in temperate and tropical regions of the Old World.del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J., eds. (1996). "Handbook of the Birds of the World" Vol. 3. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona ISBN 84-87334-15-6.] It makes the longest non-stop flight known for any birdand also the longest journey without pausing to feed by any animal, 11,570 km along a route from Alaskato New Zealand.Asia-Pacific Shorebird Network: [http://www.shorebirdnetwork.org/news070909migration.html Bar-tailed Godwit E7 returns after a marathon flight.] ]
The Bar-tailed Godwit is a relatively short-legged species of
godwit. The bill-to-tail length is 37–41 cm, with a wingspan of 70–80 cm. Males average smaller than females but with much overlap; males weigh 190–400 g, while females weigh 260–630 g; there is also some regional variation in size (see subspecies, below). The adult has blue-grey legs and a very long dark bill with a slight upward curve and pink at the tip. The neck, breast and belly are unbroken brick red in breeding plumage, off white in winter. The back is mottled grey.Snow, D. W. & Perrins, C. M. (1998). "The Birds of the Western Palearctic" Concise Edition. OUP ISBN 0-19-854099-X.]
It is distinguished from the
Black-tailed Godwitby its barred, rather than wholly black, tail and a lack of white wing bars. The most similar species is the Asiatic Dowitcher.
There are three
subspecies, listed from west to east:
*"Limosa lapponica lapponica" (Linnaeus, 1758). Breeds from northern
Scandinaviaeast to the Taymyr Peninsula; winters western coasts of Europe and Africa from the British Islesand the Netherlandssouth to South Africa, and also around the Persian Gulf. Smallest subspecies, males up to 360 g, females to 450 g.
*"Limosa lapponica menzbieri" Portenko, 1936. Breeds northeastern Asia from the Taymyr Peninsula east to the
Kolyma Riverdelta; winters southeastern Asia and Australia. Intermediate between the other two subspecies.
*"Limosa lapponica baueri" Naumann, 1836. Breeds far northeastern Asia east of the Kolyma River, and western
Alaska; winters in Australia and New Zealand. Largest subspecies.
It forages by probing on mudflats or in marshes. In short vegetation, it may pick up insects by sight. It mainly eats insects and crustaceans, but also parts of aquatic plants.
The breeding habitat is Arctic
Europe, Asiaand western Alaskaon open tundra. It nests on the ground, usually in short vegetation.
The Bar-tailed Godwit migrates in flocks to coastal western
Europe, Africa, South Asia, Australiaand New Zealand- where the sub-species "Limosa lapponica baueri" is called Kūaka in Māori. [ Barrie Heather and Hugh Robertson, "The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand" ( revised edition), Viking, 2005] [ [http://www.birdingnz.co.nz/newzealandbirds.php?aid=139 New Zealand Birding Network Brings You The Best Of New Zealand Birding ] ]
In 2007, it was shown to undertake the longest non-stop flight of any bird. Using satellite tracking, birds in New Zealand were tagged and tracked to the
Yellow Seain China. According to Dr. Clive Minton (Australasian Wader Studies Group) "The distance between these two locations is 9,575 km, but the actual track flown by the bird was 11,026 km. This is the longest known non-stop flight of any bird. The flight took approximately nine days. At least three other Bar-tailed Godwits also appear to have reached the Yellow Sea after non-stop flights from New Zealand." [ [http://www.werc.usgs.gov/sattrack/shorebirds/overall.html Shorebird Migration ] ]
One specific female of the flock, nicknamed "E7", flew onward from China to Alaska, and stayed there for the breeding season. Then on 29 August 2007, she departed on on a non-stop flight from the Avinof Peninsula in western Alaska, to the Piako River, near Thames New Zealand, setting a new known flight record of 11,570 km. [ [http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=1774 USGS Release: Bird Completes Epic flight across the Pacific (9/12/2007 7:27:02 AM) ] ] [ [http://www.shorebirdnetwork.org/news070909migration.html Asia-Pacific Shorebird Network ] ] Stray birds from Europe and Asia occasionally appear on both
North American coasts.
The Bar-tailed Godwit is one of the species to which the "Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds" (
* Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
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