- Aesop's Fables
Aesop's Fables or Aesopica refers to a collection of
fables credited to Aesop(620– 560 BC), a slave and story-teller who lived in Ancient Greece. Aesop's Fables have become a blanket termfor collections of brief fables, usually involving anthropomorphic animals. His fables are some of the most well known in the world. The fables remain a popular choice for moraleducation of children today. Many stories included in Aesop's Fables, such as " The Fox and the Grapes" (from which the idiom"sour grapes" was derived), " The Tortoise and the Hare", " The North Wind and the Sun" and " The Boy Who Cried Wolf", are well-known throughout the world. Apollonius of Tyana, the 1st century AD philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop:
...like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great truths, and after serving up a story he adds to it the advice to do a thing or not to do it. Then, too, he was really more attached to truth than the poets are; for the latter do violence to their own stories in order to make them probable; but he by announcing a story which everyone knows not to be true, told the truth by the very fact that he did not claim to be relating real events.
And there is another charm about him, namely, that he puts animals in a pleasing light and makes them interesting to mankind. For after being brought up from childhood with these stories, and after being as it were nursed by them from babyhood, we acquire certain opinions of the several animals and think of some of them as royal animals, of others as silly, of others as witty, and others as innocent. (
Philostratus, " Life of Apollonius of Tyana", Book V:14)
Aesop (from the Greek "polytonic|Αἴσωπος" — "Aisopos"), famous for his
fables, was a slave who lived mid-sixth century BC, in Ancient Greece. The place of Aesop's birth was and still is disputed: Thrace, Phrygia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Samos, Athens, Sardisand Amoriumall claimed the honor. Little is known about him from credible records, except that he was at one point freed from slavery and that he eventually died in Delphi. In fact, the obscurity shrouding his life has led some scholars to deny his existence altogether.
According to the Greek
historian Herodotus, the fables were invented by a slave named Aesop, who lived in Ancient Greece during the 6th century BC. While some suggested that Aesop did not actually exist, and that the fables attributed to him are folktales of unknown origins, Aesop was indeed mentioned in several other Ancient Greek works – Aristophanes, in his comedy " The Wasps", represented the protagonist Philocleon as having learnt the "absurdities" of Aesop from conversation at banquets; Platowrote in " Phaedo" that Socrateswhiled away his jail time turning some of Aesop's fables "which he knew" into verses; Demetrius of Phalerumcompiled the fables into a set of ten books ("Lopson Aisopeion sunagogai"), which have been lost, for the use of orators. There was also an edition in elegiacverse by an anonymous author, which was often cited in the " Suda".
Translation and transmission
The first extensive translation of Aesop into Latin was done by
Phaedrus, a freedmanof Augustus in this 1st century AD, although at least one fable had already been translated by the poet Ennius. Avianusalso translated forty two of the fables into Latin elegiacs, probably in the 4th century AD.
The collection under the name of Aesop's Fables evolved from the late Greek version of
Babrius, who turned them into choliambic verses, at an uncertain time between 3rd century BC and 3rd century AD. In about 100 BC, Indian philosopher Syntipastranslated Babrius into Syriac, from where Andreopulostranslated back to Greek, since original Greek scripts had all been lost. Aesop's fables and the " Panchatantra" share about a dozen tales, leading to discussions whether the Greeks learned these fables from Indian storytellers or the other way, or if the influences were mutual. Ben E. Perry, one of the foremost authorities on Aesopic fable, argued for the second possibility in his book "Babrius and Phaedrus". In his introduction he wrote:
In the 9th century,
Ignatius Diaconuscreated a version of fifty-five fables in choliambic tetrameters, into which stories from Orientalsources were added, ultimately mutated from the Sanskrit"Panchatantra". From these collections the 14th-century monk Maximus Planudescompiled the collection which has come down under the name of Aesop. [D .L. Ashliman, "Introduction", p. xxii, in "Aesop's Fables" (2003)]
The first printed version of Aesop's Fables in English was published on
March 26 1484by William Caxton. Around the same time, the Scottish poet Robert Henryson was composing his poem, " The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian", a sophisticated interconnected sequence of fable adaptations which made a work of high art out of the genre. Aesop himself appears at the heart of this version in the unusual guise of a Roman. Henryson's Scots fable version is not known to have occured in print form until the later 16th century. Caxton's version was updated by Sir Roger L'Estrangein 1692.
Henryson, throughout his version, consistently developed and expanded on such Aesopic tropes. For example, in his dialogue between the lion and the mouse, his mouse (in a parallel predicament to the fish) makes an extended plea which explicitly cites issues of
law, justiceand politics:
The most reproduced modern English translations were made by Rev.
George Fyler Townsend(1814 – 1900). Ben E. Perry, the editor of Aesopic fables of Babrius and Phaedrusfor the Loeb Classical Library, compiled a numbered index by type. The edition by Olivia Templeand Robert Templeis entitled "The Complete Fables by Aesop"; the fables are not complete here since fables from Babrius, Phaedrusand other major ancient sources have been omitted. More recently, in 2002 a translation by Laura Gibbs was published by Oxford World's Classics, entitled "Aesop's Fables". This book includes 359 fables and has selections from all the major Greek and Latin sources.
Aesop's Fables in other languages
*The French fables of
Jean de la Fontainewere inspired by the brevity and simplicity of Aesop's Fables. [ [http://www.memodata.com/2004/fr/fables_de_la_fontaine/lf3.shtml Préface aux Fables de La Fontaine] ]
*Around 1800, the fables were adapted and translated into Russian by the Russian
fabulist Ivan Krylov.
