- Euclid's Elements
**Euclid's "Elements"**(Greek: polytonic|Στοιχεῖα) is a mathematical and geometrictreatise consisting of 13 books written by the Greekmathematician Euclid inAlexandria circa 300 BC. It comprises a collection of definitions, postulates (axiom s), propositions (theorem s and constructions), andmathematical proof s of the propositions. The thirteen books coverEuclidean geometry and the ancient Greek version of elementarynumber theory . With the exception of Autolycus' "On the Moving Sphere", the "Elements" is one of the oldest extant Greek mathematical treatises [*cite book|last=Boyer|authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer|title=|year=1991|chapter=Euclid of Alexandria|pages=101|quote=With the exception of the "Sphere" of Autolycus, surviving work by Euclid are the oldest Greek mathematical treatises extant; yet of what Euclid wrote more than half has been lost,*] and it is the oldest extant axiomatic deductive treatment ofmathematics . [*Ball (1960).*] It has proven instrumental in the development oflogic and modernscience .Euclid's "Elements" is the most successful [

*Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece (2006) by Nigel Guy Wilson, page 278. Published by Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Quote:"Euclid's Elements subsequently became the basis of all mathematical education, not only in the Romand and Byzantine periods, but right down to the mid-20th century, and it could be argued that it is the most successful textbook ever written."*] cite book|last=Boyer|authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer|title=|year=1991|chapter=Euclid of Alexandria|pages=100|quote=As teachers at the school he called a band of leading scholars, among whom was the author of the most fabulously successful mathematics textbook ever written - the "Elements" ("Stoichia") of Euclid.] and influentialcite book|last=Boyer|authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer|title=|year=1991|chapter=Euclid of Alexandria|pages=119|quote=The "Elements" of Euclid not only was the earliest major Greek mathematical work to come down to us, but also the most influential textbook of all times. [...] The first printed versions of the "Elements" appeared at Venice in 1482, one of the very earliest of mathematical books to be set in type; it has been estimated that since then at least a thousand editions have been published. Perhaps no book other than the Bible can boast so many editions, and certainly no mathematical work has had an influence comparable with that of Euclid's "Elements".] textbook ever written. Being first set in type inVenice in 1482, it is one of the very earliest mathematical works to be printed after the invention of theprinting press and is second only to theBible in the number of editions published, with the number reaching well over one thousand. [*The Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics by Lucas Nicolaas Hendrik Bunt, Phillip S. Jones, Jack D. Bedient (1988), page 142. Dover publications. Quote:"the "Elements" became known to Western Europe via the Arabs and the Moors. There the "Elements" became the foundation of mathematical education. More than 1000 editions of the "Elements" are known. In all probability it is, next to the "Bible", the most widely spread book in the civilization of the Western world."*] It was used as the basic text on geometry throughout the Western world for about 2,000 years. For centuries, when thequadrivium was included in the curriculum of all university students, knowledge of at least part of Euclid's "Elements" was required of all students. Not until the 20th century, by which time its content was universally taught through school books, did it cease to be considered something all educated people had read. [*Ball (1960).*]**History**Euclid was a Greek mathematician who wrote "Elements" in Alexandria during theHellenistic period (around 300 BC). Scholars believe that the "Elements" is largely a collection of theorems proved by other mathematicians supplemented by some original work.Proclus , a Greek mathematician who lived several centuries after Euclid, wrote in his commentary of the "Elements": "Euclid, who put together the Elements, collecting many ofEudoxus ' theorems, perfecting many of Theaetetus', and also bringing to irrefragable demonstration the things which were only somewhat loosely proved by his predecessors".Although known to, for instance,

Cicero , there is no extant record of the text having been translated into Latin prior toBoethius in the fifth or sixth century.Russell, Bertrand. "A History of Western Philosophy". p. 212.] The Arabs received the "Elements" from the Byzantines in approximately 760; this version, by a pupil of Euclid calledProclo , was translated intoArabic underHarun al Rashid circa 800 AD. The first printed edition appeared in 1482 (based on Giovanni Campano's 1260 edition), and since then it has been translated into many languages and published in about a thousand different editions. In 1570, John Dee provided a widely respected "Mathematical Preface", along with copious notes and supplementary material, to the first English edition byHenry Billingsley .Copies of the Greek text still exist, some of which can be found in the

Vatican Library and theBodleian Library in Oxford. The manuscripts available are of variable quality, and invariably incomplete. By careful analysis of the translations and originals, hypotheses have been drawn about the contents of the original text (copies of which are no longer available).Ancient texts which refer to the "Elements" itself and to other mathematical theories that were current at the time it was written are also important in this process. Such analyses are conducted by J. L. Heiberg and Sir

