List of birds of Venezuela

List of birds of Venezuela

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Venezuela. The avifauna of Venezuela includes a total of 1417 species, of which 48 are endemic, 6 have been introduced by humans, and 34 are rare or accidental. 27 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Venezuela.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

* (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Venezuela.
* (E) Endemic A species endemic to Venezuela.
* (I) Introduced A species introduced to Venezuela as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.



Order: TinamiformesFamily: Tinamidae

The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family Tinamidae within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emu, and kiwi. There are 47 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Gray Tinamou "Tinamus tao"
*Great Tinamou "Tinamus major"
*White-throated Tinamou "Tinamus guttatus"
*Highland Tinamou "Nothocercus bonapartei"
*Tawny-breasted Tinamou "Nothocercus julius"
*Cinereous Tinamou "Crypturellus cinereus"
*Red-legged Tinamou "Crypturellus erythropus"
*Little Tinamou "Crypturellus soui"
*Tepui Tinamou "Crypturellus ptaritepui" (E)
*Brown Tinamou "Crypturellus obsoletus"
*Undulated Tinamou "Crypturellus undulatus"
*Gray-legged Tinamou "Crypturellus duidae"
*Variegated Tinamou "Crypturellus variegatus"
*Barred Tinamou "Crypturellus casiquiare"


Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Least Grebe "Tachybaptus dominicus"
*Pied-billed Grebe "Podilymbus podiceps"

hearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Black-capped Petrel "Pterodroma hasitata"
*Greater Shearwater "Puffinus gravis"
*Audubon's Shearwater "Puffinus lherminieri"


Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Wilson's Storm-Petrel "Oceanites oceanicus"
*Leach's Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma leucorhoa"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Red-billed Tropicbird "Phaethon aethereus"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Brown Pelican "Pelecanus occidentalis"

Boobies and Gannets

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Masked Booby "Sula dactylatra"
*Red-footed Booby "Sula sula"
*Brown Booby "Sula leucogaster"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Neotropic Cormorant "Phalacrocorax brasilianus"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Anhinga "Anhinga anhinga"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Magnificent Frigatebird "Fregata magnificens"

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Whistling Heron "Syrigma sibilatrix"
*Capped Heron "Pilherodius pileatus"
*Great Blue Heron "Ardea herodias"
*Cocoi Heron "Ardea cocoi"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Reddish Egret "Egretta rufescens"
*Tricolored Heron "Egretta tricolor"
*Little Blue Heron "Egretta caerulea"
*Snowy Egret "Egretta thula"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Green Heron "Butorides virescens"
*Agami Heron "Agamia agami"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron "Nyctanassa violacea"
*Boat-billed Heron "Cochlearius cochlearius"
*Fasciated Tiger-Heron "Tigrisoma fasciatum"
*Rufescent Tiger-Heron "Tigrisoma lineatum"
*Zigzag Heron "Zebrilus undulatus"
*Stripe-backed Bittern "Ixobrychus involucris"
*Least Bittern "Ixobrychus exilis"
*Pinnated Bittern "Botaurus pinnatus"


Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Wood Stork "Mycteria americana"
*Maguari Stork "Ciconia maguari"
*Jabiru "Jabiru mycteria"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Buff-necked Ibis "Theristicus caudatus"
*Sharp-tailed Ibis "Cercibis oxycerca"
*Green Ibis "Mesembrinibis cayennensis"
*Bare-faced Ibis "Phimosus infuscatus"
*White Ibis "Eudocimus albus"
*Scarlet Ibis "Eudocimus ruber"
*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus"
*White-faced Ibis "Plegadis chihi"
*Roseate Spoonbill "Platalea ajaja"


Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Caribbean Flamingo "Phoenicopterus ruber"


Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anhimidae

The screamers are a small family of birds related to the ducks. They are large, bulky birds, with a small downy head, long legs and large feet which are only partially webbed. They have large spurs on their wings which are used in fights over mates and territorial disputes. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Horned Screamer "Anhima cornuta"
*Northern Screamer "Chauna chavaria"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Fulvous Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*White-faced Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna viduata"
*Black-bellied Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna autumnalis"
*Orinoco Goose "Neochen jubata"
*Muscovy Duck "Cairina moschata"
*Comb Duck "Sarkidiornis melanotos"
*Brazilian Teal "Amazonetta brasiliensis"
*Torrent Duck "Merganetta armata"
*American Wigeon "Anas americana"
*Speckled Teal "Anas flavirostris"
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta" (A)
*White-cheeked Pintail "Anas bahamensis"
*Blue-winged Teal "Anas discors"
*Cinnamon Teal "Anas cyanoptera" (A)
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata"
*Southern Pochard "Netta erythrophthalma"
*Ring-necked Duck "Aythya collaris" (A)
*Lesser Scaup "Aythya affinis"
*Masked Duck "Nomonyx dominica"

New World vultures

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion. There are 7 species worldwide, all of which are found only in the Americas, and 6 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Black Vulture "Coragyps atratus"
*Turkey Vulture "Cathartes aura"
*Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture "Cathartes burrovianus"
*Greater Yellow-headed Vulture "Cathartes melambrotus"
*Andean Condor "Vultur gryphus" (A)
*King Vulture "Sarcoramphus papa"


Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 46 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Gray-headed Kite "Leptodon cayanensis"
*Hook-billed Kite "Chondrohierax uncinatus"
*Swallow-tailed Kite "Elanoides forficatus"
*Pearl Kite "Gampsonyx swainsonii"
*White-tailed Kite "Elanus leucurus"
*Snail Kite "Rostrhamus sociabilis"
*Slender-billed Kite "Rostrhamus hamatus"
*Double-toothed Kite "Harpagus bidentatus"
*Rufous-thighed Kite "Harpagus diodon"
*Mississippi Kite "Ictinia mississippiensis"
*Plumbeous Kite "Ictinia plumbea"
*Long-winged Harrier "Circus buffoni"
*Northern Harrier "Circus cyaneus" (A)
*Gray-bellied Goshawk "Accipiter poliogaster"
*Tiny Hawk "Accipiter superciliosus"
*Semicollared Hawk "Accipiter collaris"
*Plain-breasted Hawk "Accipiter ventralis"
*Bicolored Hawk "Accipiter bicolor"
*Crane Hawk "Geranospiza caerulescens"
*Slate-colored Hawk "Leucopternis schistaceus"
*Black-faced Hawk "Leucopternis melanops"
*White Hawk "Leucopternis albicollis"
*Rufous Crab-Hawk "Buteogallus aequinoctialis"
*Common Black-Hawk "Buteogallus anthracinus"
*Great Black-Hawk "Buteogallus urubitinga"
*Savanna Hawk "Buteogallus meridionalis"
*Harris's Hawk "Parabuteo unicinctus"
*Black-collared Hawk "Busarellus nigricollis"
*Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle "Geranoaetus melanoleucus"
*Solitary Eagle "Harpyhaliaetus solitarius"
*Gray Hawk "Asturina nitida"
*Roadside Hawk "Buteo magnirostris"
*Broad-winged Hawk "Buteo platypterus"
*White-rumped Hawk "Buteo leucorrhous"
*Short-tailed Hawk "Buteo brachyurus"
*White-throated Hawk "Buteo albigula"
*Swainson's Hawk "Buteo swainsoni"
*White-tailed Hawk "Buteo albicaudatus"
*Zone-tailed Hawk "Buteo albonotatus"
*Red-tailed Hawk "Buteo jamaicensis" (A)
*Crested Eagle "Morphnus guianensis"
*Harpy Eagle "Harpia harpyja"
*Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle "Spizastur melanoleucus"
*Black Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus tyrannus"
*Ornate Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus ornatus"
*Black-and-chestnut Eagle "Oroaetus isidori"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Black Caracara "Daptrius ater"
*Red-throated Caracara "Ibycter americanus"
*Crested Caracara "Caracara cheriway"
*Yellow-headed Caracara "Milvago chimachima"
*Laughing Falcon "Herpetotheres cachinnans"
*Barred Forest-Falcon "Micrastur ruficollis"
*Lined Forest-Falcon "Micrastur gilvicollis"
*Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon "Micrastur mirandollei"
*Collared Forest-Falcon "Micrastur semitorquatus"
*American Kestrel "Falco sparverius"
*Aplomado Falcon "Falco femoralis"
*Merlin "Falco columbarius"
*Bat Falcon "Falco rufigularis"
*Orange-breasted Falcon "Falco deiroleucus"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Guans, Chachalacas and allies

Order: GalliformesFamily: Cracidae

The Cracidae are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colourful facial ornaments. There are 50 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Rufous-vented Chachalaca "Ortalis ruficauda"
*Little Chachalaca "Ortalis motmot"
*Speckled Chachalaca "Ortalis guttata"
*Band-tailed Guan "Penelope argyrotis"
*Andean Guan "Penelope montagnii"
*Marail Guan "Penelope marail"
*Crested Guan "Penelope purpurascens"
*Spix's Guan "Penelope jacquacu"
*Blue-throated Piping-Guan "Pipile cumanensis"
*Red-throated Piping-Guan "Pipile cujubi"
*Wattled Guan "Aburria aburri"
*Nocturnal Curassow "Nothocrax urumutum"
*Crestless Curassow "Mitu tomentosa"
*Helmeted Curassow "Pauxi pauxi"
*Yellow-knobbed Curassow "Crax daubentoni" (E)
*Black Curassow "Crax alector"

New World quails

Order: GalliformesFamily: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There are 32 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas, and 4 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Crested Bobwhite "Colinus cristatus"
*Marbled Wood-Quail "Odontophorus gujanensis"
*Black-fronted Wood-Quail "Odontophorus atrifrons"
*Venezuelan Wood-Quail "Odontophorus columbianus" (E)


Order: OpisthocomiformesFamily: Opisthocomidae

The Hoatzin is pheasant-sized - but much slimmer - long-tailed, long-necked and has a small head. It has an unfeathered blue face with red eyes, and its head is topped by spiky crest. It is a weak flier which is found in te swamps of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers.

*Hoatzin "Opisthocomus hoazin"


Order: GruiformesFamily: Aramidae

The Limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab brown plumage and a greyer head and neck.

