- Indian philosophy
The term Indian philosophy (Sanskrit: Darshanas), may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought that originated in the
Indian subcontinent, including Hindu philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, and Jain philosophy. Having the same or rather intertwined origins, all of these philosophies have a common underlying theme of Dharma, and similarly attempt to explain the attainment of emancipation. They have been formalized and promulgated chiefly between 1,000 BC to a few centuries A.D, with residual commentaries and reformations continuing up to as late as the 20th century by Aurobindoand ISKCONamong others, who provided stylized interpretations.
The characteristic of these schools is that they may belong to one "masthead" and disagree with each other, or be in agreement while professing allegiance to different banners. An example of the latter is the non-Vedic
Jainand the Vedic Samkhyaschools, both of which have similar ideas on pluralism; an example of the former would be the Dvaitaand the Advaitaschools, both of whom are Vedic. However, every school has subtle differences.
Competition between the various schools was intense during their formative years, especially between 800 BC to 200 AD. Some like the
Jain, Buddhist, Shaivaand Advaitaschools survived, while others like Samkhyaand Ajivikadid not.
Sanskritterm for "philosopher" is "IAST|dārśanika", one who is familiar with the systems of philosophy, or "IAST|darśanas". [Apte, p. 497.]
Indian thinkers viewed philosophy as a practical necessity that needed to be cultivated in order to understand how life can best be led. It became a custom for Indian writers to explain at the beginning of philosophical works how it serves human ends (IAST|puruṣārtha). [Chatterjee and Datta, p.12.] They centered philosophy on an assumption that there is a unitary underlying order, which is all pervasive and omniscient. The efforts by various schools were concentrated on explaining this order. All major phenomena like those observed in nature, fate, occurrences, etc. were outcomes of this order.
The earliest mention of this appears in the
Rig Veda, which speaks of the Brahman, or the universally transcendent and "ethereal" building block of all the world. It is described as dimensionless, timeless and beyond reach of the known frontiers of happiness and knowledge.
The idea of IAST|ṛta, translated as "righteousness" or "the cosmic and social order" by Gavin Flood, [Flood, pp. 45, 47.] also plays an important role.
pre-1500 BC - the "
Vedas" and " Upanishads"
pre-500 BC - the Jaina, the
Buddha, the " Bhagavad Gita", the " Manu Smriti"
pre-300 BC - the rise of the orthodox
200 AD -
Nagarjunaand the rise of Mahayana Buddhism
600 AD -
Shankaracharyaand the rise of Vedanta
post-900 AD - rise of other Vedantic schools:
Visishtadvaita, Dvaita, etc.
Classical Indian philosophy can be roughly categorised into "
orthodox" (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy, and " heterodox" (nāstika) schools that do not accept the authorities of the Vedas. [Chatterjee and Datta, p. 5.]
Orthodox Schools (Astika)
Many Hindu intellectual traditions were codified during the medieval period of Brahmanic-Sanskritic scholasticism into a standard list of six orthodox (astika) schools (
darshanas), the "Six Philosophies" ("IAST|ṣad-darśana"), all of which cite Vedic authority as their source: [Flood, op. cit., p. 231–232.] [Chatterjee and Datta, p. 5.] [Michaels, p. 264.]
Nyaya, the school of logic
Vaisheshika, the atomist school
Samkhya, the enumeration school
*Yoga, the school of Patanjali (which assumes the metaphysics of Samkhya)
Purva Mimamsa(or simply Mimamsa), the tradition of Vedic exegesis, with emphasis on Vedic ritual, and
Vedanta(also called Uttara Mimamsa), the Upanishadic tradition, with emphasis on Vedic philosophy.
These are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons: Nyaya-Vaishesika, Samkhya-Yoga, and Mimamsa-Vedanta.
The six systems mentioned here are not the only orthodox systems, they are the chief ones, and there are other orthodox schools such as the "Grammarian" school. [Chatterjee and Datta, p. 5.]
The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub-schools:
Advaita( monism/ nondualism), Visishtadvaita(monism of the qualified whole), Dvaita( dualism), Dvaitadvaita(dualism-nondualism), Suddhadvaita, and Achintya Bheda Abhedaschools.
shramanaschools, including Jainismand Buddhism, also developed.
Heterodox schools (
Schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are defined by Brahmins to be unorthodox (nastika) systems. [Chatterjee and Datta, p. 5.]
Jainism came into formal being after
Mahavirasynthesized philosophies and promulgations, during the period around 550 BC, in the region that is present day Biharin northern India. This period marked an ideological renaissance, in which the patriarchal Vedic dominance was challenged by various groups. Buddhism also arose during this period.
Jains however believe that the Jaina philosophy was in fact revived by
Mahavira, whom they consider as the 24th and final Jain Tirthankars (enlightened seers), a line that stretches to time immemorial. The 23rd seer, Parsva may be dated to around 900 B.C.
