"Ex-gay" is a term sometimes used to refer to persons who once identified as gay or lesbian, but have since turned away from such identification for religious or other reasons. Some ex-gays enter into opposite-sex relationships, while others remain celibate. While ex-gays may report a reduction in same-sex desires, they may also continue to experience same-sex attraction [cite journal
title=When Clients Seek Treatment for Same-Sex Attractions: Ethical Issues in the "Right to Choose" Debate
journal=Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training
] [cite journal
title=When Sexual and Religious Orientation Collide:Considerations in Working with Conflicted Same-Sex Attracted Male Clients
publisher=The Counseling Psychologist
journal=The Counseling Psychologist
] [Drescher, Jack (2001). "Ethical Concerns Raised When Patients Seek to Change Same-Sex Attractions". Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy 5 (3/4): 183. Haworth Press.] even though they do not identify as "gay".

When the term "ex-gay" was introduced to professional literature in 1980, Dr. E. Mansell Pattison defined it as someone who had "experienced a basic change in sexual orientation from exclusive homosexuality to exclusive heterosexuality." [cite journal
title=Initial empirical and clinical findings concerning the change process for ex-gays
coauthur=Pattison, M. L.
publisher=American Psychological Association
journal=Professional Psychology: Research and Practice
month=June | year=2002

The term has fallen into obscurity since the late 1990s and is rarely used by organizations today.Fact|date=September 2008 Alan Chambers, president of Exodus International, resents the term and has publicly denounced its usage.Fact|date=September 2008 Other than Parents and Friends of Ex-Gays and Gays, no major organization has labeled itself as an ex-gay organization.Fact|date=September 2008

The ex-gay movement and conversion therapy

Exodus International states that conversion therapy, specifically reparative therapy, may be a useful tool for decreasing homosexual desire [ [http://exodus.to/content/view/34/117/ Exodus International Policy Statements] , Exodus International. Retrieved 04-07-2007.] . The established medical and scientific consensus is that conversion therapy is potentially harmful. [http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/publications/justthefacts.html Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel] , American Psychological Association, et al., 1999. Retrieved 2007-02-23.] The American Psychiatric Association stated "there are no scientifically rigorous outcome studies to determine either the actual efficacy or harm of reparative treatments."cite web
url = http://archive.psych.org/edu/other_res/lib_archives/archives/200001.pdf
title = Position Statement on Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation (Reparative or Conversion Therapies)
accessdate = 2007-08-28
year = 2000
month = May
publisher = American Psychiatric Association
] They issued a statement stating "some people believe that sexual orientation is innate and fixed; however, sexual orientation develops across a person’s lifetime."cite web
title=Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues
author=American Psychiatric Association
publisher=Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrics
date=May 2000
] In the United States, the American Psychiatric Association issued a statement backed by numerous other mainstream medical organizations, which stated: "There is simply no sufficiently scientifically sound evidence that sexual orientation can be changed." [http://www.365gay.com/Newscon06/08/081106apa.htm APA Discredits 'Ex-Gay' Movement] , 365Gay Newscenter, 8-11-2006. Retrieved on 04-14-2007.] The statement went on to say that positions espoused by ex-gay organizations "are not supported by the science" and that they "create an environment in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish." Later, they released a study showing "considerable fluidity in bisexual, unlabeled, and lesbian women's attractions, behaviors, and identities." [cite journal
title=Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Results from a 10-year longitudinal study.
first=Lisa M.
publisher=Developmental Psychology
date=2008 Jan
] [cite news
title=Bisexual women - new research findings
publisher=Women's Health News