*Limpkin "Aramus guarauna"


Order: GruiformesFamily: Psophiidae

The trumpeters are dumpy birds with long necks and legs, and chicken-like bills. They are named for the trumpeting call of the males. There are 3 species worldwide, restricted to the Amazon basin, and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Gray-winged Trumpeter "Psophia crepitans"

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Speckled Rail "Coturnicops notatus"
*Ocellated Crake "Micropygia schomburgkii"
*Russet-crowned Crake "Anurolimnas viridis"
*Rufous-sided Crake "Laterallus melanophaius"
*Rusty-flanked Crake "Laterallus levraudi" (E)
*White-throated Crake "Laterallus albigularis"
*Gray-breasted Crake "Laterallus exilis"
*Clapper Rail "Rallus longirostris"
*Plain-flanked Rail "Rallus wetmorei" (E)
*Rufous-necked Wood-Rail "Aramides axillaris"
*Gray-necked Wood-Rail "Aramides cajanea"
*Uniform Crake "Amaurolimnas concolor"
*Sora "Porzana carolina"
*Ash-throated Crake "Porzana albicollis"
*Yellow-breasted Crake "Porzana flaviventer"
*Paint-billed Crake "Neocrex erythrops"
*Spotted Rail "Pardirallus maculatus"
*Blackish Rail "Pardirallus nigricans"
*Purple Gallinule "Porphyrio martinica"
*Azure Gallinule "Porphyrio flavirostris"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Caribbean Coot "Fulica caribaea"

ungrebe and Finfoots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Sungrebe "Heliornis fulica"


Order: GruiformesFamily: Eurypygidae

The Sunbittern is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas, and the sole member of the family Eurypygidae (sometimes spelled Eurypigidae) and genus Eurypyga.

*Sunbittern "Eurypyga helias"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Wattled Jacana "Jacana jacana"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*American Oystercatcher "Haematopus palliatus"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Black-necked Stilt "Himantopus mexicanus"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Double-striped Thick-knee "Burhinus bistriatus"

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Pied Lapwing "Vanellus cayanus"
*Southern Lapwing "Vanellus chilensis"
*American Golden-Plover "Pluvialis dominica"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Semipalmated Plover "Charadrius semipalmatus"
*Wilson's Plover "Charadrius wilsonia"
*Killdeer "Charadrius vociferus"
*Snowy Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Collared Plover "Charadrius collaris"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Wilson's Snipe "Gallinago delicata"
*South American Snipe "Gallinago paraguaiae"
*Noble Snipe "Gallinago nobilis"
*Giant Snipe "Gallinago undulata"
*Andean Snipe "Gallinago jamesoni"
*Short-billed Dowitcher "Limnodromus griseus"
*Hudsonian Godwit "Limosa haemastica"
*Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica" (A)
*Marbled Godwit "Limosa fedoa"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Long-billed Curlew "Numenius americanus" (A)
*Upland Sandpiper "Bartramia longicauda"
*Greater Yellowlegs "Tringa melanoleuca"
*Lesser Yellowlegs "Tringa flavipes"
*Solitary Sandpiper "Tringa solitaria"
*Spotted Sandpiper "Actitis macularia"
*Willet "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Semipalmated Sandpiper "Calidris pusilla"
*Western Sandpiper "Calidris mauri"
*Least Sandpiper "Calidris minutilla"
*White-rumped Sandpiper "Calidris fuscicollis"
*Baird's Sandpiper "Calidris bairdii"
*Pectoral Sandpiper "Calidris melanotos"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina" (A)
*Stilt Sandpiper "Calidris himantopus"
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax" (A)
*Wilson's Phalarope "Phalaropus tricolor" (A)

kuas and Jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Great Skua "Stercorarius skua"
*Pomarine Jaeger "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger "Stercorarius parasiticus"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Ring-billed Gull "Larus delawarensis" (A)
*Kelp Gull "Larus dominicanus" (A)
*Lesser Black-backed Gull "Larus fuscus" (A)
*American Herring Gull "Larus smithsonianus" (A)
*Laughing Gull "Larus atricilla"
*Franklin's Gull "Larus pipixcan"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Sandwich Tern "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Royal Tern "Sterna maxima"
*Roseate Tern "Sterna dougallii"
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Least Tern "Sterna antillarum"
*Yellow-billed Tern "Sterna superciliaris"
*Bridled Tern "Sterna anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern "Sterna fuscata"
*Black Tern "Chlidonias niger"
*Large-billed Tern "Phaetusa simplex"
*Black Noddy "Anous minutus"
*Brown Noddy "Anous stolidus"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Black Skimmer "Rynchops niger"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia" (I)
*Scaly-naped Pigeon "Patagioenas squamosa"
*Scaled Pigeon "Patagioenas speciosa"
*Bare-eyed Pigeon "Patagioenas corensis"
*Band-tailed Pigeon "Patagioenas fasciata"
*Pale-vented Pigeon "Patagioenas cayennensis"
*Plumbeous Pigeon "Patagioenas plumbea"
*Ruddy Pigeon "Patagioenas subvinacea"
*Eared Dove "Zenaida auriculata"
*Common Ground Dove "Columbina passerina"
*Plain-breasted Ground Dove "Columbina minuta"
*Ruddy Ground Dove "Columbina talpacoti"
*Scaled Dove "Columbina squammata"
*Blue Ground Dove "Claravis pretiosa"
*Maroon-chested Ground Dove "Claravis mondetoura"
*White-tipped Dove "Leptotila verreauxi"
*Gray-fronted Dove "Leptotila rufaxilla"
*Lined Quail Dove "Geotrygon linearis"
*Violaceous Quail Dove "Geotrygon violacea"
*Ruddy Quail Dove "Geotrygon montana"

Parrots, Macaws and allies

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 51 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Rose-ringed Parakeet "Psittacula krameri" (I)
*Blue-and-yellow Macaw "Ara ararauna"
*Military Macaw "Ara militaris"
*Scarlet Macaw "Ara macao"
*Red-and-green Macaw "Ara chloroptera"
*Chestnut-fronted Macaw "Ara severa"
*Red-bellied Macaw "Orthopsittaca manilata"
*Red-shouldered Macaw "Diopsittaca nobilis"
*Blue-crowned Parakeet "Aratinga acuticaudata"
*Scarlet-fronted Parakeet "Aratinga wagleri"
*White-eyed Parakeet "Aratinga leucophthalmus"
*Sun Parakeet "Aratinga solstitialis"
*Brown-throated Parakeet "Aratinga pertinax"
*Todd's Parakeet "Pyrrhura caeruleiceps"
*Painted Parakeet "Pyrrhura picta"
*Fiery-shouldered Parakeet "Pyrrhura egregia"
*White-eared Parakeet "Pyrrhura leucotis"
*Maroon-tailed Parakeet "Pyrrhura melanura"
*Red-eared Parakeet "Pyrrhura hoematotis" (E)
*Rose-headed Parakeet "Pyrrhura rhodocephala" (E)
*Barred Parakeet "Bolborhynchus lineola"
*Green-rumped Parrotlet "Forpus passerinus"
*Spectacled Parrotlet "Forpus conspicillatus"
*Dusky-billed Parrotlet "Forpus sclateri"
*Orange-chinned Parakeet "Brotogeris jugularis"
*Cobalt-winged Parakeet "Brotogeris cyanoptera"
*Golden-winged Parakeet "Brotogeris chrysopterus"
*Tepui Parrotlet "Nannopsittaca panychlora"
*Lilac-tailed Parrotlet "Touit batavica"
*Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet "Touit huetii"
*Blue-fronted Parrotlet "Touit dilectissima"
*Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet "Touit purpurata"
*Black-headed Parrot "Pionites melanocephala"
*Orange-cheeked Parrot "Pionopsitta barrabandi"
*Saffron-headed Parrot "Pionopsitta pyrilia"
*Caica Parrot "Pionopsitta caica"
*Rusty-faced Parrot "Hapalopsittaca amazonina"
*Blue-headed Parrot "Pionus menstruus"
*Red-billed Parrot "Pionus sordidus"
*Speckle-faced Parrot "Pionus tumultuosus"
*Bronze-winged Parrot "Pionus chalcopterus"
*Dusky Parrot "Pionus fuscus"
*Red-lored Amazon "Amazona autumnalis"
*Blue-cheeked Amazon "Amazona dufresniana"
*Festive Amazon "Amazona festiva"
*Yellow-shouldered Amazon "Amazona barbadensis"
*Yellow-crowned Amazon "Amazona ochrocephala"
*Orange-winged Amazon "Amazona amazonica"
*Scaly-naped Amazon "Amazona mercenaria"
*Mealy Amazon "Amazona farinosa"
*Red-fan Parrot "Deroptyus accipitrinus"

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Dwarf Cuckoo "Coccyzus pumilus"
*Black-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus erythropthalmus"
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus americanus"
*Pearly-breasted Cuckoo "Coccyzus euleri"
*Mangrove Cuckoo "Coccyzus minor"
*Dark-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus melacoryphus"
*Gray-capped Cuckoo "Coccyzus lansbergi"
*Squirrel Cuckoo "Piaya cayana"
*Black-bellied Cuckoo "Piaya melanogaster"
*Little Cuckoo "Piaya minuta"
*Greater Ani "Crotophaga major"
*Smooth-billed Ani "Crotophaga ani"
*Groove-billed Ani "Crotophaga sulcirostris"
*Striped Cuckoo "Tapera naevia"
*Pheasant Cuckoo "Dromococcyx phasianellus"
*Pavonine Cuckoo "Dromococcyx pavoninus"
*Rufous-winged Ground-Cuckoo "Neomorphus rufipennis"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Ashy-faced Owl "Tyto glaucops"
*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Tropical Screech-Owl "Megascops choliba"
*Rufescent Screech-Owl "Megascops ingens"
*Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl "Megascops watsonii"
*Vermiculated Screech-Owl "Megascops vermiculatus"
*Roraima Screech-Owl "Megascops roraimae"
*White-throated Screech-Owl "Megascops albogularis"
*Great Horned Owl "Bubo virginianus"
*Mottled Owl "Ciccaba virgata"
*Black-and-white Owl "Ciccaba nigrolineata"
*Black-banded Owl "Ciccaba huhula"
*Rufous-banded Owl "Ciccaba albitarsus"
*Crested Owl "Lophostrix cristata"
*Spectacled Owl "Pulsatrix perspicillata"
*Andean Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium jardinii"
*Amazonian Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium hardyi"
*Least Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium minutissimum"
*Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium brasilianum"
*Burrowing Owl "Athene cunicularia"
*Buff-fronted Owl "Aegolius harrisii"
*Striped Owl "Pseudoscops clamator"
*Stygian Owl "Asio stygius"
*Short-eared Owl "Asio flammeus" (A)


Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Steatornithidae

The Oilbird is a slim, long-winged bird related to the nightjars. It is nocturnal and a specialist feeder on the fruit of the Oil palm.

