- Weather control
Weather control is the act of manipulating or altering certain aspects of the environment to produce desirable changes in weather.
History of weather control
Some American Indians had rituals which they believed could induce rain. The
Finnish people, on the other hand, were believed by others to be able to control weather. As a result, Vikings refused to take Finns on their oceangoing raids. Remnants of this superstition lasted into the twentieth century, with some ship crews being reluctant to accept Finnish sailors. The early modern era saw people observe that during battles the firing of cannons and other firearms often initiated precipitation.
Magical and religious practices to control the weather are attested in a variety of cultures. In
Greek mythology, Iphigeniawas sacrificed as a human sacrificeto appease the wrath of the goddess Artemis, who had caused the Achaean fleet to be becalmed at Aulisat the beginning of the Trojan War. In Homer's "Odyssey", Aeolus, keeper of the winds, bestowed Odysseusand his crew with a gift of the four winds in a bag. However, the sailors open the bag while Odysseus slept, looking for booty, and as a result are blown off course by the resulting gale. [Homer, "", book 10.] In ancient Rome, the " lapis manalis" was a sacred stone kept outside the walls of Rome in a temple of Mars. When Rome suffered from drought, the stone was dragged into the city. [Sir James Frazer, " The Golden Bough", ch. 5 (abridged edition), "The Magical Control of Rain"] The Berwick witches of Scotlandwere found guilty of using black magicto summon storms to murder King James VI of Scotland by seeking to sink the ship upon which he travelled. [Smout, T. C. "A History of the Scottish People 1560-1830", pp 184 - 192] Scandinavian witches allegedly claimed to sell the windin bags or magically confined into wooden staves; they sold the bags to seamen who could release them when becalmed. [ Adam of Bremenand Ole Wormare quoted as maintaining this in Grillot de Givry's "Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy" (Frederick Publications, 1954).] In various towns of Navarre, prayers petitioned Saint Peterto grant rain in time of drought. If the rain was not forthcoming, the statue of St Peter was removed from the church and tossed into a river. [Frazer, "supra".]
Perhaps the first example of practical weather control is the
lightning rod. In the 1950s, computer scientist John von Neumann, an early theorizer on weather control, surmised that if Earth were to enter another Ice Age, a preventative solution would be to dump dirt (or spray soot from cropdusting planes) on the surface of the planet's glaciers. He noted that this would significantly change their reflectivity ( albedo), and thus increase the solar energy retained by the planet. Such a strategy would require repeated applications, as storms would cover some portion of the soot with new snow until their frequency and range abated. The theoretical efficacy of von Neumann's proposal remains to be examined. Wilhelm Reichperformed cloudbusting experiments in the 1950s to 1960s, the results of which are controversial.Dr Walter Russell wrote of weather control in Atomic Suicide 1956. Jack Toyer 1970s building a rainmaker Palmers Island near Grafton using Mirror Solar radiations Electromagnetic Static charge and infra red frequencies of Light to induce weather in regional areas within Australia interviewed by Mike Willise and George Negus in 1980s continued work by remainder man Peter Stevens 1980s through 2000s
Cloud seeding for rain
Cloud seedingis a common technique intended to trigger rain, but evidence on its effectiveness is mixed. Critics generally contend that claimed successes occur in conditions which were going to rain anyway. It is used in several different countries, including the United States, the People's Republic of China, and Russia. In the People's Republic of China there is a perceived dependency upon it in dry regions, which believe they are increasing annual rainfall by firing silver iodiderockets into the sky where rain is desired. In the United States, dry iceor silver iodide may be injected into a cloud by aircraft, or from the ground, in an attempt to increase rainfall; some companies are dedicated to this form of weather modification.