Thomas Little Heath in their editions of the text.Also of importance are the

scholia , or annotations to the text. These additions, which often distinguished themselves from the main text (depending on the manuscript), gradually accumulated over time as opinions varied upon what was worthy of explanation or elucidation. Some of these are useful and add to the text, but many are not.**A difficult text**Although we now consider the "Elements" to be an elementary text on geometry, that was not always the case. It is said that King Ptolemy asked for a way in geometry that was shorter than the Elements. Euclid answered that "there is no

royal road to geometry." [*[*] More recently, Sir*http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Euc.+1 Euclid, Elements (ed. Thomas L. Heath)*]Thomas Little Heath wrote, in his introduction to the 1932 Everyman's Library volume of "Euclid":The simple truth is that it was not written for schoolboys or schoolgirls, but for the grown man who would have the necessary knowledge and judgment to appreciate the highly contentious matters which have to be grappled with in any attempt to set out the essentials of Euclidean geometry as a strictly

The first difficult passage of Book I is referred to as thelogical system ..." [*[*] .*http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Extras/Everyman_Euclid.html Heath: Everyman's Library "Euclid" Introduction*]pons asinorum , which is Latin for "Bridge of Asses" (traditionally, it is hard to get asses to cross a bridge). [*Oxford Philosophy Dictionary, http://www.answers.com/topic/pons-asinorum?cat=technology*]**Outline of the "Elements"**The "Elements" is still considered a masterpiece in the application of

logic tomathematics . In historical context, it has proven enormously influential in many areas ofscience . ScientistsNicolaus Copernicus ,Johannes Kepler ,Galileo Galilei , and SirIsaac Newton were all influenced by the "Elements", and applied their knowledge of it to their work. Mathematicians and philosophers, such asBertrand Russell ,Alfred North Whitehead , andBaruch Spinoza , have attempted to create their own foundational "Elements" for their respective disciplines, by adopting the axiomatized deductive structures that Euclid's work introduced.The success of the "Elements" is due primarily to its logical presentation of most of the mathematical knowledge available to Euclid. Much of the material is not original to him, although many of the proofs are his. However, Euclid's systematic development of his subject, from a small set of axioms to deep results, and the consistency of his approach throughout the "Elements", encouraged its use as a textbook for about 2,000 years. The "Elements" still influences modern geometry books. Further, its logical axiomatic approach and rigorous proofs remain the cornerstone of mathematics.

Although "Elements" is primarily a geometric work, it also includes results that today would be classified as

number theory . Euclid probably chose to describe results in number theory in terms of geometry because he couldn't develop a constructible approach to arithmetic. A construction used in any of Euclid's proofs required a proof that it is actually possible. This avoids the problems the Pythagoreans encountered with irrationals, since their fallacious proofs usually required a statement such as "Find the greatest common measure of ..." [*cite book|author=Daniel Shanks|title=Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory|year=2002|publisher=American Mathematical Society*]**First principles**Euclid's Book 1 begins with 23 definitions — such as "point", "line", and "

surface " — followed by fivepostulate s and five "common notions" (both of which are today calledaxiom s). These are the foundation of all that follows.Postulates:

# A straight line segment can be drawn by joining any two points.

# A straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a straight line.

# Given a straight line segment, a circle can be drawn using the segment as radius and one endpoint as center.

# All right angles are equal.

# If two lines are drawn which intersect a third in such a way that the sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two right angles, then the two lines inevitably must intersect each other on that side if extended far enough.Common notions:

# Things which equal the same thing are equal to one another. (Euclidean property of equality)

# If equals are added to equals, then the sums are equal. (Addition property of equality)

# If equals are subtracted from equals, then the remainders are equal. (Subtraction property of equality)

# Things which coincide with one another are equal to one another. (Reflexive property of equality)

# The whole is greater than the part.These basic principles reflect the interest of Euclid, along with his contemporary Greek and Hellenistic mathematicians, in constructive geometry. The first three postulates basically describe the constructions one can carry out with a compass and an unmarked

straightedge . A markedruler , used inneusis construction , is forbidden in Euclid construction, probably because Euclid could not prove that verging lines meet.**Parallel postulate**The last of Euclid's five postulates warrants special mention. Euclid's fifth postulate implies that when parallel lines are crossed by a transversal then same side interior angles are supplementary. In Euclid's system the converse is also true (see figure). Together these statements may be given in a logically equivalent form known as

**Playfair's axiom**, named after the Scottishmathematician John Playfair . It states:"Exactly one line can be drawn through any point not on a given line parallel to the given line in a plane." [

*[*]*http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/bookI/propI30.html Euclid's Parallel Postulate and Playfair's Axiom*]The so-called

parallel postulate always seemed less obvious than the others. Euclid himself used it only sparingly throughout the rest of the "Elements". Many geometers suspected that it might be provable from the other postulates, but all attempts to do this failed.By the mid-19th century, it was shown that no such proof exists, because one can construct non-Euclidean geometries where the parallel postulate is false, while the other postulates remain true. For this reason, mathematicians say that the parallel postulate is independent of the other postulates.