Jainism may not be a part of the Vedic Religion (
Hinduism), [J. L. Jaini, (1916) Jaina Law, Bhadrabahu Samhita, (Text with translation ) Arrah, Central jaina publishing House) " As to Jainas being Hindu dissenters, and, therefore governable by Hindu law, we are not told this date of secession [...] Jainism certainly has a longer history than is consistent with its being a creed of dissenters from Hinduism." P.12-13] [P.S. Jaini, (1979), The Jaina Path to Purification, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, p. 169 "Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions, moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-vedic character of Jaina cosmology, soul theory, karmic doctrine and atheism" ] [Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 8120808150 “There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times.” Page 18] , even as there is constitutional ambiguity over its status. Jain tirthankars find exclusive mention in the Vedas and the Hindu epics. During the Vedantic age, India had two broad philosophical streams of thought: The Shramanaphilosophical schools, represented by Buddhism Jainism, and the long defunct Samkhyaand Ajinkyaon one hand, and the Brahmana/ Vedantic/ Puranicschools represented by Vedanta, Vaishnavaand other movements on the other. Both streams are known to have have mutually influenced each other. [ Harry Oldmeadow(2007) Light from the East: Eastern Wisdom for the Modern West, World Wisdom, Inc ISBN 1933316225 "What is historically known is that there was a tradition along with vedic Hinduism known as sramana dharma. Essentially, the sramana tradition included it its fold, the Jain and Buddhist traditions, which disagreed with the eternality of the Vedas, the needs for ritual sacrifices and the supremacy of the Brahmins". Page 141]
The Hindu scholar, Lokmanya Tilak credited Jainism with influencing Hinduism in the area of the cessation of animal sacrifice in Vedic rituals.
Bal Gangadhar Tilakhas described Jainism as the originator of Ahimsa and wrote in a letter printed in Bombay Samachar, Mumbai:10 Dec, 1904: "In ancient times, innumerable animals were butchered in sacrifices. Evidence in support of this is found in various poetic compositions such as the Meghaduta. But the credit for the disappearance of this terrible massacre from the Brahminical religion goes to Jainism." Swami Vivekananda[Dulichand Jain (1998) Thus Spake Lord Mahavir, Sri Ramakrishna Math Chennai, ISBN 81-7120-825-8 Page 15] also credited Jainsim as one of the influencing forces behind the Indian culture.
A "Jain" is a follower of "Jinas", spiritual 'victors' ("Jina" is Sanskrit for 'victor'), human beings who have rediscovered the "
dharma," become fully liberated and taught the spiritual path for the benefit of beings. Jains follow the teachings of 24 special Jinas who are known as " Tirthankars" ('ford-builders'). The 24th and most recent "Tirthankar", Lord Mahavira, lived in c.6th century BC, which was a period of cultural revolution all over the world. Socrateswas born in Greece, Zoroasterin Persia, Lao‑Tse and Confuciousin China and Mahaviraand Buddha in IndiaSingh, Ramjee Dr. Jaina Perspective in Philosophy and Religion, Faridabad, Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha, 1993.] . The 23rd Thirthankar of Jains, Lord Parsvanathais recognised now as a historical person, lived during 872 to 772 B.C.Jarl Charpentier: "The History of the Jains", in: "The Cambridge History of India", vol. 1, Cambridge 1922, p. 153; A.M. Ghatage: "Jainism", in: "The Age of Imperial Unity", ed. R.C. Majumdar/A.D. Pusalkar, Bombay 1951, p. 411-412; Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo: "History of Jaina Monachism", Poona 1956, p. 59-60.] . cite web |url= http://www.ibiblio.org/jainism/database/BOOK/arhat.doc
title= Path of Arhat - A Religious Democracy
author= Mehta, T.U
volume = 63
publisher=Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha
date of publication = 1993
accessdate= 2008-03-11] . Jaina tradition is unanimous in making
Rishabha, as the First Tirthankar.
One of the main characteristics of Jain belief is the emphasis on the immediate consequences of one's physical and mental behavior.cite book
title=Life Force. The World of Jainism
publisher=Asian manush Press
isbn=0-89581-899-X] Because Jains believe that everything is in some sense alive with many living beings possessing a soul, great care and awareness is required in going about one's business in the world. Jainism is a religious tradition in which all life is considered to be worthy of respect and Jain teaching emphasises this equality of all life advocating the non-harming of even the smallest creatures.
Ahimsa) is the basis of right View, the condition of right Knowledge and the kernel of right Conduct in Jainism.