*The first translation of Aesop's Fables into Chinese was made in 1625. It included thirty-one fables conveyed orally by a Belgian Jesuit
missionaryto Chinanamed Nicolas Trigaultand written down by a Chinese academic named Zhang Geng (張賡). There have been various modern-day translations by Zhou Zuorenand others.
*Portuguese missionaries arriving in
Japanat the end of the 16th century introduced Japan to this story. A Latinedition was translated into romanized Japanese. The title was "Esopo no Fabvlas" and dates to 1593. This was soon followed by a fuller translation into a three-volume kanazōshi entitled nihongo|"Isoppu Monogatari"|伊曾保物語| sometime between 1596 and 1624.
Robert Henryson, the Scottish poet, composed his " Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian" in the 1480s (see above).
Jean de la Fontaine, the French poet, took his inspiration from Aesop's Fables to write his "Fables Choisies" (1668).
*The American cartoonist Paul Terry began his own series of cartoons called "
Aesop's Film Fables" in 1921. In 1928, the Van Beuren Studio took over the series. It ended in 1933.
dramatist Guilherme Figueiredowrote a play "The Fox and the Grapes" ("A raposa e as uvas") (1953) about Aesop's life.
*The American animator
Jay Wardcreated a series of short cartoons called " Aesop and Son", which first aired as part of " The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show" in the early 1960s.
Smothers Brothers, an American musical-comedy team, released a comedy album titled "" in 1965. Seven of Aesop's more famous fables and morals are related in the album.
Bill Cosbyportrayed the storyteller in a 1971 children's program titled "Aesop's Fables".
*The famed American artist Jacob Lawrence (b. 1917) illustrated Aesop's Fables for the University of Washington Press in 1997.
List of some fables by Aesop
Aesop's most famous fables include:
The Ant and the Grasshopper"
The Bear and the Travelers"
The Boy Who Cried Wolf"
*"The Boy Who Was Vain"
The Cat and the Mice"
The Crow and the Pitcher"
The Deer without a Heart"
The Dog and the Bone"
The Dog and the Wolf"
The Dog in the Manger"
The Farmer and the Stork"
The Farmer and the Viper
The Frog and the Ox"
The Frogs Who Desired a King"
*"The Fox and the Crow"
The Fox and the Goat"
The Fox and the Grapes"
The Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs"
The Lion and the Mouse"
*"The Mice in Council"
The Mischievous Dog
The North Wind and the Sun"
The Tortoise and the Hare"
The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse"
The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing"
*A famous fable commonly mis-attributed to Aesop is "
The Scorpion and the Frog".
*It is alleged the story "
The Fox and the Cat" is an Aesop Fable.
Ancient Greek literature
*Anthony, Mayvis, 2006. "The Legendary Life and Fables of Aesop". Toronto: Mayant Press.
*Bentley, Richard, 1697. "Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris... and the Fables of Æsop". London.
Caxton, William, 1484. "The history and fables of Aesop", Westminster. Modern reprint edited by Robert T. Lenaghan (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1967).
** [http://www.bartleby.com/39/7.html Caxton's famous Epilogue to the Fables] , dated
March 26, 1484
*Handford, S. A., 1954. "Fables of Aesop". New York: Penguin.
*Jacobs, Joseph, 1889. "The Fables of Aesop: Selected, Told Anew, and Their History Traced", as first printed by William Caxton, 1484, from his French translation
** [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/a/aesop/a3j/a3j_hist.html i. "A short history of the Aesopic fable"]
**ii. "The Fables of Aesop"
Lewis William Brüggemann, [http://books.google.com/books?id=33Ta_Vmzh60C A View of the English Editions, Translations, and Illustrations of the Ancient Greek and Latin Authors] , 1797. Burt Franklin. Provides a long list of translations with notes about each.
*Perry, Ben E. (editor), 1965. "Babrius and Phaedrus", (Loeb Classical Library) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965. English translations of 143 Greek verse fables by Babrius, 126 Latin verse fables by Phaedrus, 328 Greek fables not extant in Babrius, and 128 Latin fables not extant in Phaedrus (including some medieval materials) for a total of 725 fables.
Thomas JamesM.A., (Ill. John Tenniel), [http://books.google.com/books?id=rUbRa8jtSz8C Aesop's Fables: A New Version, Chiefly from Original Sources] , 1848. John Murray. (includes many pictures)
*Temple, Olivia and Robert (translators), 1998. "Aesop, The Complete Fables," New York: Penguin Classics. (ISBN 0-14-044649-4)
** [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1998/98.5.16.html Bryn Mawr Classical Review, with Aesop bibliography]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/Hareandt1947 1947 Hare and Tortoise film] at Internet Archive (public domain).
* [http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type0285d.html#aesop Aesop: a comparison with
* [http://www.aesopfables.com/ Aesopic fables and other stories - an online collection for children, some] (links to [http://www.pacificnet.net/~johnr/aesop/ Aesop's Fables] ). See also [http://www.pacificnet.net/~johnr/cgi/aesop1.cgi?1&Preface Preface to Aesop's Fables]
* [http://www.mythfolklore.net/aesopica/index.htm Aesopica] : Over 600 English fables, plus Caxton's Aesop, Latin and Greek texts, Content Index, and Site Search.
* [http://librivox.org/aesops-fables-menu/ Aesop's Fables] , Librivox Audio CDs
* [http://librivox.org/aesops-fables-menu/ Free audiobook of Aesop's Fables] from [http://librivox.org LibriVox]
* [http://www.metmuseum.org/TOAH/HD/wifb/ho_31.62.9.htm Images of Aesopus moralitus - Vita, Fabulae]
* [http://www.adamsmithacademy.org/etext/Aesop/Aesop_Fables.html Complete collection with eText and Narration] to read along and listen to.
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