Proponents of conversion therapy argue that it is possible for a person's sexual orientation to be changed, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/12/nyregion/12group.html?pagewanted=print] and cite research in support of that contention. [Can Some Gay Men and Lesbians Change Their Sexual Orientation? 200 Participants Reporting a Change from Homosexual to Heterosexual Orientation (Archives of Sexual Behavior, October 2003, p.403-417) PMID 14567650] [http://www.pointofview.net/site/News2?news_iv_ctrl=-1&page=NewsArticle&id=6702] [http://www.upcsa.org.za/assembly_papers/Human_sexuality/Attempts%20to%20Modify%20Sexual%20Orientation.pdf] A 2008 pamphlet produced by the American Psychological Association urges that mental health organizations should respect clients' right to self-determination and "be sensitive to the client’s race, culture, ethnicity, age, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, socioeconomic status, language, and disability status when working with that client; and eliminate biases based on these factors." [ [http://www.apa.org/topics/sorientation.html Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality ] ] Ex-gay groups assert that the scientific community has taken its stances on homosexuality due to political, and not scientific, considerations. [http://abc.net.au/foreign/content/2006/s1717011.htm USA - Gay Conversion] . Retrieved on 2006-06-22.] [Satinover, Jeff. Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth (1996) Baker] Tanya Erzen, an ethnologist, lived with a men's ex-gay residential treatment group in San Francisco for a year while writing her doctoral thesis. Her book "Straight to Jesus" (2006) [http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10489.php] chronicles her analysis of the movement.

Definition of change

Exodus describes "change" as "attaining abstinence from homosexual behaviors, lessening of homosexual temptations, strengthening their sense of masculine or feminine identity, correcting distorted styles of relating with members of the same and opposite gender."cite web |title=What's your "success rate" in changing gays into straights? |url=http://exodus.to/content/view/43/87/ |accessdate=2007-03-27 ] Some ex-gays advocate entering (or remaining) in a heterosexual marriage as part of the process. Some ex-gays in opposite-sex marriages acknowledge that their sexual attractions remain primarily homosexual, but seek to make their marriages work anyway. [ [http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2002/003/2.50.html No easy victory] . Retrieved on 2006-03-26.] The president of Exodus said he agrees that people can't necessarily change their sexual orientation, but he said they can "live in accord with their beliefs and faith" by renouncing homosexuality and not engaging in same-sex relationships. [ [Ex-gay or just exploited? http://www.ocregister.com/ocregister/homepage/abox/article_1732269.php] ]

Joint statement from ex-gay organizations

In a joint coalition, several ex-gay organizations expressed their views that, for those with same-sex attractions, they support:

*Personal choice in their sexual identity and behavior.
*Right to know of alternatives to living a homosexual life.
*Individual self-determination to seek counseling and determine the direction of that therapy
*Compassion and respect to live in their choices as they see fit, without discrimination, ridicule, marginalization, or being the target of hate speech.
*Policy neutrality, especially in the freedom to speak about freely chosen alternatives to homosexuality.
*Equal access to public forums to raise awareness of alternative responses to a homosexual identity and lifestyle. [http://www.pathinfo.org/index2.htm PATH] : Positive Alternatives To Homosexuality]


