- Gay pornography
Gay pornography is the representation of sex between men with the primary goal of
sexual arousalin its audience. There is also a tradition, and continuing considerable output, of lesbian pornography. However, the term "gay pornography" is rarely intended to encompass lesbian material.
pornographyhas usually represented the heterosexualorientation of the dominant culture, explicit gay material has a long history, reaching back to Greek antiquity, if not to prehistory. Practically every medium has been used to represent gay male sexual acts. In the modern world, however, the gay pornography industry is mostly concentrated in the making of home videos, DVDs, cable broadcast and emerging video on demandand wireless markets, as well as images and movies for viewing on the Internet. Gay pornography comprises a disproportionately large part of the pornography industry. [It is estimated that one-third to one-half of the $2.5 billion adult industry is gay sales and rentals. Mickey Skee. 1997. "Tricks of the Trade." "Frontiers" 16 (August 22):43.] However, it has attracted much less attention from the anti-pornography movementthan has its straight counterpart. Fact|date=January 2007
Early modern in the United States
Homoeroticismhas been present in photography and film since their invention. During much of that time, any kind of sexual depiction had to remain underground because of obscenityrules. In particular, gay material might constitute evidence of an illegal act under sodomy lawsin many jurisdictions. This is no longer the case in the United States since such laws were ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 2003 in Lawrence v. Texas.
However, hardcore pornographic motion pictures ("stag films," as they were called prior to their legalization in 1970) were produced relatively early in the history of film. The first known pornographic film of any kind appears to have been made in Europe in 1908. The earliest known film to depict hardcore gay (and bisexual) sex was the French film "
Le Menage Moderne Du Madame Butterfly", produced and released in 1920. [imdb title|id=0213916|name=Le Menage Moderne Du Madame Butterfly.] Most historians consider the first American stag film to be " A Free Ride," [imdb title|id=0218277|name=A Free Ride] , produced and released in 1915. [Knight, Arthur, and Alpert, Hollis. "The Stag Film." "Playboy." November 1967.] [Di Lauro, Al and Rabkin, Gerald. "Dirty Movies: An Illustrated History of the Stag Film, 1915-1970." New York: Value Proprietary, 1988. ISBN 0517246821] But in the United States, hardcore gay sexual intercourse did not make it onto film until 1929's " The Surprise of a Knight." [imdb title|id=0214176|name=The Surprise of a Knight.] Burger, John R. "One-Handed Histories: The Eroto-Politics of Gay Male Video Pornography." New York: Harrington Park Press, 1995. ISBN 1560238526] Waugh, Thomas. "Hard To Imagine." New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 0231099983] Slade, Joseph. "Bernard Natan: France's Legendary Pornographer." "Journal of Film and Video." 45:2-3 (Summer-Fall 1993).]
Nevertheless, legal restrictions meant that early hardcore gay pornography was underground and that commercially-available gay pornography primarily consisted of pictures of individual men either fully naked or wearing a
g-string. Pornography in the 1940s and 1950s focused on athletic men or bodybuilders in statuesque poses. They were generally young, muscular, and with little or no visible body hair. Those pictures were sold in physique magazines, also known as beefcake magazines, allowing the reader to pass as a fitness enthusiast. Since most gay men of this time were deeply "in the closet", actual depictions of sexual activity were rare. Although now considered quite tame or soft-core, this type of pornography still exists today.
Athletic Model Guild(AMG) founded by photographer Bob Mizerin 1944 in Los Angeles, California, was arguably the first studio to commercially produce material specifically for gay men and published the first magazine known as "Physique Pictorial" in 1951. Tom of Finlanddrawings are featured in many issues. [Ramakers, Mischa. "Dirty Pictures: Tom of Finland, Masculinity and Homosexuality." New York: Saint Martin's Press, 2001. ISBN 0312205260] Mizer produced about a million images, and thousands of films and videos before he died on May 12, 1992. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the advent of 16mm filmcameras enabled these photographers to produce underground movies of gay sex and/or male masturbation. Sales of these products were either by mail-order or through more discreet channels. Some of the early gay pornographers would travel around the country selling their photographs and films out of their hotel rooms, with advertising only through word of mouth and magazine ads.