Project Stormfurywas an attempt to weaken tropical cyclones by flying aircraft into storms and seeding the eyewall with silver iodide. The project was run by the United States Government from 1962to 1983. A similar project using soot was run in 1958, with inconclusive results. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the harmful effects of hurricanes. Moshe Alamaro of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology[ [http://alamaro.home.comcast.net/Alamaro-bio.htm Moshe Alamaro's brief bio ] ] proposed using barges with upward-pointing jet engines to trigger smaller storms to disrupt the progress of an incoming hurricane; critics doubt the jets would be powerful enough to make any noticeable difference.http://environment.newscientist.com/article/dn7995.html - Alamaro proposal and energy critique]
Alexandre Chorin of the
University of California at Berkeleyproposed dropping large amounts of environmentally friendly oils on the sea surface to prevent droplet formation. [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7726 - Chorin proposal] Experiments by Kerry Emanuel [ [http://wind.mit.edu/~emanuel/home.html Kerry Emanuel's Homepage ] ] of MIT in 2002 suggested that hurricane-force winds would disrupt the oil slick, making it ineffective. [ [http://environment.newscientist.com/article/dn7995.html Could humans tackle hurricanes? - earth - 14 September 2005 - New Scientist Environment ] ] Other scientists disputed the factual basis of the theoretical mechanism assumed by this approach. [ [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7726 Oil on troubled waters may stop hurricanes - earth - 25 July 2005 - New Scientist ] ] The Florida company Dyn-O-Mat proposes the use of a product it has developed, called Dyn-O-Gel, to reduce the strength of hurricanes. The substance is a powder which reportedly has the ability to absorb 1,500 times its own weight in water. The theory is that it is dropped into clouds to remove their moisture. When the gel reaches the ocean surface, it is reportedly dissolved. The company has tested the substance on a thunderstorm, but there has not been any scientific consensus established as to its effectiveness. [ [http://www.nashuatelegraph.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051022/OPINION04/110220166/-1/news Anti-hurricane invention worth pursuing.] Murdock, Deroy. Scripps Howard News Service. 22 Oct 2005.] Hail cannons are used by some farmers in an attempt to ward off hail, but there is no reliable scientific evidence to confirm or deny their effectiveness. Another new anti-hurricane technology [http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?IA=WO2006085830&DISPLAY=STATUS] is a method for the reduction of tropical cyclones’ destructive force - pumping sea water and diffused in the wind at the bottom of such tropical cyclone in its eyewall.
2008 Olympic games
In the largest rain dispersal operation on record in China, and the first time that such technology was used in conjunction with the Olympics, the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau fired a total of 1,104
rain dispersal rockets within an eight-hour period prior to and during the opening ceremonies of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad on August 8, 2008. The rockets were launched from twenty-one sites and may have prevented the ceremonies from receiving rainfall in the range of 25 to 100 millimeters of rain.
With a rainy weather forecast for the Olympic night, and 90% humidity, the attempt "successfully intercepted a stretch of rain belt from moving towards the stadium..." said Guo Hu, head of the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau. "..."Under such a weather condition, a small bubble in the rain cloud would have triggered rainfall, let alone a lightning..." said Guo, according to [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-08/09/content_9079637.htm Xinhua News' 2008 Olympics website.]
HIPAShas several diverse experimental facilities: a 1-megawatt rf transmitter to produce ELF/VLF ( Extremely Low Frequencyand Very Low Frequency) electromagnetic (EM) generation by the absorption of radio frequency(rf) power in the arctic ionosphereincluding ion cyclotronexcitation; a 100 kW rf plasma torchused in research on the destruction of hazardous waste; a 2.7 m liquid mirror telescopeused with one of several lasers for ionospheric stimulation and measurement; an Incoherent Scatter Radar(a new project using 88 ft. diameter antenna at NOAAGilmore Creek site 34 km SW of HIPAS as the receiving antenna with the transmitter at HIPAS). HIPASis in the process of adding a very high power (terawatt) laser (recently obtained from LLNL) to perform laser breakdown experiments in the ionosphere. Two Diesel electric generators (1500 HP 4160 V, 3-phase, 1.2 MVA each) are used to power the experiments. There are a number of computers (PC's ) on site, and a high-speed data line to UAF is available. While these experiments are useful in measuring the properties of the ionosphere, they produce insufficient amounts of energy to modify it in any significant way.
Weather control and law
1977 Environmental Modification Convention
Weather control, as well as "weather tampering", for hostile or military purposes is expressly forbidden dating from at least December 10, 1976, when the "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72, TIAS 9614 Convention [ [http://www.fas.org/nuke/control/enmod/text/environ2.htm Environmental Modification Convention ] ] on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques" was adopted. The Convention was: Signed in Geneva May 18, 1977; Entered into force October 5, 1978; Ratification by U.S. President December 13, 1979; U.S. ratification deposited at New York January 17, 1980.cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques | date= | publisher=
United States Department of State| url =http://www.state.gov/t/ac/trt/4783.htm | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-09-28 | language = ]
2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517 and U.S. House Bill 2995
U.S. Senate Bill 517 [ [http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s109-517 S. 517 [109th: Weather Modification Research and Development Policy Authorization Act of 2005 (GovTrack.us) ] ] and U.S. House Bill 2995 [ [http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-2995 H.R. 2995 [109th: Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer Authorization Act of 2005 (GovTrack.us) ] ] were two laws proposed in 2005 that would have allowed experimental weather modification by artificial methods, established a
Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, and implemented a national weather modification policy. Neither ever became law.