Persons associated with the ex-gay movement

*Stephen Bennett [ [http://www.igroops.com/igroops/sbm+webpages+5 God's Amazing Grace: The Testimony of Stephen Bennett ] ] is the President, Founder, and Executive Director of Stephen Bennett Ministries, Inc., an international nonprofit Christian organization that speaks out against homosexuality, assists persons seeking "freedom from homosexuality," and provides resources for parents whose children identify as gay or lesbian. [ [http://www.igroops.com/igroops/sbm+webpages+4 About the Ministries of SBM ] ] Mr. Bennett is also a Christian songwriter and recording artist. [ [http://www.igroops.com/igroops/sbm SBM Online Members ] ] He has been married since 1993 and he and his wife have two children. [cite news
title=Interview with Elizabeth Birch, Stephen Bennett
*Alan Chambers is the president of Exodus International. He shares his story at ex-gay events and has written several books. He is politically active, and promotes legislation against same-sex marriage. [ [http://www.alanchambers.org/ A Blog By Alan Chambers ] ]
*Richard Cohen is the former president of Parents and Friends of Ex-Gays and Gays and was the subject of an interview by Jason Jones on the March 19, 2007 episode of The Daily Show. After this appearance, NARTH and Parents and Friends of Ex-Gays and Gays removed all references to Cohen from their website [ [http://www.exgaywatch.com/wp/2007/03/narth-and-pfox-quietly-rid-themselves-of-richard-cohen/ NARTH and PFOX Quietly Rid Themselves of Richard Cohen (blog entry)] , Ex-Gay Watch, 03-31-2007. Retrieved on 04-07-2007.] and Exodus International issued a position statement distancing themselves from him. [ [http://exodus.to/content/view/34/117/ Exodus International Policy Statements] , Exodus International. Retrieved on 04-07-2007.]
*Andrew Comiskey is the founder and leader of Desert Stream Ministries. [http://www.desertstream.org/index.htm Desert Stream Ministries: Ministering the life of Jesus to the sexually and relationally broken ] ] Founded in 1980, Desert Stream Ministries states that its mission is to "equip the body of Christ to minister healing to the sexually and relationally broken through healing groups and leadership training for the local church." Mr. Comiskey has authored a number of books, including "Pursuing Sexual Wholeness: How Jesus Heals the Homosexual" and "The Kingdom of God and the Homosexual". [ [http://dspress.net/shopsite_sc/store/html/page2.html Andrew Comiskey at Desert Stream Press Online Store ] ]
*Charlene Cothran is a former editor of "Venus", a magazine for African-American lesbians. Following a Christian religious conversion in 2006, she changed the editorial policy of the magazine to support the ex-gay movement. [ [http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/marchweb-only/112-52.0.html Interview with ChristianityToday] ] [ [http://claycane.blogspot.com/2007/04/interview-with-ex-gay-charlene-cothran.html Interview with Clay Cane] ]
*Joe Dallas [cite web
title=Exodus Freedom Speaker Warns of 'The Gay Gospel'
publisher=Christian Post
] is the Program Director of Genesis Counseling. He has written six books on human sexuality. [ [http://www.joedallas.com/ Joe Dallas l Genesis Counseling l Sexual Addiction Recovery ] ]
*Rev. Darryl Foster of the Restoration Sanctuary International Church is a Christian pastor who works mainly with ex-homosexual people of color. He opposes the comparison of sexual orientation to race. [ [http://www.lifesite.net/ldn/2003/may/03052304.html African-American Ex-Gay Pastor Explodes The Myth That Homosexuality Is No Different Than Race ] ]
*Melissa Fryrear, Gender Issues Analyst in Focus on the Family’s Legislative and Cultural Affairs Department, [ [http://exodus.to/content/view/358/0/ Exodus International - Melissa Fryrear ] ] identified as a lesbian for ten years before her Christian conversion and subsequent years of therapy, which she says made her life "fuller and happier." [cite news
title='Ex-Gay' Camps, Therapy Programs Attract Controversy
publisher=ABC News
] She now says "I'm changed. I'm a heterosexual woman now. I'm not sexually attracted to women." [cite news
title=Gay man, former lesbian on whether they can change
*Michael Glatze [ [http://massresistance.blogspot.com/2007/10/michael-glatze-interview-with-narth.html MassResistance: Michael Glatze Interview with NARTH ] ] is a former gay rights activist and former publisher of Young Gay America YGA Magazine. [cite news|publisher=Time Magazine|title=The Battle Over Gay Teens|date=2005-05-10|author=John Cloud|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1112856-10,00.html] Glatze recently revealed that he had eschewed his gay identity, and he has become an outspoken critic of homosexuality. [cite news|publisher=WorldNetDaily|title=How a 'gay rights' leader became straight|date=2007-07-03|author=Michael Glatze|url=http://wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=56487]
*Mike Haley, Youth and Gender Analyst for Focus on the Family, [ [http://exodus.to/content/view/361/0/ Exodus International - Mike Haley ] ] identifies as a gay man for 12 years, and at one point was arrested for gay prostitution. He began to identify as heterosexual when he was 28. [cite news
title="Ex-gay" stood by to testify at Dobson vigil
publisher=The Denver Post
] After what he calls a long and painful struggle, he chose to identify as heterosexual. He is married with three children. [cite news
