In Greek mythology, Pandora (from Greek: polytonic|Πανδώρα, "giver of all, all-endowed" [ [ Pandora, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus] ] ) was the first woman. Each god helped create her by giving her unique gifts. Zeus ordered Hephaestus to mould her out of Earth ("Γαîα" -Gaia) as part of the punishment of mankind for Prometheus' theft of the secret of fire, and all the gods joined in offering this "beautiful evil" seductive gifts. Her other name, inscribed against her figure on a white-ground "kylix" in the British Museum ("illustration, right"), is Anesidora, "she who sends up gifts." [Harrison, "Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion" 3rd ed., 1922:281. If "Anesidora/Pandora" were already "all-gifted", this would be an instance of mythic inversion.] According to the myth, pandora opened a jar ("pithos") in modern accounts referred to as "Pandora's box", releasing all the evils of mankind— greed, vanity, slander, envy, pining— leaving only Hope inside once she had closed it again.

The myth of Pandora is very old, appears in several distinct Greek versions, and has been interpreted in many ways. In all literary versions, however, the myth is a kind of theodicy, addressing the question of why there is evil in the world. In the seventh century BC Hesiod, both in his "Theogony" (briefly, without naming Pandora outright, line 570) and in "Works and Days", gives the earliest literary version of the Pandora story. There is an older mention of jars or urns containing blessings and evils bestowed upon Mankind in Homer:

The immortals know no care, yet the lot they spin for man is full of sorrow; on the floor of Zeus' palace there stand two urns, the one filled with evil gifts, and the other with good ones. He for whom Zeus the lord of thunder mixes the gifts he sends, will meet now with good and now with evil fortune; but he to whom Zeus sends none but evil gifts will be pointed at by the finger of scorn, the hand of famine will pursue him to the ends of the world, and he will go up and down the face of the earth, respected neither by gods nor men. [Homer, Iliad, 24:527.; [ on-line Greek and English text] [ Theoi Project: Pandora] ]

The myth according to Hesiod: the "Theogony"

The Pandora myth first appears in lines 560-612 of Hesiod's (ca. 8th-7th centuries BC) epic poem, the "Theogony", without ever giving the woman a name. After humans have received the gift of fire from Prometheus, an angry Zeus decides to give men a punishing gift to compensate for the boon they had been given. He commands Hephaestus to mould from earth the first woman, a "beautiful evil" whose descendants would torment the race of men. After Hephaestus does so, Athena dressed her in a silvery gown, an embroidered veil, garlands and an ornate crown of gold. This woman goes unnamed in the "Theogony", but is presumably Pandora, whose myth Hesiod revisited in "Works and Days". When she first appears before gods and mortals, "wonder seized them" as they looked upon her. But she was "sheer guile, not to be withstood by men." Hesiod elaborates (590-93):

From her is the race of women and female kind:
of her is the deadly race and tribe of women who
live amongst mortal men to their great trouble,
no helpmeets in hateful poverty, but only in wealth.

Hesiod goes on to lament that men who try to avoid the evil of women by avoiding marriage will fare no better (604-7):

He reaches deadly old age without anyone to tend his years,
and though he at least has no lack of livelihood while he lives,
yet, when he is dead, his kinsfolk divide his possessions amongst them.

Hesiod concedes that occasionally a man finds a good wife, but still (609) "evil contends with good."

The Hesiodic myth continued: "Works and Days"