The 1960s were also a period where many underground art film makers integrated suggestive or overtly gay content in their work.
Kenneth Anger's "Scorpio Rising" (1963), Andy Warhol's "Blow Job" (1964) and " My Hustler" (1965), or Paul Morrissey's "Flesh" (1968) are examples of experimental films that are known to have influenced further gay pornographic films with their formal qualities and narratives. Tyler Gajewskiis a noted actor and model of the period who appeared in Warhol's and Morrissey's films, as well as in Mizer's work at the AMG. Also of note is Joe Dallesandro, who acted in hardcore gay pornographic films in his early 20s, posed nude for Francesco Scavullo, Bruce of L.A. and Bob Mizer, and later acted for Warhol in films such as "Flesh". Dallesandro was well-known to the public. In 1969 "Time" magazine called him one of the most beautiful people of the 1960s, and he graced the cover of " Rolling Stone" magazine in April 1971. [Ferguson, Michael. "Little Joe, Superstar: The Films of Joe Dallesandro." Los Angeles: Companion Press, 1998. ISBN 18899138096] Dallesandro even appeared on the cover of The Smiths' eponymous debut album, "The Smiths."
During the 1960s, a series of
United States Supreme Courtrulings created a more liberalized legal environment that allowed the commercialization of pornography. "MANual Enterprises v. Day", 370 U.S. 478 (1962) was the first decision by the United States Supreme Courtwhich held that magazines consisting largely of photographs of nude or near-nude male models are not obscene within the meaning of UnitedStatesCode|18|1461. It was the first case in which the Court engaged in plenary reviewof a Post Office Department order holding obscene matter "nonmailable." [370 U.S. 478, 495-496.] The case is notable for its ruling that photographs of nude men are not obscene, an implication which opened up the U.S. Postal Service to nude male pornographic magazines, especially those catering to gaymen. Wakefield Poole's " Boys in the Sand", starring Casey Donovan, can be considered one of the first gay pornography feature films, along with the works of filmmakers such as Pat Rocco and the Park Theatre, Los Angeles, California, circa 1970. "Boys in the Sand" opened in a theater in New York Cityin December 1971 and played to a packed house with record breaking box office receipts, preceding "Deep Throat", the first commercial straight pornography film in America, which opened in June 1972. This success launched gay pornographic film as a popular phenomenon.
The production of gay pornography films expanded during the 1970s. A few studios released films for the growing number of gay
adult theatres, where men could also have sexual encounters. Often, the films reflected the sexual liberation that gay men were experiencing at the time, depicting the numerous public spaces where men engaged in sex: bathhouses, sex clubs, beaches, etc. Most of the productions used a cast of youthful, muscular and hairy men, which would become a hallmark of the gay erotic aesthetic of the decade. Fact|date=February 2007
The 1970s also saw the rise of gay publishing with After Dark and Michael's Thing. During this time many more magazines were founded, including "In Touch" and "Blueboy." "
Playgirl", ostensibly produced for women, was purchased and enjoyed by gay men and feature full frontal nudity (the posing straps and fig leaves were removed).
The 1980s were a period of transition for gay pornography film. The proliferation of
VCRs made pornography videos easily accessible, and, as their prices fell , the market for home videos aimed at adult viewers became more and more lucrative. By the mid-1980s, the standard was to release pornography movies directly on video, which meant the wide disappearance of pornography theaters. Furthermore, video recording being more affordable, a multitude of producers entered the market, making low-budget pornography videos.
This shift from watching pornography as a public activity to doing so in private was also influenced by the discovery of
HIVand the subsequent AIDScrisis. Public spaces for sex, such as theatres, became less attended when in the early 1980s it became a much riskier behavior. Masturbatory activities in the privacy of the home became a safe sexpractice in the midst of this health crisis. Gay moviesof the 1970s had contained some exploration of novel ways to represent the sexual act. In the 1980s, by contrast, all movies seemed to be made under an unwritten set of rules and conventions. Most scenes would start with a few lines of dialogue, have performers engage in foreplay( fellatio), followed by anal penetration, and ending with a visual climax close-upof ejaculating penises, called a "money shot" or cum shot. Video technology allowed the recording of longer scenes than did the costly film stock. Scenes were often composed of extended footageof the same act filmed from different shots using multiple cameras. The quality of the picture and sound were often very poor.