title=Sex and Salvation
author=Cooper, Anderson
publisher=Anderson Cooper 360°
*Dennis Jernigan is a singer-songwriter of contemporary Christian music. He describes his experience of "deliverance from homosexuality" during his concerts. [ [http://www.dennisjernigan.com/ Dennis Jernigan :: Shepherd's Heart Music ] ]
*David Matheson admitted to himself that he was attracted to men when he was 22 and married. After seven years of therapy, he claims that he has changed his sexual orientation. [ [http://www.peoplecanchange.com/About_Us_Matheson.htm David Matheson] ] He has since become a licensed professional counselor and focusing on "helping men who want to diminish unwanted homosexuality and feel whole as men." [ [http://www.genderwholeness.com/about.html Center for Gender Wholeness - About Us ] ] He is the clinical director of the Center for Gender Wholeness, co-creator of the Journey into Manhood weekend, and a director of People Can Change. [ [http://evergreeninternational.org/Speakers.htm#matheson Popular Speakers ] ] He has written the Evergreen Workbook for Men, Four Principles of Growth [ [http://www.evergreeninternational.org/four_principles.htm Four Principles ] ] , and has made several media appearances talking about overcoming homosexual attractions. He does claim to be completely straight, but rather "straight enough". [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HbT93tckW4o YouTube - Coqui Zen Entertainment ] ]
*Alan Medinger [ [ [http://www.narth.com/docs/medinger2.html INTERVIEW: Alan Medinger ] ] is a former director of Exodus International, [http://www.randomhouse.ca/author/results.pperl?authorid=35841 RandomHouse.ca | Author Spotlight: Alan Medinger ] ] and is the Founder and Executive Director Emeritus [ [http://www.regenerationministries.org/newsletters/200711.pdf Grace: The Risk We Need to Take - November / December 2007 Newsletter ] ] of Regeneration Ministies, a Christian organization which deals with pornography and homosexuality. [ [http://www.regenerationministries.org/about.asp Regeneration Ministries - About Us ] ] Mr. Medinger is the author of "Growth Into Manhood". * [http://www.exgaywatch.com/wp/category/exodus/ Ex-gay Watch - Collection of posts on Exodus] Medinger recommends that a subject who finds him or herself attracted to someone of the same sex should "immediately look around for someone of the opposite sex... and start searching for the beauty in that person"; a subject should disentangle sexual desire from the desire for affection or affirmation; and a subject should repent and confess his or her sins. [cite web
url = http://exodus.to/content/view/51/55/
title = A Realistic Approach to Attractions
accessdate = 2007-08-28
last = Medinger
first = Alan
year = 2002
publisher = Exodus International
*John Paulk, then leader of Focus on the Family's "Love Won Out" conference and chairman of the board for Exodus International North America, was spotted visiting a Washington, D.C gay bar in September 2000 . He was photographed outside of the bar from behind by Wayne Besen, cite news
last=Evangelical Press with additional reporting by Jody Veenker
title=Ex-Gay Leader Disciplined for Gay Bar Visit
publisher=Christianity Today
] and later stepped down from the two organizations.cite book
authorlink=Wayne Besen
title=Anything but Straight: Unmasking the Scandals and Lies Behind the Ex-Gay Myth
publisher=Harrington Park Press
*Sy Rogers was selected as one of '50 Up & Coming Evangelical Leaders Under 40' by Christianity Today. He has served for over two decades in ministry as a pastoral care specialist regarding sexuality. He has spoken at ex-gay conferences throughout the world.
*Randy Thomas, Executive Vice President of Exodus International, [ [http://exodus.to/content/view/804/37/ Exodus International - 'Gay Gene?' No Big Deal, Says Ex-Gay ] ] was in gay relationships since he was a teenager, but stopped when he became a Christian in his mid-20s. [cite news
title='Ex-gay' ministry reaches out to Hub
publisher=The Boston Globe
] He later stated, "I am 15 years on the other side of identifying as gay. I have had a sexual orientation shift, and I'm not gay." [cite news
title=Scared Straight
publisher=Miami New Times
*Chad Thompson is the founder of Inqueery [ [http://inqueery.com/ Inqueery] ] , a website addressing ex-gay issues among high school students, and author of the book "Loving Homosexuals as Jesus Would". [ [www.lovinghomosexuals.com/ Loving Homosexuals as Jesus Would] ] Thompson claims that there is bigotry among gays against those who do not accept their orientation. [cite news
title=The Battle Over Gay Teens
] However, he has also criticized Christians who show hostility against gay rights but not compassion for gays. [cite news
title=Banning Gay Marriage Is Not The Answer
first=Chad W.
publisher=Christianity Today
*Rich Wyler is the founder and executive director of People Can Change and co-creator and leader of Journey into Manhood. He established Higher Path Life Coaching and began coaching professionally in 2005. [ [http://www.peoplecanchange.com/FINDING_A_COUNSELOR.htm New Page 1 ] ] He leads telephone-based coaching group called "A Wife's Journey: Caring for Yourself and Your Family When Your Husband Struggles With Homosexuality or Addiction." [ [http://nightwatchworldnews.blogspot.com/2007/04/6947.html NW World News Prayer Network: #4680 ] ]