The more famous version of the Pandora myth comes from another of Hesiod's poems, the "Works and Days". In this version of the myth (lines 60-105), Hesiod expands upon her origin, and moreover widens the scope of the misery she inflicts on mankind. As before, she is created by Hephaestus, but now more gods contribute to her completion (63-82): Athena taught her needlework and weaving (63-4); Aphrodite "shed grace upon her head and cruel longing and cares that weary the limbs" (65-6); Hermes gave her "a shameful mind and deceitful nature" (67-8); Hermes also gave her the power of speech, putting in her "lies and crafty words" (77-80) ; Athena then clothed her (72); next she, Persuasion and the Charites adorned her with necklaces and other finery (72-4); the Horae adorned her with a garland crown (75). Finally, Hermes gives this woman a name: Pandora -- "All-gifted" -- "because all the Olympians gave her a gift" (81). [In Greek, "Pandora" has an active rather than a passive meaning; hence, Pandora properly means "All-giving." The implications of this mistranslation are explored in "All-giving Pandora: mythic inversion?" below.] In this retelling of her story, Pandora's deceitful feminine nature becomes the least of mankind's worries. For she brings with her a jar [A "pithos" is a very large jar, usually made of rough-grained terra cotta, used for storage.] [Cf. Verdenius, p.64, comment on line 94, on pithos. "Yet Pandora is unlikely to have brought along the jar of ills from heaven, for Hes. would not have omitted describing such an important detail. According to Proclus, Prometheus had received the jar of ills from the satyrs and deposited it with Epimetheus, urging him not to accept Pandora. Maz. [Paul Mazon in his "Hesiode"] suggests that Prometheus probably had persuaded the satyrs to steal the jar from Zeus, when the latter was about to pour them out over mankind. This may have been a familiar tale which Hes. thought unnecessary to relate."] containing ["Contra" M.L. West, "Works and Days", p.168. "Hesiod omits to say where the jar came from, and what Pandora had in mind when she opened it, and what exactly it contained". West goes on to say this contributes to the "inconclusive Pandora legend".] "burdensome toil and sickness that brings death to men" (91-2), diseases (102) and "a myriad other pains" (100). Prometheus had (fearing further reprisals) warned his brother Epimetheus not to accept any gifts from Zeus. But Epimetheus did not listen; he accepted Pandora, who promptly scattered the contents of her jar. As a result, Hesiod tells us, "the earth and sea are full of evils" (101). One item, however, did not escape the jar (96-9), hope:

Only Hope was left within her unbreakable house,
she remained under the lip of the jar, and did not
fly away. Before [she could] , Pandora replaced the
lid of the jar. This was the will of aegis-bearing
Zeus the Cloudgatherer.

He does not tell the reader why hope remained in the jar. [Cf. Verdenius, p.66, regarding line 96, elpis. Verdenius says there are a vast number of explanations.]

Hesiod closes with this moral (105): "Thus it is not possible to escape the mind of Zeus."

Later embellishments

Archaic and Classic Greek literature seem to make no further mention of Pandora, though Sophocles wrote a satyr play "Pandora, or The Hammerers" of which virtually nothing is known. Sappho may have made reference to Pandora in a surviving fragment. [Sappho, fr. 207 in Lobel and Page.]

Later mythographers filled in minor details or added postscripts to Hesiod's account. For example, Apollodorus and Hyginus each make explicit what might be latent in the Hesiodic text: Epimetheus married Pandora. They each add that they had a daughter, Pyrrha, who married Deucalion and survived the deluge with him. However, the Hesiodic "Catalogue of Women", fragment #2, had made a "Pandora" one of the "daughters" of Deucalion, and the mother of Graecus by Zeus. The 15th-century monk Annio da Viterbo credited a manuscript that he asserted that he had found to the Chaldean historian of the 3rd century BC, Berossus, where "Pandora" was also named as a daughter-in-law of Noah; this attempt to conjoin pagan and scriptural narrative is recognized as a forgery.

In a major departure from Hesiod, the 6th-century BC Greek elegiac poet Theognis of Megara tells us:

Hope is the only good god remaining among mankind;
the others have left and gone to Olympus.
Trust, a mighty god has gone, Restraint has gone from men,
and the Graces, my friend, have abandoned the earth.
Men’s judicial oaths are no longer to be trusted, nor does anyone
revere the immortal gods; the race of pious men has perished and
men no longer recognize the rules of conduct or acts of piety.

Theognis seems to be hinting at a myth in which the jar contained blessings rather than evils. In this, he appears to follow a possibly pre-Hesiodic tradition, preserved by the second-century fabulist Babrius, [Babrius, "Fabulla" lviii.] that the gods sent a jar containing blessings to humans. A "foolish man" (not Pandora) opened the jar, and most of the blessings were lost forever. Only hope remained, "to promise each of us the good things that fled."

An independent Pandora tradition that does not square with any of the literary sources is the tradition in the visual repertory of Attic red-figure vase-painters, which sometimes supplements, sometimes ignores, the written testimony; in these reprensentations the upper part of Pandora is visible rising from the earth, "a chthonic goddess like Gaia herself." [Jeffrey M. Hurwit, "Beautiful Evil: Pandora and the Athena Parthenos" "American Journal of Archaeology" 99.2 (April 1995:171-186) p. 177.] . Sometimes, [E.g. as on a volute krater, ca 450 BC, in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (Oxford G 275), Hurwit, p. 276 fig. 7.] but not always, she is labeled "Pandora".