Major directors such as Matt Sterling, Eric Peterson, John Travis, and William Higgins set the standard for the models of the decade. The performers they cast were especially young, usually appearing to be around the ages of 22 or 23. Their bodies were slender and hairless, of the "swimmer's build" type, which contrasted with the older, bigger, and hairier man of the 1970s' gay pornography. Performer roles also evolved into the tight divisions of "tops" and "bottoms". The "top" in anal sex is the penetrating partner, who would typically have a more muscular body and the larger penis. The "bottom", or receiver of anal sex, would often be smaller and sometimes more
effeminate. The stars of the decade were almost always tops, while the bottoms were interchangeable (with the exception of Joey Stefano, a popular star, who was more of a "bottom".)
This strict division between "tops" and "bottoms" may have reflected a preference by some of the popular directors of the decade to hire heterosexual men for their movies. Heterosexual men who perform gay sex for monetary reasons (commonly labeled "
gay-for-pay") are considered a rare commodity in the gay sex trade, but the biggest producers of the decade could afford them. Many critics attributed the conventionalization of gay pornography of the 80s to this trend. Straight men performing gay sex in these movies often did not show as much enthusiasm as could be apparent in sexual acts between genuine gay men. Fact|date=February 2007
The gay pornography industry diversified steadily during the 1990s.
In 1989, director
Kristen Bjornstarted a pornographic business which was considered as setting a standard for gay pornography producers. He was a professional photographer, and the images in his videos were considered to be of high-quality. As a former porn starhimself, he directed his models with care, which helped improved the actors' believability. Other directors had to improve their technical quality to keep up with demands from their audiences.
Another significant change during this decade was the explosion of the
Many videos began to be produced for viewers with specific tastes (i.e. for
amateur pornography, Military (Men in Uniform) pornography, transsexualperformers, bondage fetishes, performers belonging to specific ethnic groups, etc.), and this led to a diversification of the people involved in pornography production and consumption.
The gay pornography industry grew substantially in popularity during the 1990s, evolving into a complex and interactive
subculture. Professional directors (such as Chi Chi LaRueand John Rutherford) technicians or deck operators during the U-maticphase of video technology- as well as performers started to engage in pornography as a career, their work sustained by emerging pornographic media and influential critics, such as Mikey Skee.
The 21st century
Some controversy currently exists regarding studios that produce bareback (sex without condoms) videos, such as
Treasure Island Media, Machofucker, Hot Desert Knights, Spunk Video, Cobra Videoand TipoSesso. Mainstream companies, such as Falcon Entertainment, Hot House Entertainment, Channel 1 Releasing, Lucas Entertainment, Raging Stallion, and Titan Mediaclaim that condomless videos promote unsafe sex and contribute to the continuing HIVproblem, both in the pornography industry and in the gay community as a whole.
The controversy dates back to the first few years of the HIV crisis, when nearly all gay pornography production companies voluntarily required their models to wear
condoms for anal sex. The premise on which some industry figures (notably Chi Chi LaRue) base their sometimes vituperative objectionscite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/7277000.stm|title=HIV scandal in gay porn industry|first=Madeleine|last=Holt|work= BBC|date=2008-03-04|accessdate=2008-05-10] to barebackpornography is the claim that behavior of the performers serves as a model for viewer behavior. However there is only anecdotal evidence of this connection. There are strong opinions on both sides of this debate.