Former ex-gays

*Günter Baum originally founded an ex-gay ministry in Germany. Ultimately, he formed another ministry, Zwischenraum, which helps gay Christians to accept their sexuality and to reconcile it with their beliefs.
*Michael Bussee and Gary Cooper, co-founders of Exodus International, left the group and in 1979, held a life commitment ceremony together. Bussee went on to become an outspoken critic of Exodus and the ex-gay movement. [Their story is one of the foci of the documentary "One Nation Under God" (1993), directed by Teodoro Maniaci and Francine Rzeznik.] He flatly rejects therapies designed to change or "cure" gay people, but recently acknowledged potential for therapy that "does not promise change, but instead offers patients help in managing their desires and modifying their behavior to match their religious values -- even if that means a life of celibacy". [cite news
title=Approaching agreement in debate over homosexuality; More conservative Christians say being gay isn't a choice that can be changed by prayer
publisher=Los Angeles Times
] In June 2007 Bussee issued an apology for his part in the ex-gay movement.
*Noe Gutierrez appeared in Warren Throckmorton's ex-gay video "I Do Exist" in 2004. This garnered some notice, as Gutierrez had previously appeared in a video for gay youth known as "It's Elementary". Gutierrez later left the ex-gay movement and wrote about his experience. [http://www.exgaywatch.com/wp/2008/05/noe-gutierrez-what-i-learned-from-ex-gay-ministry/]
*Peterson Toscano is an actor who was involved in the ex-gay movement for 17 years. He performs a related one-man satire titled " [http://www.homonomo.com/ Doin' Time in the Homo No Mo Halfway House] ", and with Christine Bakke co-runs a support website for people coming out of ex-gay experiences; Beyond Ex-Gay.

Controversies and scandals

Controversies involving minors

One of the most controversial aspects of the ex-gay movement has been the focus of some ex-gay organizations on teenagers,Fact|date=September 2008 including occasions where teenagers have been forcibly treated in ex-gay camps. A 2006 report outlined evidence that ex-gay and conversion therapy groups were at the time increasingly focusing on children.cite web
title=Youth in the crosshairs: the third wave of ex-gay activism
author=Cianciotto, J.; Cahill, S.
publisher=National Gay and Lesbian Task Force
] Several legal researchers have responded to these events by arguing that parents who force their children into aggressive conversion therapy programs are committing child abuse under various state statutes. [Talbot, T. "Reparative therapy for homosexual teens: the choice of the teen should be the only choice discussed", 27 J. Juv. L. 33. 2006.] [Cohan, J. "Parental Duties and the Right of Homosexual Minors to Refuse "Reparative" Therapy", 11 Buff. Women's L.J. 67, 2002.]

Some youths have sought emancipation from their parents due to parental attempts to force their children to undergo conversion therapy. [cite news
title=Tenn. opens new probe of ‘ex-gay’ facility: Experts say children should not be forced into counseling
publisher=Washington Blade
] One such case involved Lyn Duff. In 1991, at age 14, Duff came out publicly as a lesbian. Concerned about her daughter's sexual orientation, Duff's mother had her taken by force from her grandparents' home to Rivendell Psychiatric Center, a residential treatment center near Salt Lake City. [ [http://gibe.com/forum/messages.asp?forumid=23&topicid=2161&pagenum=2 Right-Wing Christians and the Anti-Gay Agenda] Accessed July 10, 2007] Duff's placement was paid for by the State of California through special education funds on the basis of her diagnosis with Gender Identity Disorder.Fact|date=September 2008 Her treatment reportedly included shock therapy, aversion therapy, psychotropic drugs, hypnosis, and behavioral counseling. [ [http://www.kuro5hin.org/?op=displaystory;sid=2001/3/30/4410/84525 Defending the Right to Pleasure] Accessed July 10, 2007] [http://www.qrd.org/qrd/usa/utah/lgb.youth.detention.center.in.utah Subject: A Lesbian & Gay Youth Detention Center in Utah] Accessed July 10, 2007] [ [http://imprint.uwaterloo.ca/issues/112897/2Forum/forum03.shtml Imprint Online] Accessed July 10, 2007] [ [http://www.qrd.org/qrd/religion/anti/exgay/exgay.ministries.txt ABOUT EX-GAY MINISTRIES] by David Williams, Accessed July 10, 2007] After 168 days in Rivendell, Duff escaped. [ [http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~usclrev/pdf/072502.pdf Controlling Desires: Sexual Orientation Conversion and the Limits of Knowledge and Law] By David B. Cruz, Accessed July 10, 2007] In 1992, she initiated legal action against the facility and her mother. [ [http://www.abanet.org/publiced/focus/f96poli.html Family Law, Public Policy and New Federalism] by Steven K. Wisensale, Accessed July 10, 2007]