*Oilbird "Steatornis caripensis"


Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Nyctibiidae

The potoos (sometimes called Poor-Me-Ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars. There are 5 species, all of which are from the South American tropical region, and 5 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Great Potoo "Nyctibius grandis"
*Long-tailed Potoo "Nyctibius aethereus"
*Andean Potoo "Nyctibius maculosus"
*Common Potoo "Nyctibius griseus"
*White-winged Potoo "Nyctibius leucopterus"


Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Short-tailed Nighthawk "Lurocalis semitorquatus"
*Rufous-bellied Nighthawk "Lurocalis rufiventris"
*Least Nighthawk "Chordeiles pusillus"
*Sand-colored Nighthawk "Chordeiles rupestris"
*Lesser Nighthawk "Chordeiles acutipennis"
*Common Nighthawk "Chordeiles minor"
*Nacunda Nighthawk "Podager nacunda"
*Band-tailed Nighthawk "Nyctiprogne leucopyga"
*Pauraque "Nyctidromus albicollis"
*Chuck-will's-widow "Caprimulgus carolinensis"
*Rufous Nightjar "Caprimulgus rufus"
*Band-winged Nightjar "Caprimulgus longirostris"
*Little Nightjar "Caprimulgus parvulus"
*Spot-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus maculicaudus"
*White-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus cayennensis"
*Blackish Nightjar "Caprimulgus nigrescens"
*Roraiman Nightjar "Caprimulgus whitelyi" (E)
*Lyre-tailed Nightjar "Uropsalis lyra"
*Ladder-tailed Nightjar "Hydropsalis climacocerca"


Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Tepui Swift "Cypseloides phelpsi"
*Spot-fronted Swift "Cypseloides cherriei"
*White-chinned Swift "Cypseloides cryptus"
*Chestnut-collared Swift "Streptoprocne rutila"
*White-collared Swift "Streptoprocne zonaris"
*Band-rumped Swift "Chaetura spinicaudus"
*Gray-rumped Swift "Chaetura cinereiventris"
*Pale-rumped Swift "Chaetura egregia"
*Chimney Swift "Chaetura pelagica"
*Vaux's Swift "Chaetura vauxi"
*Chapman's Swift "Chaetura chapmani"
*Short-tailed Swift "Chaetura brachyura"
*Ashy-tailed Swift "Chaetura andrei"
*White-tipped Swift "Aeronautes montivagus"
*Pygmy Swift "Tachornis furcata"
*Fork-tailed Palm-Swift "Tachornis squamata"
*Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift "Panyptila cayennensis"


Order: TrochiliformesFamily: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species worldwide and 104 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Rufous-breasted Hermit "Glaucis hirsuta"
*Band-tailed Barbthroat "Threnetes ruckeri"
*Green Hermit "Phaethornis guy"
*White-bearded Hermit "Phaethornis hispidus"
*Western Long-tailed Hermit "Phaethornis longirostris"
*Eastern Long-tailed Hermit "Phaethornis superciliosus"
*Great-billed Hermit "Phaethornis malaris"
*Straight-billed Hermit "Phaethornis bourcieri"
*Pale-bellied Hermit "Phaethornis anthophilus"
*Sooty-capped Hermit "Phaethornis augusti"
*Streak-throated Hermit "Phaethornis rupurumii"
*Little Hermit "Phaethornis longuemareus"
*Reddish Hermit "Phaethornis ruber"
*Stripe-throated Hermit "Phaethornis striigularis"
*Gray-chinned Hermit "Phaethornis griseogularis"
*Green-fronted Lancebill "Doryfera ludovicae"
*Blue-fronted Lancebill "Doryfera johannae"
*Gray-breasted Sabrewing "Campylopterus largipennis"
*Rufous-breasted Sabrewing "Campylopterus hyperythrus"
*White-tailed Sabrewing "Campylopterus ensipennis"
*Lazuline Sabrewing "Campylopterus falcatus"
*Buff-breasted Sabrewing "Campylopterus duidae"
*White-necked Jacobin "Florisuga mellivora"
*Brown Violet-ear "Colibri delphinae"
*Green Violet-ear "Colibri thalassinus"
*Sparkling Violet-ear "Colibri coruscans"
*Green-throated Mango "Anthracothorax viridigula"
*Green-breasted Mango "Anthracothorax prevostii"
*Black-throated Mango "Anthracothorax nigricollis"
*Fiery-tailed Awlbill "Avocettula recurvirostris"
*Crimson Topaz "Topaza pella"
*Fiery Topaz "Topaza pyra"
*Ruby-topaz Hummingbird "Chrysolampis mosquitus"
*Violet-headed Hummingbird "Klais guimeti"
*Tufted Coquette "Lophornis ornatus"
*Spangled Coquette "Lophornis stictolophus"
*Festive Coquette "Lophornis chalybeus"
*Peacock Coquette "Lophornis pavoninus"
*Black-bellied Thorntail "Popelairia langsdorffi"
*Racket-tailed Coquette "Discosura longicauda"
*Blue-chinned Sapphire "Chlorostilbon notatus"
*Blue-tailed Emerald "Chlorostilbon mellisugus"
*Coppery Emerald "Chlorostilbon russatus"
*Narrow-tailed Emerald "Chlorostilbon stenurus"
*Green-tailed Emerald "Chlorostilbon alice" (E)
*Short-tailed Emerald "Chlorostilbon poortmani"
*Violet-crowned Woodnymph "Thalurania colombica"
*Fork-tailed Woodnymph "Thalurania furcata"
*Shining-green Hummingbird "Lepidopyga goudoti"
*Rufous-throated Sapphire "Hylocharis sapphirina"
*White-chinned Sapphire "Hylocharis cyanus"
*Golden-tailed Sapphire "Chrysuronia oenone"
*White-tailed Goldenthroat "Polytmus guainumbi"
*Tepui Goldenthroat "Polytmus milleri"
*Green-tailed Goldenthroat "Polytmus theresiae"
*Buffy Hummingbird "Leucippus fallax"
*Rufous-tailed Hummingbird "Amazilia tzacatl"
*Plain-bellied Emerald "Agyrtria leucogaster"
*Versicolored Emerald "Agyrtria versicolor"
*White-chested Emerald "Agyrtria brevirostris"
*Sapphire-spangled Emerald "Polyerata lactea"
*Glittering-throated Emerald "Polyerata fimbriata"
*Steely-vented Hummingbird "Saucerottia saucerrottei"
*Green-bellied Hummingbird "Saucerottia viridigaster"
*Copper-tailed Hummingbird "Saucerottia cupreicauda"
*Copper-rumped Hummingbird "Saucerottia tobaci"
*White-vented Plumeleteer "Chalybura buffonii"
*Speckled Hummingbird "Adelomyia melanogenys"
*Gould's Jewelfront "Heliodoxa aurescens"
*Violet-fronted Brilliant "Heliodoxa leadbeateri"
*Velvet-browed Brilliant "Heliodoxa xanthogonys"
*Black-throated Brilliant "Heliodoxa schreibersii"
*Scissor-tailed Hummingbird "Hylonympha macrocerca" (E)
*Violet-chested Hummingbird "Sternoclyta cyanopectus" (E)
*Buff-tailed Coronet "Boissonneaua flavescens"
*Mountain Velvetbreast "Lafresnaya lafresnayi"
*Bronzy Inca "Coeligena coeligena"
*Collared Inca "Coeligena torquata"
*Golden Starfrontlet "Coeligena eos" (E)
*Golden-bellied Starfrontlet "Coeligena bonapartei"
*Blue-throated Starfrontlet "Coeligena helianthea"
*Sword-billed Hummingbird "Ensifera ensifera"
*Great Sapphirewing "Pterophanes cyanopterus" (A)
*Longuemare's Sunangel "Heliangelus clarisse"
*Orange-throated Sunangel "Heliangelus mavors"
*Glowing Puffleg "Eriocnemis vestitus"
*Sapphire-vented Puffleg "Eriocnemis luciani"
*Coppery-bellied Puffleg "Eriocnemis cupreoventris"
*Booted Racket-tail "Ocreatus underwoodii"
*Green-tailed Trainbearer "Lesbia nuna"
*Purple-backed Thornbill "Ramphomicron microrhynchum"
*Bearded Helmetcrest "Oxypogon guerinii"
*Tyrian Metaltail "Metallura tyrianthina"
*Perija Metaltail "Metallura iracunda"
*Neblina Metaltail "Metallura odomae"
*Bronze-tailed Thornbill "Chalcostigma heteropogon"
*Long-tailed Sylph "Aglaiocercus kingi"
*Venezuelan Sylph "Aglaiocercus berlepschi" (E)
*Wedge-billed Hummingbird "Augastes geoffroyi"
*Black-eared Fairy "Heliothryx aurita"
*Long-billed Starthroat "Heliomaster longirostris"
*Amethyst Woodstar "Calliphlox amethystina"
*Gorgeted Woodstar "Chaetocercus heliodor"
*Rufous-shafted Woodstar "Chaetocercus jourdanii"

Trogons and Quetzals

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Venezuela.

*White-tailed Trogon "Trogon viridis"
*Violaceous Trogon "Trogon violaceus"
*Collared Trogon "Trogon collaris"
*Masked Trogon "Trogon personatus"
*Black-throated Trogon "Trogon rufus"
*Black-tailed Trogon "Trogon melanurus"
*Crested Quetzal "Pharomachrus antisianus"
*White-tipped Quetzal "Pharomachrus fulgidus"
*Golden-headed Quetzal "Pharomachrus auriceps"
*Pavonine Quetzal "Pharomachrus pavoninus"


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Belted Kingfisher "Ceryle alcyon"
*Ringed Kingfisher "Ceryle torquatus"
*Amazon Kingfisher "Chloroceryle amazona"
*Green Kingfisher "Chloroceryle americana"
*Green-and-rufous Kingfisher "Chloroceryle inda"
*American Pygmy Kingfisher "Chloroceryle aenea"


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Momotidae

The motmots have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails, which they display by waggling back and forth. In most of the species, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft, and creating a racket-shaped tail. There are 10 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Blue-crowned Motmot "Momotus momota"


Order: PiciformesFamily: Galbulidae

The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, with a range that extends up to Mexico. They are glossy elegant birds with long bills and tails, which feed on insects caught on the wing. In appearance and behaviour they show resemblances to the Old World bee-eaters, although they are more closely related to woodpeckers. There are 18 species and 8 species that occur in Venezuela.