The primary audience of gay pornography consists of
In August 2005, adult star
Jenna Jamesonlaunched "Club Thrust", an interactive website featuring gay male pornographic videos, which was shown to attract a female audience as well. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/features/article725364.ece] [http://www.gaypornblog.com/archives/2006/01/thrust_it_jenna_1.html] Yaoicomic books and slash fictionare both genres featuring gay men, but primarily written by and for straight women. Some lesbian and bisexual women are also fans of gay male pornography, specifically yaoi, for its feminine-styled men. [http://sensorglitch.livejournal.com/18677.html]
Major Porn Studios
Channel 1 Releasing
Hot House Entertainment
Jet Set Men
Raging Stallion Studios
Boys in the Sand" ( Wakefield Poole, 1971):First feature gay pornographic film to achieve mainstream crossover success; helped usher in "porn chic." Said to be "a textbook example of gay erotic filmmaking" that was screened in film festivals all over the world. [ [http://www.phillyfests.com/piglff/2001/templates/film_details.cfm?id=466 2008 Philadelphia Film Festival ] ]
*"The Back Row" (
Jerry Douglas, 1972):The first feature from award-winning director Douglas. Re-made by Chi Chi LaRue in 2001. Featured in "Unzipped Magazine"'s "The 100 Greatest Gay Adult Films Ever Made" (2005).
*"L.A. Plays Itself" (
Fred Halsted, 1972):Movie by an influential director (read the chapter consecrated to it in Moore, 2004 for more.) Is archived at the Museum of Modern Art(MoMA), New York.
*"Nights in Black Leather" (
Richard Abeland Peter Berlin, 1973):Influential movie starring Peter Berlin.
Michael Zen, 1977):Is still acclaimed by cultural critics as one of a few gay pornographic movies that tried to bring complexity to the blue movie. Inspired many contemporary pornographic directors (Morris, 2004). Featured in "Unzipped Magazine"'s "The 100 Greatest Gay Adult Films Ever Made" (2005).
*"Dune Buddies" (
Jack Deveau, 1978) Hand in Hand Films:Film by a prominent director and studio of the 1970s. Shot in Fire Island, the film (and others of the company) document well the sexual lives of New York City's gay men of the period. Excerpts displayed in the documentary "Gay Sex in the 70s".
Joe Gage's trilogy::*"Kansas City Trucking Co." (1976):*"El Paso Wrecking Corp." (1977):*"
L.A. Tool & Die" (1979)::See article on Joe Gage.
*"The Other Side of Aspen 1-5" (
Bill Clayton(1-2), John Rutherford(3-5), 1979-2001) Falcon Studios:Some of Adult Video News' 10 Great Gay Moviescite book | title=The AVN Guide to the 500 Greatest Adult Films of All Time: Plus: The Sexiest Starlets, Hall-of-Fame Performers, Behind the Scenes, and More!| url=http://www.amazon.com/Guide-Greatest-Adult-Films-Hall/dp/1560257199| last=Connelly| first=Tim, Editor| date= 2006-01-09| publisher=Thunder's Mouth Press / Avalon Book Publishing Group| location= New York, New York| id=ISBN 978-1560257196]
The Bigger The Better" (Matt Sterling, 1984):One of Adult Video News' 10 Great Gay Movies
*"Gold Rush Boys" (Steve Scott, 1983)
*"Les Minets Sauvages" (
Jean-Daniel Cadinot, 1984):One of the biggest films of the influential French pornographic director (see article on him.)
*"My Masters" (Christopher Rage, 1986):One movie by a director that has influenced numerous gay artists [ [http://www.christopherragevideo.com/ The Christopher Rage Collection ] ]
*"Powertool" (John Travis, 1986):One of Adult Video News' 10 Great Gay Movies
*"Big Guns" (William Higgins, 1988)
Catalina Video:One of Adult Video News' 10 Great Gay Movies
*"Carnival in Rio" (
Kristen Bjorn, 1989):See History, 1990s section above.
*"Idol Eyes" (Matt Sterling, 1990) Huge Video:Movie with
Ryan Idol. Read Dyer, 1994 for more.
*"More of a Man" (Jerry Douglas, 1994) All Worlds Video:Popular film with
Joey Stefano(see History, 1980s section) also featuring Chi Chi LaRue in a non-sexual role. Read Burger, 1995 chapter for an extensive analysis.