Love in Action is an ex-gay organization that has been involved in controversy surrounding youth. In July 2005, the New York Times ran a feature story about 16-year-old Zachary Stark, whose parents forced him to attend an ex-gay camp run by Love in Action. [cite news
title=Gay Teenager Stirs a Storm
publisher=New York Times
] In July 2005, Stark was released from the camp. [http://towleroad.typepad.com/towleroad/2005/07/zachs_release_i.html Zach's Release from "Love in Action" Imminent] ] An investigation of the camp did not uncover signs of child abuse, but in September 2005, the camp was shut down when Tennessee authorities discovered that unlicensed staff had been administering prescription drugs to attendees. [, WikiNews, 09-21-2005. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.]

In October 2005, the father of 17-year old DJ Butler reportedly drove his son to a Love in Action camp in handcuffs.cite news
title=Love in Court: Gay-to-straight ministry and the state go to court
publisher=Memphis Flyer
] In February 2006, Tennessee authorities, unwilling to pursue further actions against Love in Action, closed its case regarding this incident.

Other controversies and scandals

*Colin Cook, founder of Homosexuals Anonymous, was in 1986 discovered to be engaging in sexual acts with his patients. He claimed that the nude massages of other men should desensitize them against homosexual desires. In 1987, he was expelled from Homosexuals Anonymous for sexual activity, and in 1995 a similar scandal happened with his newly founded group FaithQuest Colorado. Cook had engaged in phone sex, practiced long and grinding hugs, and asked patients to bring gay pornography to sessions so that he could help desensitize them against it. [cite news
title=Sessions with gays criticized: Former minister's counseling methods brought reprimands
publisher=Denver Post
*Michael Johnston, an HIV-positive man who is featured in the film "It's Not Gay", promoted by the American Family Association, had frequently been interviewed on U.S. television and radio regarding his claimed change in sexuality, and even featured in a national television advertising campaign in 1998 stating that Jesus Christ empowered him to leave his homosexual past. In 2002, he was exposed as having recently resumed having sex with men, and he admitted to having had unprotected sex with multiple male partners without disclosing his HIV-positive status, despite knowing he that he was HIV-positive, for over a period of two years. [cite news
title=Ex-gay leader Johnston allegedly had sex with men without disclosing he is HIV-positive
publisher=Southern Voice
*Christopher Austin was an ex-gay counselor who was sentenced to 10 years in prison in 2007 for sexually assaulting a male client. Austin was affiliated with and gave presentations at NARTH and Evergreen International, which describes him as "a therapist specializing in homosexual and sexual addiction recovery [and] the creator of RENEW, a multi-dimensional treatment approach for men struggling with homosexuality". [cite news
title="Ex-Gay" Counselor Convicted of Sexual Assault on Man
publisher=EDGE Boston
] [cite web
title=Keynote Speakers and Frequent Presenters
publisher=Evergreen International
*Terrance Lewis was a minister and former counsellor at Providence Bible College in Winnipeg, Canada who was found guilty in February 2008 for sexually assaulting a young man who sought counselling to make him straight. The alleged victim, now 29, told court he started meeting Lewis for counselling sessions in early 2000 after his parents caught him viewing gay pornography on the family computer. The man said Lewis started a program of “touch therapy,” which included the two kissing and fondling each other and engaging in sexual roleplaying. [ [http://www.winnipegsun.com/News/Winnipeg/2008/02/14/4847839.html winnipegsun.com - Winnipeg News - Man found guilty in gay "therapy" case ] ] [ [http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Crime/2008/02/12/4841898-sun.html CANOE - CNEWS - Crime: Bible college counsellor accused as gay predator ] ]

Ex-gay organizations

Ex-gay organizations began in the U.S. with Evangelical Christians, but have since spread to include Catholic, Church of Latter-day Saints, Jewish, Muslim and non-religious groups in several countries across the world.