Two alternatives to the parallel postulate are possible in non-Euclidean geometries: in a

hyperbolic geometry (also called "Lobachevskian geometry") an infinite number of parallel parallel lines can be drawn through a point not on a given line, whereas in anelliptic geometry (also called "Riemannian geometry ") no parallel lines exist. That other geometries could be logically consistent was one of the most important discoveries in mathematics, with vast implications for science and philosophy. Indeed,Albert Einstein 's theory ofgeneral relativity shows that the real space in which we live is non-Euclidean.**Contents of the books**Books 1 through 4 deal with plane geometry:

* Book 1 contains the basic propositions of geometry: thePythagorean theorem (Proposition 47), equality of angles andarea s, parallelism, the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the three cases in which triangles are "equal" (have the same area).

* Book 2 is commonly called the "book of geometrical algebra," because the material it contains may easily be interpreted in terms ofalgebra .

* Book 3 deals with circles and their properties:inscribe d angles,tangent s, the power of a point.

* Book 4 is concerned with inscribing and circumscribing triangles andregular polygon s.Books 5 through 10 introduce

ratio s and proportions:* Book 5 is a treatise on proportions of magnitudes.

* Book 6 applies proportions to geometry:Thales' theorem , similar figures.

* Book 7 deals strictly with elementary number theory:divisibility ,prime number s,greatest common divisor ,least common multiple .

* Book 8 deals with proportions in number theory and geometric sequences.

* Book 9 applies the results of the preceding two books: the infinitude of prime numbers, the sum of ageometric series ,perfect number s.

* Book 10 attempts to classify incommensurable (in modern language, irrational) magnitudes by using themethod of exhaustion , a precursor to integration.Books 11 through 13 deal with spatial geometry:

* Book 11 generalizes the results of Books 1–6 to space: perpendicularity, parallelism, volumes of

parallelepiped s.

* Book 12 calculates areas and volumes by using the method of exhaustion: cones, pyramids, cylinders, and thesphere .

* Book 13 generalizes Book 4 to space: golden section, the five regularPlatonic solid s inscribed in a sphere.**Criticism**Despite its universal acceptance and success, the "Elements" has been criticised as having insufficient proofs and definitions. For example, in the first construction of Book 1, Euclid used a premise that was neither postulated nor proved: that two circles with centers at the distance of their radius will intersect in two points. Later, in the fourth construction, he used the movement of triangles to prove that if two sides and their angles are equal, then they are congruent; however, he did not postulate or even define movement.

In the 19th century, non-Euclidean geometries attracted the attention of contemporary mathematicians. Leading mathematicians, including

Richard Dedekind andDavid Hilbert , attempted to reformulate the axioms of the "Elements", such as by adding an axiom of continuity and an axiom of congruence, to make Euclidean geometry more complete.Mathematician and historian

W. W. Rouse Ball put the criticisms in perspective, remarking that "the fact that for two thousand years [the "Elements"] was the usual text-book on the subject raises a strong presumption that it is not unsuitable for that purpose." [*Ball (1960) p. 55.*]**Apocrypha**It was not uncommon in ancient time to attribute to celebrated authors works that were not written by them. It is by these means that the

apocryphal books XIV and XV of the "Elements" were sometimes included in the collection. The spurious Book XIV was likely written byHypsicles on the basis of a treatise byApollonius . The book continues Euclid's comparison of regular solids inscribed in spheres, with the chief result being that the ratio of the surfaces of thedodecahedron andicosahedron inscribed in the same sphere is the same as the ratio of their volumes, the ratio being $sqrt\{\; frac\{10\}\{3(5-sqrt\{5\})\; =\; sqrt\{\; frac\{5+sqrt\{5\{6$.The spurious Book XV was likely written, at least in part, by