The difficulties of interpretation

Historic interpretations of the Pandora figure are rich enough to have offered Erwin Panofsky scope for monographic treatment. [Panofsky, "Pandora's Box: The Changing Aspects of a Mythical Symbol" (New York, 1962).] M.L. West writes that the story of Pandora and her jar is from a pre-Hesiodic myth, and that this explains the confusion and problems with Hesiod's version and its inconclusiveness.West, "Works and Days", p.164.] He writes that in earlier myths, Pandora was married to Prometheus, and cites the ancient Hesiodic "Catalogue of Women" as preserving this older tradition, and that the jar may have at one point contained only good things for mankind. He also writes that it may have been that Epimetheus and Pandora and their roles were transposed in the pre-Hesiodic myths, a "mythic inversion". He remarks that there is a curious correlation between Pandora being made out of earth in Hesiod's story, to what is in Apollodorus that Prometheus created man from water and earth. (Apollodorus, "Library and Epitome", ed. Sir James George Frazer. [] ) Hesiod's myth of Pandora's jar, then, could be an amalgam of many variant early myths.

In Hesiodic scholarship, the interpretive crux has endured: [Dora Panofsky and Erwin Panofsky examined the post-Renaissance "mythos" (Pandora was not a subject of medieval art) in "Pandora's Box. The Changing Aspects of a Mythical Symbol" (New York: Pantheon, Bollingen series) 1956.] Is Hope's imprisonment inside a jar full of evils for mankind a benefit for mankind, or a further bane? A number of mythology textbooks echo the sentiments of M.L. West: " [Hope's retention in the jar] is comforting, and we are to be thankful for this antidote to our present ills." [West 1978:96.] Some scholars such as Mark Griffith, however, take the opposite view: " [Hope] seems to be a blessing withheld from men so that their life should be the more dreary and depressing." [Griffith 1983:250.] One's interpretation hangs on two related questions: First, how are we to render "elpis", the Greek word usually translated as "hope"? Second, does the jar preserve "Elpis" for men, or keep "Elpis" away from men?

The first question might confuse the non-specialist. But as with most ancient Greek words, "elpis" can be translated a number of ways. A number of scholars prefer the neutral translation of "expectation." But expectation of what? Classical authors use the word "elpis" to mean "expectation of bad," as well as "expectation of good." Statistical analysis demonstrates that the latter sense appears five times more than the former in all of ancient Greek literature. [Leinieks 1984, 1-4.] Others hold the minority view that "elpis" should be rendered, "expectation of evil" ("vel sim").E.g., Verdenius 1985; Blumer 2001.]

How one answers the first question largely depends on the answer to the second question: should we interpret the jar to function as a prison, or a pantry? [The prison/pantry terminology comes from Verdenius 1985 ad 96.] The jar certainly serves as a prison for the evils that Pandora released -- they only affect mankind once outside the jar. Some have argued that logic dictates, therefore, that the jar acts as a prison for "Elpis" as well, withholding it from men. [Scholars holding this view (e.g., Walcot 1961, 250) point out that the jar is termed an "unbreakable" (in Greek: "arrektos") house. In Greek literature (e.g., Homer, and elsewhere in Hesiod), the word "arrektos" is applied to structures meant to sequester or otherwise restrain its contents.] If one takes "elpis" to mean expectant hope, then the myth's tone is pessimistic: All the evils in the world were scattered from Pandora's jar, while the one potentially mitigating force, Hope, remains locked securely inside. [See Griffith 1984 above.]

This interpretation raises yet another question, complicating the debate: are we to take Hope in an absolute sense, or in a narrow sense where we understand Hope to mean hope only as it pertains to the evils released from the jar? If Hope is imprisoned in the jar, does this mean that human existence is utterly hopeless? This is the most pessimistic reading possible for the myth. A less pessimistic interpretation (still pessimistic, to be sure) understands the myth to say: countless evils fled Pandora's jar and plague human existence; the hope that we might be able to master these evils remains imprisoned inside the jar. Life is not hopeless, but each of us is hopelessly human. [ Thus Athanassakis 1983 in his commentary ad "Works" 96.]