*Pale-headed Jacamar "Brachygalba goeringi"
*Brown Jacamar "Brachygalba lugubris"
*Yellow-billed Jacamar "Galbula albirostris"
*Rufous-tailed Jacamar "Galbula ruficauda"
*Green-tailed Jacamar "Galbula galbula"
*Bronzy Jacamar "Galbula leucogastra"
*Paradise Jacamar "Galbula dea"
*Great Jacamar "Jacamerops aureus"


Order: PiciformesFamily: Bucconidae

The puffbirds are related to the jacamars, and have the same range, but lack the iridescent colours of that family. They are mainly brown, rufous or grey, with large heads and flattened bills with a hooked tip. The loose abundant plumage and short tails makes them look stout and puffy, giving rise to the English common name of the family. There are 34 species and 14 species which occur in Venezuela.

*White-necked Puffbird "Notharchus macrorhynchos"
*Brown-banded Puffbird "Notharchus ordii"
*Pied Puffbird "Notharchus tectus"
*Chestnut-capped Puffbird "Bucco macrodactylus"
*Spotted Puffbird "Bucco tamatia"
*Collared Puffbird "Bucco capensis"
*Russet-throated Puffbird "Hypnelus ruficollis"
*Two-banded Puffbird "Hypnelus bicinctus"
*White-chested Puffbird "Malacoptila fusca"
*Moustached Puffbird "Malacoptila mystacalis"
*Rusty-breasted Nunlet "Nonnula rubecula"
*Black Nunbird "Monasa atra"
*White-fronted Nunbird "Monasa morphoeus"
*Swallow-wing "Chelidoptera tenebrosa"


Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Black-spotted Barbet "Capito niger"
*Gilded Barbet "Capito auratus"
*Red-headed Barbet "Eubucco bourcierii"


Order: PiciformesFamily: Ramphastidae

Toucans are near passerine birds from the neotropics. They are brightly marked and have enormous, colourful bills which in some species may amount to half their body length. There are 40 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Groove-billed Toucanet "Aulacorhynchus sulcatus" (E)
*Chestnut-tipped Toucanet "Aulacorhynchus derbianus"
*Crimson-rumped Toucanet "Aulacorhynchus haematopygus"
*Green Aracari "Pteroglossus viridis"
*Ivory-billed Aracari "Pteroglossus azara"
*Black-necked Aracari "Pteroglossus aracari"
*Collared Aracari "Pteroglossus torquatus"
*Many-banded Aracari "Pteroglossus pluricinctus"
*Black-billed Mountain-Toucan "Andigena nigrirostris"
*Tawny-tufted Toucanet "Selenidera nattereri"
*Guianan Toucanet "Selenidera culik"
*Keel-billed Toucan "Ramphastos sulfuratus"
*Channel-billed Toucan "Ramphastos vitellinus"
*Black-mandibled Toucan "Ramphastos ambiguus"
*Red-billed Toucan "Ramphastos tucanus"
*Toco Toucan "Ramphastos toco"
*Andean Toucanet "Aulacorhynchus albivitta"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Orinoco Piculet "Picumnus pumilus"
*Golden-spangled Piculet "Picumnus exilis"
*Black-spotted Piculet "Picumnus nigropunctatus" (E)
*Scaled Piculet "Picumnus squamulatus"
*White-bellied Piculet "Picumnus spilogaster"
*Rufous-breasted Piculet "Picumnus rufiventris"
*Olivaceous Piculet "Picumnus olivaceus"
*Chestnut Piculet "Picumnus cinnamomeus"
*Yellow-tufted Woodpecker "Melanerpes cruentatus"
*Red-crowned Woodpecker "Melanerpes rubricapillus"
*Yellow-vented Woodpecker "Veniliornis dignus"
*Smoky-brown Woodpecker "Veniliornis fumigatus"
*Little Woodpecker "Veniliornis passerinus"
*Red-rumped Woodpecker "Veniliornis kirkii"
*Golden-collared Woodpecker "Veniliornis cassini"
*Red-stained Woodpecker "Veniliornis affinis"
*Yellow-throated Woodpecker "Piculus flavigula"
*Golden-green Woodpecker "Piculus chrysochloros"
*Golden-olive Woodpecker "Piculus rubiginosus"
*Crimson-mantled Woodpecker "Piculus rivolii"
*Spot-breasted Woodpecker "Colaptes punctigula"
*Scaly-breasted Woodpecker "Celeus grammicus"
*Waved Woodpecker "Celeus undatus"
*Chestnut Woodpecker "Celeus elegans"
*Cream-colored Woodpecker "Celeus flavus"
*Ringed Woodpecker "Celeus torquatus"
*Lineated Woodpecker "Dryocopus lineatus"
*Powerful Woodpecker "Campephilus pollens"
*Red-necked Woodpecker "Campephilus rubricollis"
*Crimson-crested Woodpecker "Campephilus melanoleucos"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Furnariidae

Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. There are 243 species worldwide and 58 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Bar-winged Cinclodes "Cinclodes fuscus"
*Pale-legged Hornero "Furnarius leucopus"
*Andean Tit-Spinetail "Leptasthenura andicola"
*White-whiskered Spinetail "Synallaxis candei"
*Rufous Spinetail "Synallaxis unirufa"
*Black-throated Spinetail "Synallaxis castanea" (E)
*Azara's Spinetail "Synallaxis azarae"
*Pale-breasted Spinetail "Synallaxis albescens"
*Cabanis's Spinetail "Synallaxis cabanisi"
*MacConnell's Spinetail "Synallaxis macconnelli"
*Plain-crowned Spinetail "Synallaxis gujanensis"
*Ruddy Spinetail "Synallaxis rutilans"
*Stripe-breasted Spinetail "Synallaxis cinnamomea"
*White-browed Spinetail "Hellmayrea gularis"
*Tepui Spinetail "Cranioleuca demissa"
*Crested Spinetail "Cranioleuca subcristata"
*Rusty-backed Spinetail "Cranioleuca vulpina"
*Speckled Spinetail "Cranioleuca gutturata"
*Yellow-chinned Spinetail "Certhiaxis cinnamomea"
*Ochre-browed Thistletail "Schizoeaca coryi" (E)
*Perija Thistletail "Schizoeaca perijana"
*White-chinned Thistletail "Schizoeaca fuliginosa"
*Streak-backed Canastero "Asthenes wyatti"
*Orinoco Softtail "Thripophaga cherriei" (E)
*Common Thornbird "Phacellodomus rufifrons"
*Rusty-winged Barbtail "Premnornis guttuligera"
*Spotted Barbtail "Premnoplex brunnescens"
*White-throated Barbtail "Premnoplex tatei" (E)
*Roraiman Barbtail "Roraimia adusta"
*Pearled Treerunner "Margarornis squamiger"
*Rufous-tailed Xenops "Xenops milleri"
*Slender-billed Xenops "Xenops tenuirostris"
*Plain Xenops "Xenops minutus"
*Streaked Xenops "Xenops rutilans"
*Montane Foliage-gleaner "Anabacerthia striaticollis"
*Streaked Tuftedcheek "Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii"
*Flammulated Treehunter "Thripadectes flammulatus"
*Striped Treehunter "Thripadectes holostictus"
*Streak-capped Treehunter "Thripadectes virgaticeps"
*Lineated Foliage-gleaner "Syndactyla subalaris"
*Guttulated Foliage-gleaner "Syndactyla guttulata" (E)
*Point-tailed Palmcreeper "Berlepschia rikeri"
*Striped Woodhaunter "Hyloctistes subulatus"
*Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner "Philydor erythropterus"
*Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner "Philydor erythrocercus"
*Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner "Philydor ruficaudatus"
*Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner "Philydor rufus"
*Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner "Philydor pyrrhodes"
*Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner "Automolus rufipileatus"
*White-throated Foliage-gleaner "Automolus roraimae"
*Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner "Automolus ochrolaemus"
*Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner "Automolus infuscatus"
*Ruddy Foliage-gleaner "Automolus rubiginosus"
*Short-billed Leaftosser "Sclerurus rufigularis"
*Tawny-throated Leaftosser "Sclerurus mexicanus"
*Gray-throated Leaftosser "Sclerurus albigularis"
*Black-tailed Leaftosser "Sclerurus caudacutus"
*Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper "Lochmias nematura"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dendrocolaptidae

The Dendrocolaptidae are brownish birds and maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes. They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks. There are 57 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Tyrannine Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla tyrannina"
*Plain-brown Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla fuliginosa"
*White-chinned Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla merula"
*Ruddy Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla homochroa"
*Long-tailed Woodcreeper "Deconychura longicauda"
*Spot-throated Woodcreeper "Deconychura stictolaema"
*Olivaceous Woodcreeper "Sittasomus griseicapillus"
*Wedge-billed Woodcreeper "Glyphorynchus spirurus"
*Long-billed Woodcreeper "Nasica longirostris"
*Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper "Dendrexetastes rufigula"
*Red-billed Woodcreeper "Hylexetastes perrotii"
*Strong-billed Woodcreeper "Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus"
*Northern Barred-Woodcreeper "Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae"
*Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper "Dendrocolaptes certhia"
*Black-banded Woodcreeper "Dendrocolaptes picumnus"
*Striped Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus obsoletus"
*Ocellated Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus ocellatus"
*Buff-throated Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus guttatus"
*Lafresnaye's Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus guttatoides"
*Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus pardalotus"
*Cocoa Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus susurrans"
*Ivory-billed Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus flavigaster"
*Olive-backed Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus triangularis"
*Straight-billed Woodcreeper "Dendroplex picus"
*Streak-headed Woodcreeper "Lepidocolaptes souleyetii"
*Montane Woodcreeper "Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger"
*Lineated Woodcreeper "Lepidocolaptes albolineatus"
*Red-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus trochilirostris"
*Brown-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus pusillus"
*Curve-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus procurvoides"

Typical antbirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thamnophilidae