Ross Hoffmanhas simulated hurricane control based on selective heating and cooling (or prevention of evaporation). [ [http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000593AE-704B-1151-B57F83414B7F0000 Hoffman, R, "Controlling Hurricanes," "Scientific American," Oct 2004] .] Futurist John Smart has discussed the potential for weather control via space-based solar power networks. One proposal involves the gentle heating via microwave of portions of large hurricanes. Such chaotic systems may be susceptible to "side steering" with a few degrees of increased temperature/pressure at critical points. A sufficient network might keep the largest and most potentially damaging hurricanes from landfall, at the request of host nations. Blizzards, monsoons, and other extreme weather are also potential candidates for space-based amelioration.Facts|date=April 2007 If large-scale weather control were to become feasible, potential implications may include:
* Unintended side effects, especially given the chaotic nature of weather development
* Damage to existing ecosystems
* Health risks to humans
* Equipment malfunction or accidents
* Non-democratic control or use as a weapon
For the 2008 Olympics, China has set aside 30 airplanes, 4,000 rocket launchers, and 7,000 anti-aircraft guns to stop rain. China plans to shoot various chemicals into any threatening clouds to shrink rain drops before they reach the stadium. [ [http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-rain31jan31,0,39372.story Demick, Barbara, "China plans to halt rain for Olympics," "Los Angeles Times," January 2008] .]
Weather control in popular culture
In popular culture, weather control technology can be encountered in the realms of public speculation,
science fiction, and fantasy. The concept of weather control is often portrayed as a part of terraforming.
Film and television
*In the "
Star Trek" universe, most advanced planets and colonies utilize weather control, often referred to as "weather modification grids" or "weather modification nets". A small, but long-established TNG-era ("ca" 2369) colony was a weather control facility for approximately a hundred years. Most advanced civilizations apparently employ weather control standard equipment.
*Weather control technology in 2270s required special facilities, modern - and -era technology consists of multiple mid-size devices positioned strategically, networked and controlled from more-or-less arbitrary places.
*For example, the planet
Risahas its climatecontrolled to be a tropical paradise. Perhaps one of the few modern exceptions of planets apparently without weather control technology is Ferenginarwith continuous rain. (It could be the weather control is set for never ending rain, or is expensive to maintain.)
Other films or shows
SciFi Channeloriginal series, " Stargate SG1", Episode 214, "Touchstone", aired on October 30, 1998, the Stargate SG1 team discovers a weather control device on an alien planet, which is subsequently stolen and brought to earth, where experimenting with it wreaked havoc with the local weather. The device was later recaptured and returned to its original planet which had suffered phenominal storms since it had been stolen.
Disney Channel Original Movie, " The Ultimate Christmas Present", two girls find a weather machine and make it snowin Los Angeles.
*In the live action "Justice League of America" film , the villain is a terrorist who has a weather control device.
*In "Aliens", a colony sent to
LV-426by the Company utilized a fusion-powered terraforming atmosphere processor. In the first film, the planet's climate was not yet suitable for human life.
The Arrival", a race of aliens is found to be terraforming the Earth using hidden factories producing huge volumes of highly potent, engineered "super-greenhouse gases".
*In the 1987 "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles" cartoon series, the episode "
Hot Rodding Teenagers from Dimension X" includes Stone Warriors using a " weather satellite", with one difference: while other weather satellite gives weather prognosis, this one "makes weather". The "weather satellite" creates a storm to level New York City, but the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtlesdestroy it. The episode "Take Me to Your Leader" of the same series include Krangand the Shredder using a machine to reduce the Sun, creating cold weather on the Earth.
*Storm (played by
Halle Berryin the 2000 film and subsequent sequels), a member of the "X-Men", can control the weather with her mind.
Superman III", Gus Gorman( Richard Pryor) changes the weather by hacking into a weather satellite.
*In a "
Family Guy" episode, Stewie builds a machine that can control the weather using only a satellite dish and a See 'n Say.
*In the film "The Avengers" Sir August de Wynter (
Sean Connery) creates a satellite capable of controlling the weather.
Our Man Flint" is a 1966 sci-fi action film which stars James Coburnas Derek Flint where a trio of mad scientists attempt to blackmail the world with a weather-control machine.
*"" is a 1967 film from Japan. Scientists, on a tropical island, conduct weather control experiments then encounter gigantic praying mantises and a giant spider that attack the son of
Godzilla. Godzilla arrives and saves his offspring.