An objection to the "hope is good/the jar is a prison" interpretation counters that, if the jar is full of evils, then what is expectant hope -- a blessing -- doing among them? This objection leads some to render "elpis" as the expectation of evil, which would make the myth's tone somewhat optimistic: although humankind is troubled by all the evils in the world, at least we are spared the continual expectation of evil, which would make life unbearable.

The optimistic reading of the myth is expressed by M.L. West. "Elpis" takes the more common meaning of expectant hope. And while the jar served as a prison for the evils that escaped, it thereafter serves as a residence for Hope. West explains, "It would be absurd to represent either the presence of ills by their confinement in a jar or the presence of hope by its escape from one." [West 1988, 169-70.] Hope is thus preserved as a benefit for humans. [Taking the jar to serve as a prison at some times and as a pantry at others will also accommodate another pessimistic interpretation of the myth. In this reading, attention is paid to the phrase "moune Elpis" -- "only Hope," or "Hope alone." A minority opinion construes the phrase instead to mean "empty Hope" or "baseless Hope": not only are humans plagued by a multitude of evils, but they persist in the fruitless hope that things might get better. Thus Beall 1989 227-28.]

All-giving Pandora: a mythic inversion

The etymology of Pandora's name, "all-gifted" provided in "Works and Days" is an incorrect folk etymology. Pandora properly means "all-giving" rather than "all-gifted." Certain vase paintings dated to the 5th century BC likewise indicate that the pre-Hesiodic myth of the goddess Pandora endured for centuries after the time of Hesiod. An alternate name for Pandora attested on a white-ground kylix (ca. 460 BC) is "Anesidora", which similarly means "she who sends up gifts." This vase painting clearly depicts Hephaestus and Athena putting the finishing touches on the first woman, as in the "Theogony". Written above this figure (a convention in Greek vase painting) is the name "Anesidora". More commonly, however, the epithet "anesidora" is applied to Gaea or Demeter.

This connection of Pandora to Gaea and Demeter through the name Anesidora provides a clue as to Pandora's evolution as a mythic figure. In classical scholarship it is generally posited that—for female deities in particular—one or more secondary mythic entities sometimes "splinter off" (so to speak) from a primary entity, assuming aspects of the original in the process. The most famous example of this is the putative division of all the aspects of the so-called Great Goddess into a number of goddesses with more specialized functions—Gaea, Demeter, Persephone, Artemis and Hecate among them. Pandora appears to be just such a product of this process. In a previous incarnation now lost to us, Pandora/Anesidora would have taken on aspects of Gaea and Demeter. She would embody the fertility of the earth and its capacity to bear grain and fruits for the benefit of humankind. [Hence, possibly, the variant myth that Pandora's jar contained blessings for mankind.] Jane Ellen Harrison [Harrison, "Prolegomena" 1922, pp 280-83.] turned to the repertory of vase-painters to shed light on aspects of myth that were left unaddressed or disguised in literature. The story of Pandora was repeated on Greek ceramics. On a fifth century amphora in the Ashmolean Museum (her fig.71) the half-figure of Pandora emerges from the ground, her arms upraised in the epiphany gesture, to greet Epimetheus. [Compare the rising female figure, identified as Aphrodite, on the "Ludovisi Throne".] A winged "ker" with a fillet hovers overhead: "Pandora rises from the earth; she "is" the Earth, giver of all gifts," Harrison observes.

Over time this "all-giving" goddess somehow devolved into an "all-gifted" mortal woman. T. A. Sinclair, commenting on "Works and Days" [Sinclair, editor, "Hesiod: Works and Days" (London: Macmillan) 1932:12.] argues that Hesiod shows no awareness of the mythology of such a divine "giver". A.H. Smith [Smith, "The Making of Pandora" "The Journal of Hellenic Studies" 11 (1890, pp. 278-283), p 283.] , however, notes that in Hesiod's account Athena and the Seasons brought wreaths of grass and spring flowers to Pandora, indicating that Hesiod was conscious of Pandora's original "all-giving" function. Jane Ellen Harrison sees in Hesiod's story "evidence of a shift from matriarchy to patriarchy in Greek culture. As the life-bringing goddess Pandora is eclipsed, the death-bringing human Pandora arises." [William E. Phipps, "Eve and Pandora contrasted" "Theology Today" 45 [ on-line text] ] Thus Harrison concludes "in the patriarchal mythology of Hesiod her great figure is strangely changed and diminished. She is no longer Earth-Born, but the creature, the handiwork of Olympian Zeus." (Harrison 1922:284) Robert Graves, quoting Harrison, [Harrison, "Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion" (1903) 1922:283-85 quoted in Graves, "The Greek Myths" (1955) 1960, sect.39.8 p 148.] asserts of the Hesiodic episode that "Pandora is not a genuine myth, but an anti-feminist fable, probably of his own invention."