The antbirds are a large family of small passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are forest birds, and tend to feed on insects at or near the ground. A sizable minority of them specialize in following columns of army ants to eat the small invertebrates that leave hiding to flee the ants.Many species lack bright colour; brown, black and white being the dominant tones. There are about 212 species worldwide and 79 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Fasciated Antshrike "Cymbilaimus lineatus"
*Black-throated Antshrike "Frederickena viridis"
*Undulated Antshrike "Frederickena unduligera"
*Great Antshrike "Taraba major"
*Black-crested Antshrike "Sakesphorus canadensis"
*Black-backed Antshrike "Sakesphorus melanonotus"
*Barred Antshrike "Thamnophilus doliatus"
*Bar-crested Antshrike "Thamnophilus multistriatus"
*Lined Antshrike "Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus"
*Blackish-gray Antshrike "Thamnophilus nigrocinereus"
*White-shouldered Antshrike "Thamnophilus aethiops"
*Mouse-colored Antshrike "Thamnophilus murinus"
*Western Slaty-Antshrike "Thamnophilus atrinucha"
*Northern Slaty-Antshrike "Thamnophilus punctatus"
*Streak-backed Antshrike "Thamnophilus insignis"
*Amazonian Antshrike "Thamnophilus amazonicus"
*Spot-winged Antshrike "Pygiptila stellaris"
*Pearly Antshrike "Megastictus margaritatus"
*Black Bushbird "Neoctantes niger"
*Recurve-billed Bushbird "Clytoctantes alixii"
*Russet Antshrike "Thamnistes anabatinus"
*Plain Antvireo "Dysithamnus mentalis"
*White-streaked Antvireo "Dysithamnus leucostictus"
*Dusky-throated Antshrike "Thamnomanes ardesiacus"
*Cinereous Antshrike "Thamnomanes caesius"
*Pygmy Antwren "Myrmotherula brachyura"
*Moustached Antwren "Myrmotherula ignota"
*Yellow-throated Antwren "Myrmotherula ambigua"
*Cherrie's Antwren "Myrmotherula cherriei"
*Amazonian Antwren "Myrmotherula multostriata"
*Guianan Antwren "Myrmotherula surinamensis"
*Rufous-bellied Antwren "Myrmotherula guttata"
*Brown-bellied Antwren "Myrmotherula gutturalis"
*Stipple-throated Antwren "Myrmotherula haematonota"
*Rufous-tailed Antwren "Myrmotherula erythrura"
*White-flanked Antwren "Myrmotherula axillaris"
*Slaty Antwren "Myrmotherula schisticolor"
*Long-winged Antwren "Myrmotherula longipennis"
*Plain-winged Antwren "Myrmotherula behni"
*Gray Antwren "Myrmotherula menetriesii"
*Banded Antwren "Dichrozona cincta"
*Spot-tailed Antwren "Herpsilochmus sticturus"
*Todd's Antwren "Herpsilochmus stictocephalus"
*Spot-backed Antwren "Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus"
*Roraiman Antwren "Herpsilochmus roraimae"
*Rufous-winged Antwren "Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus"
*White-fringed Antwren "Formicivora grisea"
*Long-tailed Antbird "Drymophila caudata"
*Rufous-rumped Antwren "Terenura callinota"
*Ash-winged Antwren "Terenura spodioptila"
*Gray Antbird "Cercomacra cinerascens"
*Dusky Antbird "Cercomacra tyrannina"
*Jet Antbird "Cercomacra nigricans"
*White-browed Antbird "Myrmoborus leucophrys"
*Black-faced Antbird "Myrmoborus myotherinus"
*Warbling Antbird "Hypocnemis cantator"
*Black-chinned Antbird "Hypocnemoides melanopogon"
*Bare-crowned Antbird "Gymnocichla nudiceps"
*Silvered Antbird "Sclateria naevia"
*Black-headed Antbird "Percnostola rufifrons"
*Slate-colored Antbird "Percnostola schistacea"
*Spot-winged Antbird "Percnostola leucostigma"
*Roraiman Antbird "Percnostola saturata"
*Caura Antbird "Percnostola caurensis"
*White-bellied Antbird "Myrmeciza longipes"
*Ferruginous-backed Antbird "Myrmeciza ferruginea"
*Dull-mantled Antbird "Myrmeciza laemosticta"
*Yapacana Antbird "Myrmeciza disjuncta"
*Gray-bellied Antbird "Myrmeciza pelzelni"
*Immaculate Antbird "Myrmeciza immaculata"
*Black-throated Antbird "Myrmeciza atrothorax"
*White-plumed Antbird "Pithys albifrons"
*Rufous-throated Antbird "Gymnopithys rufigula"
*Bicolored Antbird "Gymnopithys leucaspis"
*Wing-banded Antbird "Myrmornis torquata"
*Spot-backed Antbird "Hylophylax naevia"
*Dot-backed Antbird "Hylophylax punctulata"
*Scale-backed Antbird "Hylophylax poecilinota"
*Reddish-winged Bare-eye "Phlegopsis erythroptera"

Antthrushes and Antpittas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Formicariidae

The ground antbirds are a family comprising the antthrushes and antpittas. Antthrushes resemble small rails while antpittas resemble the true pittas with longish strong legs, very short tails and stout bills. There are about 63 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Rufous-capped Antthrush "Formicarius colma"
*Black-faced Antthrush "Formicarius analis"
*Rufous-breasted Antthrush "Formicarius rufipectus"
*Short-tailed Antthrush "Chamaeza campanisona"
*Schwartz's Antthrush "Chamaeza turdina"
*Undulated Antpitta "Grallaria squamigera"
*Great Antpitta "Grallaria excelsa" (E)
*Variegated Antpitta "Grallaria varia"
*Scaled Antpitta "Grallaria guatimalensis"
*Tachira Antpitta "Grallaria chthonia" (E)
*Plain-backed Antpitta "Grallaria haplonota"
*Chestnut-crowned Antpitta "Grallaria ruficapilla"
*Gray-naped Antpitta "Grallaria griseonucha" (E)
*Rufous Antpitta "Grallaria rufula"
*Spotted Antpitta "Hylopezus macularius"
*Thrush-like Antpitta "Myrmothera campanisona"
*Tepui Antpitta "Myrmothera simplex"
*Rusty-breasted Antpitta "Grallaricula ferrugineipectus"
*Scallop-breasted Antpitta "Grallaricula loricata" (E)
*Hooded Antpitta "Grallaricula cucullata"
*Slate-crowned Antpitta "Grallaricula nana"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Rhinocryptidae

The tapaculos are a group of small suboscine passeriform birds with numerous species, found in South America. They are terrestrial species that fly only poorly on their short wings. They have strong legs, well-suited to their habitat of grassland or forest undergrowth. The tail is cocked and pointed towards the head. There are 56 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Ash-colored Tapaculo "Myornis senilis"
*Blackish Tapaculo "Scytalopus latrans"
*Rufous-vented Tapaculo "Scytalopus femoralis"
*Bolivian Tapaculo "Scytalopus bolivianus"
*White-crowned Tapaculo "Scytalopus atratus"
*Caracas Tapaculo "Scytalopus caracae" (E)
*Matorral Tapaculo "Scytalopus griseicollis"
*Lara Tapaculo "Scytalopus fuscicauda" (E)
*Ocellated Tapaculo "Acropternis orthonyx"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cotingidae

The cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges of tropical South America. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. The males of many of the species are brightly coloured, or decorated with plumes or wattles. There are 71 species worldwide and 29 species which occur in Venezuela

*Sharpbill "Oxyruncus cristatus"
*Black-necked Red-Cotinga "Phoenicircus nigricollis"
*Guianan Red-Cotinga "Phoenicircus carnifex"
*Shrike-like Cotinga "Laniisoma elegans"
*Red-crested Cotinga "Ampelion rubrocristata"
*Green-and-black Fruiteater "Pipreola riefferii"
*Barred Fruiteater "Pipreola arcuata"
*Golden-breasted Fruiteater "Pipreola aureopectus"
*Handsome Fruiteater "Pipreola formosa" (E)
*Red-banded Fruiteater "Pipreola whitelyi"
*Scaled Fruiteater "Ampelioides tschudii"
*White-browed Purpletuft "Iodopleura isabellae"
*Dusky Purpletuft "Iodopleura fusca"
*Screaming Piha "Lipaugus vociferans"
*Rose-collared Piha "Lipaugus streptophorus"
*Blue Cotinga "Cotinga nattererii"
*Purple-breasted Cotinga "Cotinga cotinga"
*Spangled Cotinga "Cotinga cayana"
*Pompadour Cotinga "Xipholena punicea"
*Bare-necked Fruitcrow "Gymnoderus foetidus"
*Crimson Fruitcrow "Haematoderus militaris"
*Purple-throated Fruitcrow "Querula purpurata"
*Red-ruffed Fruitcrow "Pyroderus scutatus"
*Amazonian Umbrellabird "Cephalopterus ornatus"
*Capuchinbird "Perissocephalus tricolor"
*White Bellbird "Procnias alba"
*Bearded Bellbird "Procnias averano"
*Guianan Cock-of-the-rock "Rupicola rupicola"
*Andean Cock-of-the-rock "Rupicola peruviana"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pipridae

The manakins are a family bird species of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly coloured, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries and insects. There are 57 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Olive Manakin "Chloropipo uniformis"
*White-bearded Manakin "Manacus manacus"
*White-throated Manakin "Corapipo gutturalis"
*White-ruffed Manakin "Corapipo altera"
*Lance-tailed Manakin "Chiroxiphia lanceolata"
*Blue-backed Manakin "Chiroxiphia pareola"
*Crimson-hooded Manakin "Pipra aureola"
*Wire-tailed Manakin "Pipra filicauda"
*White-crowned Manakin "Dixiphia pipra"
*Blue-crowned Manakin "Lepidothrix coronata"
*Golden-headed Manakin "Pipra erythrocephala"
*Scarlet-horned Manakin "Pipra cornuta"
*Tepui Manakin "Lepidothrix suavissima"
*White-fronted Manakin "Lepidothrix serena"
*Golden-winged Manakin "Masius chrysopterus"
*Fiery-capped Manakin "Machaeropterus pyrocephalus"
*Western Striped Manakin "Machaeropterus striolatus"
*Black Manakin "Xenopipo atronitens"
*Yellow-crested Manakin "Heterocercus flavivertex"
*Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin "Neopelma chrysocephalum"
*Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin "Tyranneutes stolzmanni"
*Tiny Tyrant-Manakin "Tyranneutes virescens"
*Wing-barred Piprites "Piprites chloris"
*Greater Schiffornis "Schiffornis major"
*Thrush-like Schiffornis "Schiffornis turdinus"

Tyrant flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas and 186 species which occur in Venezuela.