*The cartoon miniseries "", showed the terrorist group Cobra in possession of a device called the Weather Dominator.
soap opera" General Hospital" featured a storyline where mad genius Mikkos Cassadine used a substance called Carbonic Snow to create a blizzard in the show's locale Port Charles in the middle of what had been a long hot summer in order to blackmail world leaders into accepting his new world order. Luke Spencermanaged to thwart the plan.
Master Of Orion", it is possible to build a weather control building to change the planet's environment.
*In "", the Allies can build the "weather controller device"
superweapon, and direct thunderstorms to strike a selected location of the map every 10 game minutes.
*In Tribunal, an expansion pack to "", the player finds a machine under the city of Almalexia that can change the weather of the city at the will of its user.
Phantasy Star II", a weather, irrigation and dam control system known as Climatrolhas been constructed by Mother Brain to make the barren planet Motavia habitable for Palman occupation.
*In the game "Spore" by Will Wright, players are able to use a spacecraft to modify planetary atmospheres - creating volcanoes to generate carbon dioxide, seeding plant life to create breathable air, or even using a "Genesis device" to make a planet habitable in one go. There is no actual controlling of weather, however. [cite web|url=http://www.sporenormous.com/terraforming/|title=Terraforming|year=2008|accessdate=2008-07-04|author=|publisher=SporeNormous]
Earth 2150", the Lunar Corporation are capable of building a weather control station for tactical weather control. The structure can be charged to cause storms, fog, and/or wind at targeted areas on the map.
Ben Bova's " The Weathermakers" is the story of a government agency that controls the weather.
Sidney Sheldon's "Are You Afraid of the Dark" is the story of a think tank that builds technology powerful enough to create hurricanes, tornadoes, and tsunamis.
Michael Crichton's " State of Fear," ecoterrorists plan to create a tsunami, calve an iceberg, and induce flash flooding and hurricanes.
Normand Lester’s science thriller "Verglas", the 1998 icestorm that struck the Montréal area is an experiment by the Pentagon in the development of a climatic weapon that went wrong. The book speculate that ULF waves generated by a transmitter at Siple Station, a US base in Antarctica, caused the icestorm by affecting the ionosphere over Québec.
Lois Lowry's " The Giver," the government controls the weather and keeps it from snowing, and confine rainto the farmland.
*In the book series "
Weather Warden" by Rachel Caine, the Wardens are an association of people who have the ability to control the elements - earth, fire and weather. They manipulate these elements to stop natural disasters from devastating mankind. The main character herself is a Weather Warden, so weather manipulation plays a large role throughout the series.
Roger Zelazny's " The Chronicles of Amber" an openly known quality of the Jewel of Judgment is the ability to control the local weather.
Frank Herbert's " Dune" series, weather control is widespread, and is achieved with specialized satellites in orbit around a planet.
DC Comicsvillain Weather Wizardcould control the weather with a special kind of technology in the shape of a wand.
Marvel Comicsheroes Thor and Storm could control weather; the former because he is the Norse god of thunder, the latter because she is a mutant whose powers specifically center around weather control.
Digimoncharacter Wizardmoncould manipulate thunderstorms.
Muppet Count von Countof Sesame Streetlaughs, it often invokes thunder.
*In some of the
Asterixcomics, when the village bard Cacofonix sings, it starts to rain.
2000ADworld of Judge Dreddthe weather in Mega City Oneis controlled by a weather control station positioned above the populous and is used to spread a chemical which causes Block Warby the city of East Meg One
*In the Nintendo Gameboy Advance Video Game Pokemon Sapphire, The Pokemon "Kyogre" controlled the rain and the tides in Hoenn.
Conspiracy theoristshave suggested that certain governments use or seek to use weather control as a weapon (eg via HAARPand/or chemtrails), but such allegations have not been proven. This does not mean that the theories do not carry weight and will ever be disproven. At a counterterrorism conference in 1997, United States Secretary of Defense William Cohenreferred to the writings of futurist Alvin Toffler, specifically regarding concerns about "eco-terrorism" and intentionally caused natural disasters. [ [http://www.fas.org/news/usa/1997/04/bmd970429d.htm COHEN ADDRESS 4/28 AT CONFERENCE ON TERRORISM Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy Sam Nunn Policy Forum April 28, 1997 University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia ] ]
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program(HAARP)
Weather Modification Operations and Research Board
Beijing Weather Modification Office
Space Preservation Act
External articles and further reading
* [http://www.weathermodification.org/related_sites.htm Weather Modification Association] Perhaps the largest commercial overhead organization for weather modification research and application.
* [http://Goldendome.org/construction Golden Dome construction] Hundreds of advanced practitioners of
Transcendental Meditationput their attention on favorable weather conditions during construction of the Golden Dome during the winter of 1980.