*"Flashpoint" (John Rutherford, 1994) Falcon Studios:Award winning film by major director Rutherford. Featured in "Unzipped Magazine"'s "The 100 Greatest Gay Adult Films Ever Made" (2005).
*"Frisky Summer 1-4" (George Duroy, 1995-2002) Bel Ami:One of Adult Video News' 10 Great Gay Movies
*"Flesh and Blood" (Jerry Douglas, 1996) All Worlds Video:One of Adult Video News' 10 Great Gay Movies
*"Naked Highway" (Wash West, 1997):The narrative and aesthetic qualities of this movie are representative of a new generation of pornographic directors. (Thomas, 2000:66) One of Adult Video News' 10 Great Gay Movies
*"Three Brothers" (Gino Colbert, 1998) Gino Pictures:Popular movie by influential director Colbert, starring the real-life Rockland brothers (Hal, Vince, and Shane). Featured in "Unzipped Magazine"'s "The 100 Greatest Gay Adult Films Ever Made" (2005).
Steven Scarborough, 1999) Hot House Entertainment:Popular gay pornographic video with unfrequent artistic qualities, by a prominent director and studio. Created legal dispute in Canada when the government tried to forbid its distribution in the name of obscenity rules. [ [http://www.gladdaybookshop.com/ofrb/articles/Xtra11_30.htm xtra.ca | features ] ]
Skin Gang" ( Bruce LaBruce, 1999) Cazzo Film:Famous film by art/porn director LaBruce. Aired in gay film festivals around the world.
*"Fallen Angel" (Bruce Cam, 1997) Titan Media:Major film by prominent director and studio. Featured in "Unzipped Magazine"'s "The 100 Greatest Gay Adult Films Ever Made" (2005).
Max Lincoln, 2003) Eurocreme:Spawned a whole series of similarly-titled films (for example, OfficeBoy, SpyBoy, and RentBoy)
Michael Lucas' Dangerous Liaisons" (Michael Lucas, 2005) Lucas Entertainment:Biggest production by this director and studio. Variously described as a film adaptationof " Les Liaisons Dangereuses" (1782), and a remakeof " Dangerous Liaisons" (1988).
*"Dawson's 20 Load Weekend" (
Paul Morris, 2004) Treasure Island Media:Major production by infamous director Paul Morris. Created huge controversy because it is mainly composed of bareback sex.
*"Wrong Side of the Tracks" (
Chi Chi LaRue, 2006) Rascal Video:Largest production up to date by on of the most enduring pornographic directors of history.
Wet PalmsSeason One" ( Matthew Moore, 2004-06) Jet Set Productionspioneered pornography made for online delivery, using an episodic narrative structure based on TV soap operas.
Tranny and MeThe Series" ( Patrik Mizer, 2004-06) Riverside Productionspioneered the insight to the life of loving a transvestite. He uses the film to illustrate his love of high heels on men.