*White-lored Tyrannulet "Ornithion inerme"
*Brown-capped Tyrannulet "Ornithion brunneicapillus"
*Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet "Camptostoma obsoletum"
*Mouse-colored Tyrannulet "Phaeomyias murina"
*Yellow Tyrannulet "Capsiempis flaveola"
*Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet "Tyrannulus elatus"
*Forest Elaenia "Myiopagis gaimardii"
*Gray Elaenia "Myiopagis caniceps"
*Yellow-crowned Elaenia "Myiopagis flavivertex"
*Greenish Elaenia "Myiopagis viridicata"
*Large Elaenia "Elaenia spectabilis"
*Yellow-bellied Elaenia "Elaenia flavogaster"
*Small-billed Elaenia "Elaenia parvirostris"
*Slaty Elaenia "Elaenia strepera"
*Plain-crested Elaenia "Elaenia cristata"
*Rufous-crowned Elaenia "Elaenia ruficeps"
*Lesser Elaenia "Elaenia chiriquensis"
*Mountain Elaenia "Elaenia frantzii"
*Great Elaenia "Elaenia dayi" (E)
*Sierran Elaenia "Elaenia pallatangae"
*Torrent Tyrannulet "Serpophaga cinerea"
*River Tyrannulet "Serpophaga hypoleuca"
*Ochre-bellied Flycatcher "Mionectes oleagineus"
*Olive-striped Flycatcher "Mionectes olivaceus"
*MacConnell's Flycatcher "Mionectes macconnelli"
*Rufous-breasted Flycatcher "Leptopogon rufipectus"
*Sepia-capped Flycatcher "Leptopogon amaurocephalus"
*Slaty-capped Flycatcher "Leptopogon superciliaris"
*Variegated Bristle-Tyrant "Pogonotriccus poecilotis"
*Chapman's Bristle-Tyrant "Pogonotriccus chapmani" (E)
*Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant "Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus"
*Venezuelan Bristle-Tyrant "Pogonotriccus venezuelanus" (E)
*Black-fronted Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes nigrifrons" (E)
*Rufous-lored Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes flaviventris" (E)
*Olive-green Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes virescens"
*Rufous-browed Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes superciliaris"
*Rough-legged Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias burmeisteri"
*Greenish Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias virescens"
*Urich's Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias urichi" (E)
*Sooty-headed Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias griseiceps"
*Black-capped Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias nigrocapillus"
*Ashy-headed Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias cinereiceps"
*Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias uropygialis"
*Paltry Tyrannulet "Zimmerius vilissimus"
*Venezuelan Tyrannulet "Zimmerius improbus"
*Slender-footed Tyrannulet "Zimmerius gracilipes"
*Golden-faced Tyrannulet "Zimmerius chrysops"
*Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher "Sublegatus obscurior"
*Northern Scrub-Flycatcher "Sublegatus arenarum"
*Southern Scrub-Flycatcher "Sublegatus modestus"
*White-throated Tyrannulet "Mecocerculus leucophrys"
*Sulphur-bellied Tyrannulet "Mecocerculus minor"
*White-banded Tyrannulet "Mecocerculus stictopterus"
*Slender-billed Tyrannulet "Inezia tenuirostris"
*Pale-tipped Tyrannulet "Inezia caudata"
*Amazonian Tyrannulet "Inezia subflava"
*Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant "Stigmatura napensis"
*Agile Tit-Tyrant "Anairetes agilis"
*Bearded Tachuri "Polystictus pectoralis"
*Crested Doradito "Pseudocolopteryx sclateri"
*Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant "Euscarthmus meloryphus"
*Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant "Myiornis ecaudatus"
*Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant "Lophotriccus pileatus"
*Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant "Lophotriccus vitiosus"
*Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant "Lophotriccus galeatus"
*Pale-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant "Atalotriccus pilaris"
*Rufous-crowned Tody-Tyrant "Poecilotriccus ruficeps"
*Ruddy Tody-Flycatcher "Poecilotriccus russatus"
*Slate-headed Tody-Tyrant "Poecilotriccus sylvia"
*Black-chested Tyrant "Taeniotriccus andrei"
*Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant "Hemitriccus minor" (A)
*White-eyed Tody-Tyrant "Hemitriccus zosterops"
*Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant "Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer"
*Black-throated Tody-Tyrant "Hemitriccus granadensis"
*Common Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum cinereum"
*Spotted Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum maculatum"
*Short-tailed Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum viridanum" (E)
*Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum nigriceps"
*Painted Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum pictum"
*Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum"
*Ringed Antpipit "Corythopis torquata"
*Large-headed Flatbill "Ramphotrigon megacephala"
*Rufous-tailed Flatbill "Ramphotrigon ruficauda"
*Olivaceous Flatbill "Rhynchocyclus olivaceus"
*Fulvous-breasted Flatbill "Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus"
*Yellow-olive Flycatcher "Tolmomyias sulphurescens"
*Yellow-margined Flycatcher "Tolmomyias assimilis"
*Gray-crowned Flycatcher "Tolmomyias poliocephalus"
*Yellow-breasted Flycatcher "Tolmomyias flaviventris"
*Cinnamon-crested Spadebill "Platyrinchus saturatus"
*Yellow-throated Spadebill "Platyrinchus flavigularis"
*Golden-crowned Spadebill "Platyrinchus coronatus"
*White-throated Spadebill "Platyrinchus mystaceus"
*White-crested Spadebill "Platyrinchus platyrhynchos"
*Amazonian Royal-Flycatcher "Onychorhynchus coronatus"
*Northern Royal-Flycatcher "Onychorhynchus mexicanus"
*Flavescent Flycatcher "Myiophobus flavicans"
*Roraiman Flycatcher "Myiophobus roraimae"
*Bran-colored Flycatcher "Myiophobus fasciatus"
*Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher "Terenotriccus erythrurus"
*Tawny-breasted Flycatcher "Myiobius villosus"
*Whiskered Flycatcher "Myiobius barbatus"
*Black-tailed Flycatcher "Myiobius atricaudus"
*Cinnamon Tyrant "Neopipo cinnamomea"
*Cinnamon Flycatcher "Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea"
*Cliff Flycatcher "Hirundinea ferruginea"
*Fuscous Flycatcher "Cnemotriccus fuscatus"
*Euler's Flycatcher "Lathrotriccus euleri"
*Olive-sided Flycatcher "Contopus cooperi"
*Smoke-colored Pewee "Contopus fumigatus"
*Western Wood-Pewee "Contopus sordidulus"
*Eastern Wood-Pewee "Contopus virens"
*Tropical Pewee "Contopus cinereus"
*Acadian Flycatcher "Empidonax virescens"
*Alder Flycatcher "Empidonax alnorum"
*Willow Flycatcher "Empidonax traillii"
*Black Phoebe "Sayornis nigricans"
*Vermilion Flycatcher "Pyrocephalus rubinus"
*Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant "Ochthoeca diadema"
*Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant "Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris"
*Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant "Ochthoeca rufipectoralis"
*Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant "Ochthoeca fumicolor"
*Drab Water-Tyrant "Ochthornis littoralis"
*Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant "Myiotheretes striaticollis"
*Smoky Bush-Tyrant "Myiotheretes fumigatus"
*Amazonian Black-Tyrant "Knipolegus poecilocercus"
*Rufous-tailed Tyrant "Knipolegus poecilurus"
*Riverside Tyrant "Knipolegus orenocensis"
*Pied Water-Tyrant "Fluvicola pica"
*Black-backed Water-Tyrant "Fluvicola albiventer"
*White-headed Marsh-Tyrant "Arundinicola leucocephala"
*Yellow-browed Tyrant "Satrapa icterophrys"
*Long-tailed Tyrant "Colonia colonus"
*Cattle Tyrant "Machetornis rixosus"
*Rufous-tailed Attila "Attila phoenicurus"
*Cinnamon Attila "Attila cinnamomeus"
*Citron-bellied Attila "Attila citriniventris"
*Bright-rumped Attila "Attila spadiceus"
*Cinereous Mourner "Laniocera hypopyrra"
*Sirystes "Sirystes sibilator"
*Grayish Mourner "Rhytipterna simplex"
*Pale-bellied Mourner "Rhytipterna immunda"
*Dusky-capped Flycatcher "Myiarchus tuberculifer"
*Swainson's Flycatcher "Myiarchus swainsoni"
*Venezuelan Flycatcher "Myiarchus venezuelensis"
*Panama Flycatcher "Myiarchus panamensis"
*Short-crested Flycatcher "Myiarchus ferox"
*Pale-edged Flycatcher "Myiarchus cephalotes"
*Great Crested Flycatcher "Myiarchus crinitus"
*Brown-crested Flycatcher "Myiarchus tyrannulus"
*Lesser Kiskadee "Philohydor lictor"
*Great Kiskadee "Pitangus sulphuratus"
*Boat-billed Flycatcher "Megarynchus pitangua"
*Rusty-margined Flycatcher "Myiozetetes cayanensis"
*Social Flycatcher "Myiozetetes similis"
*Gray-capped Flycatcher "Myiozetetes granadensis"
*Dusky-chested Flycatcher "Myiozetetes luteiventris"
*Three-striped Flycatcher "Conopias trivirgata"
*Yellow-throated Flycatcher "Conopias parva"
*Lemon-browed Flycatcher "Conopias cinchoneti"
*Golden-crowned Flycatcher "Myiodynastes chrysocephalus"
*Streaked Flycatcher "Myiodynastes maculatus"
*Piratic Flycatcher "Legatus leucophaius"
*White-bearded Flycatcher "Phelpsia inornata" (E)
*Variegated Flycatcher "Empidonomus varius"
*Crowned Slaty Flycatcher "Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus" (A)
*Sulphury Flycatcher "Tyrannopsis sulphurea"
*White-throated Kingbird "Tyrannus albogularis"
*Tropical Kingbird "Tyrannus melancholicus"
*Eastern Kingbird "Tyrannus tyrannus"
*Gray Kingbird "Tyrannus dominicensis"
*Fork-tailed Flycatcher "Tyrannus savana"
*White-naped Xenopsaris "Xenopsaris albinucha"
*Chestnut-crowned Becard "Pachyramphus castaneus"
*Green-backed Becard "Pachyramphus viridis"
*Barred Becard "Pachyramphus versicolor"
*Cinnamon Becard "Pachyramphus cinnamomeus"
*White-winged Becard "Pachyramphus polychopterus"
*Black-and-white Becard "Pachyramphus albogriseus"
*Black-capped Becard "Pachyramphus marginatus"
*Cinereous Becard "Pachyramphus rufus"
*Pink-throated Becard "Pachyramphus minor"
*One-colored Becard "Pachyramphus homochrous"
*Black-tailed Tityra "Tityra cayana"
*Masked Tityra "Tityra semifasciata"
*Black-crowned Tityra "Tityra inquisitor"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Brown-chested Martin "Progne tapera"
*Purple Martin "Progne subis"
*Gray-breasted Martin "Progne chalybea"
*Tree Swallow "Tachycineta bicolor"
*White-winged Swallow "Tachycineta albiventer"
*Blue-and-white Swallow "Notiochelidon cyanoleuca"
*Brown-bellied Swallow "Notiochelidon murina"
*Pale-footed Swallow "Notiochelidon flavipes"
*White-banded Swallow "Atticora fasciata"
*Black-collared Swallow "Atticora melanoleuca"
*White-thighed Swallow "Neochelidon tibialis"
*Tawny-headed Swallow "Alopochelidon fucata"
*Southern Rough-winged Swallow "Stelgidopteryx ruficollis"
*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Cliff Swallow "Petrochelidon pyrrhonota"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Paramo Pipit "Anthus bogotensis"
*Yellowish Pipit "Anthus lutescens"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterized by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Venezuela.