* [http://commerce.senate.gov/pdf/defelice.pdf The Testimony of Dr. Tom DeFelice] (Past President, Weather Modification Association) in support of
Weather Modification Operations and Research Board
* [http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s109-517 109th Congress S. 517: Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer Authorization Act of 2005]
* [http://data.opi.state.mt.us/bills/2005/billhtml/HB0399.htm Article] Montana restricts spraying to a window of months and requires materials and employee lists
* [http://wwwppd.nrl.navy.mil/whatsnew/haarp US Navy] Some work is done by The United States Navy using ELF: Simulations of ELF radiation generated by heating the high-latitude D- region. (This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research and, in part, by a grant of HPC time from the DoD High Performance Computing Center at the Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground)
*" [http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressReleases.Detail&PressRelease_Id=248556 The Weather Modification Operations and Research Board (passed Oct.2005) - in corporate cooperation with BAE Systems (HAARP apparatus & facility owner) and Raytheon Corporation (HAARP patent owner)]
*" [http://www.publicaffairs.noaa.gov/releases2005/aug05/noaa05-098.html NOAA’S NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AWARDS $300 MILLION AWIPS CONTRACT TO RAYTHEON] "
*" [http://www.raytheonaircraft.com/government/multi_jets.shtml#main Raytheon Aircraft Company (Owner of HAARP patents, and, NOAA-funded aerosol weather modification/AESA radar weather weapons)] "
*" [http://www.na.baesystems.com/releasesDetail.cfm?a=477 BAE Systems (program and apparatus-owner of the HAARP facility, Railgun technology, electromagnetic armor, and, a sub-corporation partner with Raytheon via British Aerospace Corporation]
*" [http://www.gdrs.com/news/ General Dynamics Robotics (owned by Raytheon Corp) - military contractor/manufacturer of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAV) aircraft designed for "all-weather," computer-controlled weapons defense progams]
*" [http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2006/05/06/18214461.php HAARP Completed! - news compilation]
*" [http://www.dhs.gov/xprepresp/committees/editorial_0566.shtm President Bush's National Response Plan] "
*" [http://www.lockheedmartin.com/wms/findPage.do?dsp=fec&ci=12498&rsbci=0&fti=112&ti=0&sc=400 Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and Raytheon to create B2B exchange for the aerospace and defense industry, powered by Microsoft] "
* [http://www.weathermodification.org Weathermodification.org]
* [http://www.naiwmc.org North American Interstate Weather Modification Council]
* [http://www.iceflares.com Iceflares.com]
* [http://www.failedsuccess.com/index.php?/weblog/more/arch_weather_story The Gateway Arch as a weather control device]
* [http://www.fas.org/news/usa/1997/04/bmd970429d.htm William Cohen Address of 4/28/1997] where he mentioned the possibility of "eco-terrorism" including weather control.
* [http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=000593AE-704B-1151-B57F83414B7F0000 Scientific American Magazine (October 2004 Issue) Controlling Hurricanes]
* [http://freepressinternational.com/weather-control.html Weather control video's and info]
* [http://www.eastlundscience.com/WEATHER.html Eastlund Scientific Enterprises] The established corporation of Bernard Eastlund, the inventor of the fusion torch, patents used for the HAARP, and the weather-modifying "Thunderstorm Solar-Powered Satellite" system.
* [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/05/20070509-12.html Whitehouse.gov] The "National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive" of 2007, in which "The President shall lead the activities of the Federal Government for ensuring constitutional government" (powers of legislative and judiciary branches aside) during any sort of catastrophic emergency in the USA.
* Process for weather control, H. M. Brandau, US patent|2756097
* Weather control by artificial means, Heinz W. Kasemir, US patent|3284005
* Cloud formation and subsequent moisture precipitation, US patent|3409220
* System and method for irradiation of planet surface areas, Aurthur G. Buckingham, US patent|3564253
* Weather modification method, Knollenberg, US patent|3613992
* Combustible compositions for generating aerosols, particularly suitable for cloud modification and weather control and aerosolization process, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, US patent|3630950
* Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere, J. Eastlund, US patent|4686605
* Method and composition for precipitation of atmospheric water, Slavko Mentus, US patent|5360162
* Use of artificial satellites in earth orbits adaptively to modify the effect that solar radiation would otherwise have on earth's weather, Franklin Y. K. Chen, US patent|5762298
* Weather modification by artificial satellites, Franklin Y. K. Chen, US patent|5984239
* Combustible compositions for generating aerosols, particularly suitable for cloud modification and weather control and aerosolization process, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, US patent|RE29142
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