Jainism encourages spiritual independence (in the sense of relying on and cultivating one's own personal wisdom) and
self-control(व्रत, "vratae") which is considered vital for one's spiritual development. The goal, as with other Indian religions, is " moksha" which in Jainism is realization of the soul's true nature, a condition of omniscience ( Kevala Jnana). Anekantavadais one of the principles of Jainismpositing that reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and that no single point of view is completely true. Jain doctrine states that only Kevalis, those who have infinite knowledge, can know the true answer, and that all others would only know a part of the answer. Anekantavada is related to the Western philosophical doctrine of Subjectivism.
Buddhist philosophy is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, an
Indian prince later known as the Buddha. Buddhismis a non-theistic philosophy, one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or nonexistence of a God or gods. The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism, though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems.
From its inception, Buddhism has had a strong philosophical component. Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu philosophical concepts. The Buddha criticized all concepts of metaphysical
beingand non-being, and this critique is inextricable from the founding of Buddhism.
Buddhism shares many philosophical views with Hinduism, such as belief in
karma, a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. The ultimate goal for both Hindu and Buddhist practitioners is to eliminate karma (both good and bad), end the cycle of rebirth and suffering, and attain freedom ( Mokshaor Nirvana). However, a major difference is the Buddhist rejection of a permanent, self-existent soul ( atman). This view is a central one in Hindu thought but is rejected by all Buddhists.
Cārvāka is characterized as a materialistic and
atheisticschool of thought. While this branch of Indian philosophy is not considered to be part of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism, it is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism. [Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore. "A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy'249. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.]
Modern Indian philosophy was developed during British period (1750- 1947). The philosophers in this era gave contemperory meaning to traditional philosophy.
Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Sri Aurobindo, Anandkumar Swami, Raman Maharshi and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnaninterpreted traditional Indian philosophy in terms of contemperory significance. Acharya Rajnish, also known as Osho, and J. Krishnamurtiare rebellious philosophers who refused all the traditional schools, with the former an excellent example of synthesis of Eastern and Western schools.
Arthashastra, attributed to the Mauryanminister Chanakya, is one of the early Indian texts devoted to political philosophy. It is dated to 4th century BCE and discusses ideas of statecraft and economic policy.
political philosophymost closely associated with India is the one of ahimsa(non-violence) and Satyagraha, popularized by Mahatma Gandhiduring the Indian struggle for independence. It was influenced by the Indian Dharmic philosophy (particularly the Bhagvata Gita) and Jesus, as well as, secular writings of authors such as Leo Tolstoy, Henry David Thoreauand John Ruskin. [Gandhi (1961) p. iii] In turn it influenced the later movements for independence and civil rights, especially those led by Nelson Mandelaand Martin Luther King, Jr.
*cite book |series= |last=Apte |first=Vaman Shivram |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary |year=1965 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass Publishers |location=Delhi |isbn=81-208-0567-4| edition=Fourth Revised and Enlarged Edition
*cite book |series= |last=Chatterjee |first=Satischandra |authorlink= |coauthors=Datta, Dhirendramohan |title=An Introduction to Indian Philosophy |year=1984 |publisher=University of Calcutta |location=Calcutta |edition=Eighth Reprint Edition
*cite book |last=Flood |first=Gavin |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=An Introduction to Hinduism |year=1996 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |isbn= 0-521-43878-0
*cite book |last=Gandhi |first=M.K.|authorlink=Mahatma Gandhi |title=Non-Violent Resistance (Satyagraha)|year=1961 |publisher= Schocken Books |location=New York
*cite book |series= |last=Jain |first=Dulichand |authorlink= |title=Thus Spake Lord Mahavir |year=1998 |publisher=Sri Ramakrishna Math |location=Chennai |isbn= 81-7120-825-8
*cite book |last=Michaels |first=Axel|authorlink= |title=Hinduism: Past and Present|year=2004 |publisher= Princeton University Press |location=New York |isbn= 0-691-08953-1
*cite book |last=Radhakrishnan |first=S |authorlink=Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan |title=Indian Philosophy, Volume 1|edition=2nd edition |series=Muirhead library of philosophy |date= |year=1929 |publisher= George Allen and Unwin Ltd. |location=London
*cite book |series= |last=Radhakrishnan |first=S. |authorlink=Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan |coauthors=Moore, CA |title=A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy |year=1967 |publisher=Princeton |location= |isbn=0-691-01958-4
*cite book |series= |last=Stevenson |first=Leslie |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Ten theories of human nature |year=2004 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location= |isbn= 4th edition.
*cite book |series= |last=Hiriyanna | first=M. | authorlink M Hiriyanna | title=Essentialls of Indian Philosophy | publisher=Motilal Banarsidas | isbn=978-8120813045
* A recommended reading guide from the philosophy department of
University College, London: [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/philosophy/LPSG/Indian.pdf London Philosophy Study Guide — Indian Philosophy]
* [http://ipi.org.in Indian Psychology Institute] The application of Indian Philosophy to contemporary issues in Psychology
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