Isidore of Miletus . This inferior book covers topics such as counting the number of edges and solid angles in the regular solids, and finding the measure of dihedral angles of faces that meet at an edge.cite book|last=Boyer|authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer|title=|year=1991|chapter=Euclid of Alexandria|pages=118-119|quote=In ancient times it was not uncommon to attribute to a celebrated author works that were not by him; thus, some versions of Euclid's "Elements" include a fourteenth and even a fifteenth book, both shown by later scholars to be apocryphal. The so-called Book XIV continues Euclid's comparison of the regular solids inscribed in a sphere, the chief results being that the ratio of the surfaces of the dodecahedron and icosahedron inscribed in the same sphere is the same as the ratio of their volumes, the ratio being that of the edge of the cube to the edge of the icosahedron, that is, $sqrt\{10/\; [3(5-sqrt\{5\})]\; \}$. It is thought that this book may have been composed by Hypsicles on the basis of a treatise (now lost) by Apollonius comparing the dodecahedron and icosahedron. [...] The spurious Book XV, which is inferior, is thought to have been (at least in part) the work of Isidore of Miletus (fl. ca. A.D. 532), architect of the cathedral of Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) at Constantinople. This book also deals with the regular solids, counting the number o edges and solid angles in the solids, and finding the measures of the dihedral angles of faces meeting at an edge.]**Editions***1460s,

Regiomontanus (incomplete)

*1533, "editio princeps " by Simon Grynäus

*1572, Commandinus

*1574,Christoph Clavius **Translations***1505, Bartolomeo Zamberti (Latin)

*1543, Venturino Ruffinelli (Italian)

*1555, Johann Scheubel (German)

*1562, Jacob Kündig (German)

*1564, Pierre Forcadel de Beziers (French)

*1570, John Day (English)

*1576, Rodrigo de Zamorano (Spanish)

*1594, Typografia Medicea (edition of the Arabic translation ofNasir al-Din al-Tusi )

*1607,Matteo Ricci ,Xu Guangqi (Chinese)

*1660,Isaac Barrow (English)**Currently in print**"Euclid's Elements - All thirteen books in one volume" Green Lion Press. ISBN 1-888009-18-7Based on Heath's translation.

**Notes****References***cite book

last = Ball

first = W.W. Rouse

authorlink = W. W. Rouse Ball

title = A Short Account of the History of Mathematics

origyear =

url =

edition = 4th ed. [Reprint. Original publication: London: Macmillan & Co., 1908]

year = 1960

publisher = Dover Publications

location = New York

id = ISBN 0-486-20630-0

pages = pp. 50–62

*cite book

last = Heath

first = Thomas L.

authorlink = T. L. Heath

title = The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements

format = 3 vols.

edition = 2nd ed. [Facsimile. Original publication: Cambridge University Press, 1925]

year = 1956

publisher = Dover Publications

location = New York

id = ISBN 0-486-60088-2 (vol. 1), ISBN 0-486-60089-0 (vol. 2), ISBN 0-486-60090-4 (vol. 3) Heath's authoritative translation plus extensive historical research and detailed commentary throughout the text.

*cite book

first=Carl B.

last=Boyer

authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer

title=A History of Mathematics

edition=Second Edition

publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

year=1991

isbn=0471543977**External links***cite book

last = Euclid

title = Elements

origyear = c. 300 BC

url = http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/toc.html

accessdate = 2006-08-30

year = David E. Joyce, ed. 1997 In HTML with Java-based interactive figures.

* [*http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/euclid.html a bilingual edition*] (typset in PDF format, with the original Greek and an English translation on facing pages; free in PDF form, available in print)

* [*http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0086 Heath's English translation*] (HTML, without the figures) (accessedMay 6 2007 )

** Heath's English translation and commentary, with the figures (Google Books): [*http://books.google.com/books?id=UhgPAAAAIAAJ vol. 1*] , [*http://books.google.com/books?id=lxkPAAAAIAAJ vol. 2*] , [*http://books.google.com/books?id=xhkPAAAAIAAJ vol. 3*] , [*http://books.google.com/books?id=KHMDAAAAYAAJ vol. 3 c. 2*]

* (typeset in PDF format, public domain. available [*http://www.lulu.com/content/829379 in print*] --free download)

* [*http://www.sunsite.ubc.ca/DigitalMathArchive/Euclid/byrne.html Oliver Byrne's 1847 edition*] - an unusual version using color rather than labels such as ABC (scanned page images, public domain)

* [*http://www.du.edu/~etuttle/classics/nugreek/contents.htm Reading Euclid*] - a course in how to read Euclid in the original Greek, with English translations and commentaries (HTML with figures)

* [*http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/21076 The First Six Books of the Elements*] by John Casey and Euclid scanned byProject Gutenberg .**Complete and fragmentary manuscripts of versions of Euclid's "Elements" :**

*Sir Thomas More's [*http://www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/24.html manuscript*]

* [*http://www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/6.html Latin translation*] byAethelhard of Bath

* [*http://euclides.org Euclid's elements*] , All thirteen books, in Spanish and Catalan.

* [*http://www.physics.ntua.gr/Faculty/mourmouras/euclid/index.html Euclid Elements - The original Greek text*] Greek HTML

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