Gay pulp fiction
List of gay porn stars
List of gay pornographic magazines
*List of gay pornographic movie studios
Further reading and information
*cite book | last = Bronski | first = Michael | title = Pulp Friction : Uncovering the Golden Age of Gay Male Pulps | publisher = St. Martin's Griffin | year = 2003 | location = New York
*cite book | last = Burger | first = John R. | title = One-Handed Histories : The Eroto-Politics of Gay Male Video Pornography | publisher = Haworth Press | year = 1995 | location = New York
*cite book | last = Cante | first = Richard C. | title = Gay Men and the Forms of Contemporary US Culture | publisher = Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0 7546 7230 1. Chapters 4-6 | month = March | year = 2008 | location = London
*cite book | last = Delany | first = Samuel R. | authorlink = Samuel R. Delany | title = Times Square Red, Times Square Blue | publisher = New York University Press | year = 1999 | location = New York
*cite journal | last = Dyer | first = Richard | authorlink = Richard Dyer | title = Idol Thoughts: Orgasm and Self-Reflexivity in Gay Pornography | journal = The Critical Quarterly | volume = 36 | issue = 1 | pages = 49–62 |date= Spring 1994 | doi = 10.1111/j.1467-8705.1994.tb01012.x
*Harvard reference | Surname1=Dyer | Given1=Richard | Year=2002  | Chapter=Coming to Terms: Gay Pornography | Title=Only Entertainment | Edition=2nd | Page=121-134. | Publisher=Routledge | Place=London ; New York
*cite book | last = Kendall | first = Christopher N. | title = Gay Male Pornography : An Issue of Sex Discrimination | publisher = UBC Press | year = 2004 | location = Vancouver, BC
*cite book | last = John | first = Elton | title = Goodbye Yellow Dick Mold - The Control of AIDS in the Gay Porn Industry | publisher = Rock Hudson Liberace Museum | year = 2005 | location = Yerrinshire
*cite book | last = Moore | first = Patrik | title = Beyond Shame : Reclaiming the Abandoned History of Radical Gay Sexuality | publisher = Beacon Press | year = 2004 | location = Boston
*cite book | last = Morrison | first = Todd G. | title = Eclectic Views on Gay Male Pornography : Pornucopia | publisher = Harrington Park Press | year = 2004 | location = Binghamton, NY
*cite book | last = Slade | first = Joseph W. | title = Pornography and Sexual Representation : A Reference Guide | publisher = Greenwood Press | year = 2001 | location = Westport, Conn.
*cite journal | last = Stevenson | first = Jack. | title = From the Bedroom to the Bijou: A Secret History of American Gay Sex Cinema | journal = Film Quarterly | volume = 51 | issue = 1 | pages = 24–31 |date= Fall 1997 | doi = 10.1525/fq.1997.51.1.04a00040
*Harvard reference | Surname1=Thomas | Given1=Joe A. | Year=2000 | Chapter=Gay Male Video Pornography: Past, Present, and Future | Editor=Ronald John Weitzer | Title=Sex for Sale : Prostitution, Pornography, and the Sex Industry | Page=49-66. | Publisher=Routledge | Place=New York
*cite book | last = Waugh | first = Thomas | title = Lust Unearthed: Vintage Gay Graphics from the Patrick DuBek Collection | publisher = Arsenal Pulp Press | year = 2004 | location = Vancouver
*cite book | last = Waugh | first = Thomas | title = Out/lines : Underground Gay Graphics from before Stonewall | publisher = Arsenal Pulp Press | year = 2002 | location = Vancouver
*cite book | last = Waugh | first = Thomas | title = Hard to Imagine : Gay Male Eroticism in Photography and Film from their Beginnings to Stonewall | publisher = Columbia University Press | year = 1996 | location = New York
*cite book | last = Williams | first = Linda | title = Porn Studies | publisher = Duke University Press | year = 2004 | location = Durham
*cite book | last = Edmonson | first = Roger | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Clone: The Life and Legacy of
Al Parker, Gay Superstar | publisher = Alyson Books | year = 2000 | location = | url = | doi = | id = ISBN 1-55583-529-5
*cite book | last = Edmonson | first = Roger | authorlink = | coauthors = Jerry Douglas | title = Boy in the Sand: Casey Donovan, All-American Sex Star | publisher = Alyson Books | year = 1998 | location = | url = | doi = | id = ISBN 1-55583-457-4
*cite book | last = Isherwood | first = Charles
authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Wonder Bread & Ecstasy : The Life and Death of
Joey Stefano| publisher = Alyson Books | year = 1996 | location = | url = | doi = | id = ISBN 1-55583-383-7
*cite book | last = Larue | first = Chi Chi | authorlink = Chi Chi Larue | coauthors = John Erich | title = Making It Big: Sex Stars, Porn Films and Me | publisher = Alyson Publications | year = 1997 | location = | url = | doi = | id = ISBN 1-55583-392-6
*Beyond Vanilla. (Claes Lilja, 2001)
*"Gay Sex in the 70s". (Joseph F. Lovett, 2005)
*"That Man: Peter Berlin". (Jim Tushinski, 2005)
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