North and South America

The first ex-gay ministry was formed in 1973, called Love in Action. [ [http://www.loveinaction.org/default.aspx?pid=103 History] retrieved April 14, 2007] Three years later, they joined with other ex-gay organizations to form Exodus International. Exodus is the largest ex-gay organization, and has grown to include over 120 local ministries in the U.S. and Canada. [ [http://exodus.to/content/category/6/24/57/ Who we are] Retrieved April 14, 2007] Exodus International is the largest organization under the Exodus Global Alliance. Many other ex-gay organizations have been formed to cater to a specific religious group, such as Courage for Catholics, Evergreen International for Mormons (LDS), OneByOne for Presbyterians, Transformation Congregations [ [http://www.transformingcong.org Index ] ] for Methodists and JONAH for Jews.

Other organizations have formed to meet specific needs. Witness Freedom Ministries caters to people of color with same-sex attractions. [ [http://www.witnessfortheworld.org/enter.html WitnessfortheWorld.org - Changing the World with Truth ] ] Exodus Youth is a group specifically designed for youth, [ [http://exodusyouth.net Exodus Youth ] ] and the NEA Ex-Gay Educators Caucus is a group formed to help ex-gay teachers and students. [ [http://www.nea-exgay.org NEA Ex-Gay Educators Caucus ] ] Others form after a specific technique, such as Homosexuals Anonymous [ [http://www.ha-fs.org Homosexuals Anonymous Fellowship Services - Home ] ] which was modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous' 12 step program and International Healing Foundation was modeled after Richard Cohen's methods. People Can Change [ [http://www.peoplecanchange.com People Can Change - An alternative, healing response to unwanted homosexual desires ] ] and PFOX are two other ex-gay organizations in North America. A major Web site that supports these efforts is [http://samesexattraction.org Same-sex Attraction] .

In 1994, Esly Carvalho began Exodus Latino America. [ [http://www.exoduslatinoamerica.org Exodus Latinoamerica ] ] In 2002, Exodus Brasil [ [http://www.exodus.org.br/ Exodus.Brasil ] ] separated as a separate organization under Global Exodus Alliance. Other groups in Latin America include Courage Latino [ [http://www.courage-latino.org Courage Latino - Inicio ] ] for Catholics, Elías S.O.S [ [http://www.cristianet.com.ar/frame_completa_homosexualidad.php?subaction=showfull&id=1159401356&archive=&start_from=&ucat=23 Elías S.O.S Homepage] ] in Argentina, and Camino de Salida [ [http://www.geocities.com/caminodesalida Camino De Salida ] ] in Ecuador. Es Posible el Cambio [ [http://www.esposibleelcambio.org Es posible el cambio ] ] is an interdenominational group that advocates conversion therapy.


In 1975, Johan van de Sluis began EHAH (in English: Evangelical Counseling for Homosexuals) in the Netherlands. [http://www.exodusglobalalliance.org/ourhistoryc87.php Our History ] ] After visiting an Exodus conference in America, he combined his organization with others to form Exodus Europe in 1982. Exodus Europe included True Freedom Trust in the UK, Medvandrarna [ [http://www.medvandrarna.se Medvandrarna ] ] in Sweden, Til Helhet [ [http://www.tilhelhet.no Til Helhet ] ] in Norway, Basis [ [http://www.basis.nu basis - Foreningen AGAPE's arbejde blandt mennesker med problemfyldt seksualitet ] ] in Denmark, Aslan [ [http://www.aslan.fi Aslan - kohti eheyttä ] ] in Finland, Different (the old EHAH) [http://www.totheildesvolks.nl/engels/ehah.htm] in Belgium and Onze Weg [ [http://www.onzeweg.nl/ Webpagina van stichting Onze Weg ] ] in the Netherlands. In April 2007, Exodus Europe decided to break away from the Global Exodus Alliance because it was too affected by American thinking. [ [http://www.exgaywatch.com/wp/2006/12/exodus-european/ Exodus European Member Ministries Secede | Ex-Gay Watch ] ] These ministries are now part of LINC (Live in Christ). [ [http://www.liveinchrist.eu LINC - Live IN Christ ] ] The United Kingdom also has Encourage [ [http://www.encouragetrust.org.uk Encouragetrust ] ] for Catholics and StraightWay Foundation [ [http://straightway.sinfree.net/ StraightWay - The Straight Struggle ] ] for Muslims.