*Cedar Waxwing "Bombycilla cedrorum"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*American Dipper "Cinclus mexicanus"
*White-capped Dipper "Cinclus leucocephalus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 22 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Black-capped Donacobius "Donacobius atricapilla"
*Band-backed Wren "Campylorhynchus zonatus"
*Bicolored Wren "Campylorhynchus griseus"
*Stripe-backed Wren "Campylorhynchus nuchalis"
*Rufous Wren "Cinnycerthia unirufa"
*Whiskered Wren "Thryothorus mystacalis"
*Moustached Wren "Thryothorus genibarbis"
*Coraya Wren "Thryothorus coraya"
*Rufous-breasted Wren "Thryothorus rutilus"
*Rufous-and-white Wren "Thryothorus rufalbus"
*Buff-breasted Wren "Thryothorus leucotis"
*House Wren "Troglodytes aedon"
*Mountain Wren "Troglodytes solstitialis"
*Tepui Wren "Troglodytes rufulus"
*Sedge Wren "Cistothorus platensis"
*Paramo Wren "Cistothorus meridae" (E)
*White-breasted Wood-Wren "Henicorhina leucosticta"
*Gray-breasted Wood-Wren "Henicorhina leucophrys"
*Scaly-breasted Wren "Microcerculus marginatus"
*Flutist Wren "Microcerculus ustulatus"
*Wing-banded Wren "Microcerculus bambla"
*Musician Wren "Cyphorhinus aradus"

Mockingbirds and Thrashers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae

The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull greys and browns . There are 35 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Tropical Mockingbird "Mimus gilvus"
*Pearly-eyed Thrasher "Margarops fuscatus"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Andean Solitaire "Myadestes ralloides"
*Rufous-brown Solitaire "Cichlopsis leucogenys"
*Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus aurantiirostris"
*Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus fuscater"
*Spotted Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus dryas"
*Veery "Catharus fuscescens"
*Gray-cheeked Thrush "Catharus minimus"
*Swainson's Thrush "Catharus ustulatus"
*Pale-eyed Thrush "Platycichla leucops"
*Yellow-legged Thrush "Platycichla flavipes"
*Great Thrush "Turdus fuscater"
*Glossy-black Thrush "Turdus serranus"
*Black-hooded Thrush "Turdus olivater"
*Chestnut-bellied Thrush "Turdus fulviventris"
*Pale-breasted Thrush "Turdus leucomelas"
*Black-billed Thrush "Turdus ignobilis"
*Lawrence's Thrush "Turdus lawrencii"
*Cocoa Thrush "Turdus fumigatus"
*Hauxwell's Thrush "Turdus hauxwelli"
*Clay-colored Robin "Turdus grayi"
*Bare-eyed Thrush "Turdus nudigenis"
*White-necked Thrush "Turdus albicollis"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Polioptilidae

These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their build and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers and gnatwrens are mainly soft bluish grey in colour, and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. They are birds of fairly open woodland or scrub, and nest in bushes or trees. There are 15 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Collared Gnatwren "Microbates collaris"
*Long-billed Gnatwren "Ramphocaenus melanurus"
*Guianan Gnatcatcher "Polioptila guianensis"
*Tropical Gnatcatcher "Polioptila plumbea"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Black-chested Jay "Cyanocorax affinis"
*Green Jay "Cyanocorax yncas"
*Violaceous Jay "Cyanocorax violaceus"
*Azure-naped Jay "Cyanocorax heilprini"
*Cayenne Jay "Cyanocorax cayanus"
*Black-collared Jay "Cyanolyca armillata"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Southern Masked-Weaver "Ploceus velatus" (I)
*Village Weaver "Ploceus cucullatus" (I)

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Black-headed Munia "Lonchura malacca" (I)
*Java Sparrow "Padda oryzivora" (I)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Yellow-throated Vireo "Vireo flavifrons"
*Warbling Vireo "Vireo gilvus"
*Brown-capped Vireo "Vireo leucophrys"
*Red-eyed Vireo "Vireo olivaceus"
*Yellow-green Vireo "Vireo flavoviridis"
*Black-whiskered Vireo "Vireo altiloquus"
*Lemon-chested Greenlet "Hylophilus thoracicus"
*Gray-chested Greenlet "Hylophilus semicinereus"
*Ashy-headed Greenlet "Hylophilus pectoralis"
*Tepui Greenlet "Hylophilus sclateri"
*Buff-cheeked Greenlet "Hylophilus muscicapinus"
*Brown-headed Greenlet "Hylophilus brunneiceps"
*Dusky-capped Greenlet "Hylophilus hypoxanthus"
*Rufous-naped Greenlet "Hylophilus semibrunneus"
*Scrub Greenlet "Hylophilus flavipes"
*Tawny-crowned Greenlet "Hylophilus ochraceiceps"
*Golden-fronted Greenlet "Hylophilus aurantiifrons"
*Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo "Vireolanius eximius"
*Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo "Vireolanius leucotis"
*Rufous-browed Peppershrike "Cyclarhis gujanensis"

New World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Parulidae

The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species worldwide and 51 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Blue-winged Warbler "Vermivora pinus" (A)
*Golden-winged Warbler "Vermivora chrysoptera"
*Tennessee Warbler "Vermivora peregrina"
*Northern Parula "Parula americana" (A)
*Tropical Parula "Parula pitiayumi"
*Yellow Warbler "Dendroica petechia"
*Chestnut-sided Warbler "Dendroica pensylvanica"
*Magnolia Warbler "Dendroica magnolia" (A)
*Cape May Warbler "Dendroica tigrina"
*Black-throated Blue Warbler "Dendroica caerulescens" (A)
*Yellow-rumped Warbler "Dendroica coronata" (A)
*Black-throated Green Warbler "Dendroica virens"
*Blackburnian Warbler "Dendroica fusca"
*Palm Warbler "Dendroica palmarum" (A)
*Bay-breasted Warbler "Dendroica castanea"
*Blackpoll Warbler "Dendroica striata"
*Cerulean Warbler "Dendroica cerulea"
*Black-and-white Warbler "Mniotilta varia"
*American Redstart "Setophaga ruticilla"
*Prothonotary Warbler "Protonotaria citrea"
*Worm-eating Warbler "Helmitheros vermivorus" (A)
*Swainson's Warbler "Limnothlypis swainsonii" (A)
*Ovenbird "Seiurus aurocapilla" (A)
*Northern Waterthrush "Seiurus noveboracensis"
*Louisiana Waterthrush "Seiurus motacilla" (A)
*Kentucky Warbler "Oporornis formosus"
*Connecticut Warbler "Oporornis agilis"
*Mourning Warbler "Oporornis philadelphia"
*Common Yellowthroat "Geothlypis trichas" (A)
*Masked Yellowthroat "Geothlypis aequinoctialis"
*Hooded Warbler "Wilsonia citrina"
*Canada Warbler "Wilsonia canadensis"
*Slate-throated Redstart "Myioborus miniatus"
*Tepui Redstart "Myioborus castaneocapillus"
*Yellow-faced Redstart "Myioborus pariae" (E)
*White-faced Redstart "Myioborus albifacies" (E)
*Saffron-breasted Redstart "Myioborus cardonai" (E)
*Golden-fronted Redstart "Myioborus ornatus"
*White-fronted Redstart "Myioborus albifrons" (E)
*Two-banded Warbler "Basileuterus bivittatus"
*Citrine Warbler "Basileuterus luteoviridis"
*Black-crested Warbler "Basileuterus nigrocristatus"
*Gray-headed Warbler "Basileuterus griseiceps" (E)
*Gray-throated Warbler "Basileuterus cinereicollis"
*Russet-crowned Warbler "Basileuterus coronatus"
*Golden-crowned Warbler "Basileuterus culicivorus"
*Rufous-capped Warbler "Basileuterus rufifrons"
*Three-striped Warbler "Basileuterus tristriatus"
*Flavescent Warbler "Basileuterus flaveolus"
*Neotropical River Warbler "Basileuterus rivularis"
*Rose-breasted Chat "Granatellus pelzelni"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Coerebidae

The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus "Coereba" (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct.