Australia and Asia

In 1978, Peter Lane began the first ex-gay group in Australia, which is called Liberty Ministry. In 1987, it joined with other ministries to form Exodus Asia Pacific. [ [http://www.exodusasiapacific.org welcome to EXODUS ASIA PACIFIC ] ] In 1990 Frank Worthen went to the Philippines and formed Bagong Pag-asa. [ [http://www.bagongpagasa.org Bagong Pagasa ] ] Other significant ex-gay groups under Exodus Asia Pacific include Liberty Christian Ministries [ [http://www.libertychristianministries.org.au Liberty Christian Ministries Inc. - Home ] ] in Australia, Rainbow 7 [ [http://www.rainbow-7.org.tw/ 歡迎您來到台灣走出埃及關懷輔導協會 ] ] in Taiwan, Liberty League [ [http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/188060/1/.html Non-profit group gets grant to promote 'healthy gender identity'] ] in Singapore and Pursuing Liberty Under Christ [ [http://www.asianbeacon.org/articles.php?aid=137 Asian Beacon ] ] in Malaysia.

Ex-gay organizations in the Middle East include Atzat Nefesh [ [http://www.atzat-nefesh.org Atzat-Nefesh ] ] for Jews and Al-Tawbah [ [http://www.al-tawbah.faithweb.com Home ] ] for Muslims.

ee also

*Conversion therapy
*Exotic Becomes Erotic theory
*Mixed-orientation marriage
*Same-sex attraction (SSA)


External links

* [http://www.ewtn.com/library/humanity/homo.htm Christian Anthropology and Homosexuality]
* [http://www.catholicculture.org/library/view.cfm?RecNum=3336 "Homosexuality & Hope] Catholic Medical Association

Ex-gay organizations and advocacy groups

* [http://www.exodusglobalalliance.org/ Exodus International]
* [http://www.narth.com/ National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality]
* [http://www.desertstream.org/ Desert Stream Ministries]
* [http://www.peoplecanchange.com/ People Can Change]
* [http://www.ssaml.com/ Same Sex Attraction Morality League]
* [http://couragerc.net/ Courage]
* [http://www.evergreeninternational.org/index.html Evergreen International]
* [http://www.pfox.org/ Parents and Friends of Exgays and Gays]
* [http://www.sbministries.org/ Stephen Bennett Ministries, Inc.]
* [http://www.regenerationministries.org/ Regeneration, Inc.]
* [http://www.ha-fs.org/ Homosexuals Anonymous Fellowship Services]
* [http://www.jonahweb.org/ Jews Offering New Alternatives to Homosexuality]
* [http://www.life-ministry.com/ L.I.F.E. Ministry]

Sites critical of ex-gay movement

* [http://www.exgaywatch.com Ex-Gay Watch] Watchdog blog reporting on conversion therapy and the ex-gay movement
* [http://truthwinsout.com/ Truth Wins Out] Non-profit organization, founded by Wayne Besen, to oppose the ex-gay movement. Name is parody of Focus on the Family's Love Won Out
* [http://www.beyondexgay.com/ Beyond Ex-Gay] Support website co-run by Peterson Toscano and Christine Bakke, for people coming out of ex-gay experiences
* [http://www.glaad.org/action/campaigns_detail.php?id=3305& GLAAD on Ex-gays] - Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) resources on ex-gays
* [http://www.pflag.org/index.php?id=280 PFLAG responds to ex-gay movement] - Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays fact sheet about the conversion therapy movement
* [http://www.outstraight.net OutStraight]

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