*Bananaquit "Coereba flaveola"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings. There are 256 species worldwide and 100 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Chestnut-vented Conebill "Conirostrum speciosum"
*White-eared Conebill "Conirostrum leucogenys"
*Bicolored Conebill "Conirostrum bicolor"
*Rufous-browed Conebill "Conirostrum rufum"
*Blue-backed Conebill "Conirostrum sitticolor"
*Capped Conebill "Conirostrum albifrons"
*Black-faced Tanager "Schistochlamys melanopis"
*Magpie Tanager "Cissopis leveriana"
*White-capped Tanager "Sericossypha albocristata"
*Common Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus ophthalmicus"
*Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus canigularis"
*Gray-hooded Bush-Tanager "Cnemoscopus rubrirostris"
*Black-capped Hemispingus "Hemispingus atropileus"
*Superciliaried Hemispingus "Hemispingus superciliaris"
*Gray-capped Hemispingus "Hemispingus reyi" (E)
*Oleaginous Hemispingus "Hemispingus frontalis"
*Black-eared Hemispingus "Hemispingus melanotis"
*Slaty-backed Hemispingus "Hemispingus goeringi" (E)
*Black-headed Hemispingus "Hemispingus verticalis"
*Fulvous-headed Tanager "Thlypopsis fulviceps"
*Orange-headed Tanager "Thlypopsis sordida"
*Guira Tanager "Hemithraupis guira"
*Yellow-backed Tanager "Hemithraupis flavicollis"
*Hooded Tanager "Nemosia pileata"
*Rosy Thrush-Tanager "Rhodinocichla rosea"
*Olive-backed Tanager "Mitrospingus oleagineus"
*Gray-headed Tanager "Eucometis penicillata"
*Fulvous Shrike-Tanager "Lanio fulvus"
*Rufous-crested Tanager "Creurgops verticalis"
*Flame-crested Tanager "Tachyphonus cristatus"
*Fulvous-crested Tanager "Tachyphonus surinamus"
*White-shouldered Tanager "Tachyphonus luctuosus"
*White-lined Tanager "Tachyphonus rufus"
*Red-shouldered Tanager "Tachyphonus phoenicius"
*Red-crowned Ant-Tanager "Habia rubica"
*Hepatic Tanager "Piranga flava"
*Scarlet Tanager "Piranga olivacea"
*Summer Tanager "Piranga rubra"
*White-winged Tanager "Piranga leucoptera"
*Crimson-backed Tanager "Ramphocelus dimidiatus"
*Silver-beaked Tanager "Ramphocelus carbo"
*Blue-gray Tanager "Thraupis episcopus"
*Glaucous Tanager "Thraupis glaucocolpa"
*Sayaca Tanager "Thraupis sayaca"
*Blue-capped Tanager "Thraupis cyanocephala"
*Palm Tanager "Thraupis palmarum"
*Blue-backed Tanager "Cyanicterus cyanicterus"
*Hooded Mountain-Tanager "Buthraupis montana"
*Black-chested Mountain-Tanager "Buthraupis eximia"
*Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager "Anisognathus lacrymosus"
*Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager "Anisognathus igniventris"
*Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager "Anisognathus somptuosus"
*Golden-crowned Tanager "Iridosornis rufivertex"
*Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager "Dubusia taeniata"
*Fawn-breasted Tanager "Pipraeidea melanonota"
*Plumbeous Euphonia "Euphonia plumbea"
*Purple-throated Euphonia "Euphonia chlorotica"
*Trinidad Euphonia "Euphonia trinitatis"
*Finsch's Euphonia "Euphonia finschi"
*Violaceous Euphonia "Euphonia violacea"
*Thick-billed Euphonia "Euphonia laniirostris"
*Golden-rumped Euphonia "Euphonia cyanocephala"
*White-lored Euphonia "Euphonia chrysopasta"
*White-vented Euphonia "Euphonia minuta"
*Orange-bellied Euphonia "Euphonia xanthogaster"
*Rufous-bellied Euphonia "Euphonia rufiventris"
*Golden-sided Euphonia "Euphonia cayennensis"
*Blue-naped Chlorophonia "Chlorophonia cyanea"
*Chestnut-breasted Chlorophonia "Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys"
*Orange-eared Tanager "Chlorochrysa calliparaea"
*Turquoise Tanager "Tangara mexicana"
*Paradise Tanager "Tangara chilensis"
*Green-and-gold Tanager "Tangara schrankii"
*Golden Tanager "Tangara arthus"
*Saffron-crowned Tanager "Tangara xanthocephala"
*Flame-faced Tanager "Tangara parzudakii"
*Yellow-bellied Tanager "Tangara xanthogastra"
*Spotted Tanager "Tangara punctata"
*Speckled Tanager "Tangara guttata"
*Dotted Tanager "Tangara varia"
*Bay-headed Tanager "Tangara gyrola"
*Burnished-buff Tanager "Tangara cayana"
*Rufous-cheeked Tanager "Tangara rufigenis" (E)
*Blue-necked Tanager "Tangara cyanicollis"
*Masked Tanager "Tangara nigrocincta"
*Beryl-spangled Tanager "Tangara nigroviridis"
*Blue-and-black Tanager "Tangara vassorii"
*Black-capped Tanager "Tangara heinei"
*Black-headed Tanager "Tangara cyanoptera"
*Opal-rumped Tanager "Tangara velia"
*White-bellied Dacnis "Dacnis albiventris"
*Black-faced Dacnis "Dacnis lineata"
*Yellow-bellied Dacnis "Dacnis flaviventer"
*Blue Dacnis "Dacnis cayana"
*Green Honeycreeper "Chlorophanes spiza"
*Short-billed Honeycreeper "Cyanerpes nitidus"
*Purple Honeycreeper "Cyanerpes caeruleus"
*Red-legged Honeycreeper "Cyanerpes cyaneus"
*Swallow-Tanager "Tersina viridis"
*Plush-capped Finch "Catamblyrhynchus diadema"

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 59 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Pileated Finch "Coryphospingus pileatus"
*Plumbeous Sierra-finch "Phrygilus unicolor"
*Blue-black Grassquit "Volatinia jacarina"
*Slate-coloured Seedeater "Sporophila schistacea"
*Plumbeous Seedeater "Sporophila plumbea"
*Grey Seedeater "Sporophila intermedia"
*Wing-barred Seedeater "Sporophila americana"
*Lesson's Seedeater "Sporophila bouvronides"
*Lined Seedeater "Sporophila lineola"
*Black-and-white Seedeater "Sporophila luctuosa"
*Yellow-bellied Seedeater "Sporophila nigricollis"
*Ruddy-breasted Seedeater "Sporophila minuta"
*Chestnut-bellied Seedeater "Sporophila castaneiventris"
*Large-billed Seed-finch "Oryzoborus crassirostris"
*Great-billed Seed-finch "Oryzoborus maximiliani"
*Lesser Seed-finch "Oryzoborus angolensis"
*Carrizal Seedeater "Amaurospiza carrizalensis" (E)
*White-naped Seedeater "Dolospingus fringilloides"
*Plain-colored Seedeater "Catamenia inornata"
*Paramo Seedeater "Catamenia homochroa"
*Dull-colored Grassquit "Tiaris obscura"
*Yellow-faced Grassquit "Tiaris olivacea"
*Black-faced Grassquit "Tiaris bicolor"
*Sooty Grassquit "Tiaris fuliginosa"
*Slaty Finch "Haplospiza rustica"
*Rusty Flower-piercer "Diglossa sittoides"
*Venezuelan Flower-piercer "Diglossa venezuelensis" (E)
*White-sided Flower-piercer "Diglossa albilatera"
*Glossy Flower-piercer "Diglossa lafresnayii"
*Merida Flower-piercer "Diglossa gloriosa" (E)
*Black Flower-piercer "Diglossa humeralis"
*Scaled Flower-piercer "Diglossa duidae"
*Greater Flower-piercer "Diglossa major"
*Bluish Flower-piercer "Diglossopis caerulescens"
*Masked Flower-piercer "Diglossopis cyanea"
*Saffron Finch "Sicalis flaveola"
*Grassland Yellow-finch "Sicalis luteola"
*Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch "Sicalis citrina"
*Orange-fronted Yellow-finch "Sicalis columbiana"
*Wedge-tailed Grass-finch "Emberizoides herbicola"
*Duida Grass-finch "Emberizoides duidae" (E)
*Red-capped Cardinal "Paroaria gularis"
*Pale-naped Brush-finch "Atlapetes pallidinucha"
*Yellow-breasted Brush-finch "Atlapetes latinuchus"
*Slaty Brush-finch "Atlapetes schistaceus"
*Moustached Brush-finch "Atlapetes albofrenatus"
*Ochre-breasted Brush-finch "Atlapetes semirufus"
*Tepui Brush-finch "Atlapetes personatus"
*Chestnut-capped Brush-finch "Buarremon brunneinucha"
*Stripe-headed Brush-finch "Buarremon torquatus"
*Pectoral Sparrow "Arremon taciturnus"
*Golden-winged Sparrow "Arremon schlegeli"
*Tocuyo Sparrow "Arremonops tocuyensis"
*Black-striped Sparrow "Arremonops conirostris"
*Black-throated Sparrow "Amphispiza bilineata"
*Grassland Sparrow "Ammodramus humeralis"
*Yellow-browed Sparrow "Ammodramus aurifrons"
*Lincoln's Sparrow "Melospiza lincolnii" (A)
*Rufous-collared Sparrow "Zonotrichia capensis"

altators, Cardinals and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Red-and-black Grosbeak "Periporphyrus erythromelas"
*Streaked Saltator "Saltator striatipectus"
*Grayish Saltator "Saltator coerulescens"
*Buff-throated Saltator "Saltator maximus"
*Slate-colored Grosbeak "Saltator grossus"
*Orinocan Saltator "Saltator orenocensis"
*Yellow-green Grosbeak "Caryothraustes canadensis"
*Vermilion Cardinal "Cardinalis phoeniceus"
*Yellow Grosbeak "Pheucticus chrysopeplus"
*Golden-bellied Grosbeak "Pheucticus chrysogaster"
*Black-backed Grosbeak "Pheucticus aureoventris"
*Rose-breasted Grosbeak "Pheucticus ludovicianus"
*Ultramarine Grosbeak "Cyanocompsa brissonii"
*Blue-black Grosbeak "Cyanocompsa cyanoides"
*Blue Grosbeak "Passerina caerulea" (A)
*Indigo Bunting "Passerina cyanea" (A)
*Dickcissel "Spiza americana"

Troupials and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae

The icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Bobolink "Dolichonyx oryzivorus"
*Yellow-hooded Blackbird "Chrysomus icterocephalus"
*Red-breasted Blackbird "Sturnella militaris"
*Eastern Meadowlark "Sturnella magna"
*Great-tailed Grackle "Quiscalus mexicanus"
*Carib Grackle "Quiscalus lugubris"
*Shiny Cowbird "Molothrus bonariensis"
*Giant Cowbird "Molothrus oryzivorus"
*Moriche Oriole "Icterus chrysocephalus"
*Yellow-backed Oriole "Icterus chrysater"
*Yellow Oriole "Icterus nigrogularis"
*Yellow-tailed Oriole "Icterus mesomelas"
*Orange-crowned Oriole "Icterus auricapillus"
*Venezuelan Troupial "Icterus icterus"
*Baltimore Oriole "Icterus galbula"
*Bullock's Oriole "Icterus bullockii"
*Orchard Oriole "Icterus spurius"
*Yellow-billed Cacique "Amblycercus holosericeus"
*Yellow-rumped Cacique "Cacicus cela"
*Red-rumped Cacique "Cacicus haemorrhous"
*Scarlet-rumped Cacique "Cacicus uropygialis"
*Mountain Cacique "Cacicus chrysonotus"
*Solitary Cacique "Cacicus solitarius"
*Crested Oropendola "Psarocolius decumanus"
*Green Oropendola "Psarocolius viridis"
*Russet-backed Oropendola "Psarocolius angustifrons"
*Amazonian Oropendola "Gymnostinops bifasciatus"
*Oriole Blackbird "Gymnomystax mexicanus"
*Velvet-fronted Grackle "Lampropsar tanagrinus"
*Golden-tufted Grackle "Macroagelaius imthurni"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Venezuela.

*Andean Siskin "Carduelis spinescens"
*Yellow-faced Siskin "Carduelis yarrellii" (A)
*Hooded Siskin "Carduelis magellanica"
*Yellow-bellied Siskin "Carduelis xanthogastra"
*Red Siskin "Carduelis cucullata"
*Lesser Goldfinch "Carduelis psaltria"

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region


*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url =
title = Checklist of birds of Venezuela
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 26 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880

*cite book
title=Birding in Venezuela
first=Mary Lou
last = Goodwin
publisher Lynx Edicions
url =
id = ISBN 978-84-87334-48-1

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