The Hesiodic myth did not, however, completely obliterate the memory of the all-giving goddess Pandora. A scholium to line 971 of Aristophanes' "The Birds" mentions a cult "to Pandora, the earth, because she bestows all things necessary for life". [Jeffrey M. Hurwit, "Beautiful Evil: Pandora and the Athena Parthenos" "American Journal of Archaeology" 99.2 (April 1995:171-186). ]

In fifth-century Athens Pandora made a prominent appearance in what, at first, appears an unexpected context, in a marble relief or bronze appliqués as a frize along the base of the "Athena Parthenos" the culminating experience on the Acropolis; there Jeffrey M. Hurwit has interpreted her presence as an "anti-Athena" reinforcing civic ideologies of patriarchy and the "highly gendered social and political realities of fifth-century Athens." [Jeffrey M. Hurwit, "Beautiful Evil: Pandora and the Athena Parthenos" "American Journal of Archaeology" 99.2 (April 1995:171-186) ] Interpretation has never come easy: Pausanias (i.24.7) merely noted the subject and moved on. Jeffrey Hurwit has argued that Pandora represents an "anti-Athena", similarly a child of no mother, an embodiment of the need for the patriarchal rule that the virginal Athena, rising above her sex, defended.

Feminist interpretations of Pandora

Jane Ellen Harrison [Harrison, "Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion", 1922:280-83, "The Making of a Goddess".] states that in an earlier set of myths, Pandora was a manifestation of the Great Goddess, provider of the gifts that made life and culture possible, and that Hesiod's tale can be seen as part of a propaganda campaign to demote her from her previously revered status. The Hesiodic myth's misogyny is apparent in the transformation of a goddess who gives all good things to men into a mortal woman who is intrinsically evil and who, moreover, introduces every conceivable evil to mankind. Modern feminist literary criticism has also focused on the gendered symbolism inherent in the myth. Pandora's jar, feminist theory suggests, represents the female womb. That the jar releases a myriad of evils upon the earth suggests the phallocentric culture's unease with female sexuality. [See, for example, Reeder 1995, 195-99 and 277-279; Zeitlin 1995 "passim", but particularly the chapter on Pandora: "Signifying Difference: The Case of Hesiod's Pandora." For an extensive bibliography on women in ancient Greek myth and society, see the list of references compiled by John Porter:] For further feminist study of the myth, see Charlene Spretnak, "Lost Goddesses of Early Greece; A Collection of Pre-Hellenic Mythology", 1977.

"Pithos" into "box"

The mistranslation of "pithos", a large storage jar, as "box" [The development of this transformation was sketched by Jane Ellen Harrison, "Pandora's Box" "The Journal of Hellenic Studies" 20 (1900:99-114); she traced the mistranslation as far as Lilius Giraldus of Ferrara, in his "Historiarum Deorum Syntagma" (1580), in which "pithos" was rendered "pyxide", and she linked the "pithos" with the "Pithoigia" aspect of the Athenian festival of Anthestria.] is usually attributed to the sixteenth century humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam when he translated Hesiod's tale of Pandora into Latin. Hesiod's "pithos" refers to a large storage jar, often half-buried in the ground, used for wine, oil or grain. [Cf. Verdenius, p.64] It can also refer to a funerary jar. [Cf. Harrison, Jane Ellen, "Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion", Chapter II, The Pithoigia, pp.42-43. Cf. also Figure 7 which shows a ancient Greek vase painting in the University of Jena where Hermes is presiding over a body in a pithos buried in the ground. "In the vase painting in fig.7 from a lekythos in the University Museum of Jena we see a Pithoigia of quite other and solemn intent. A large pithos is sunk deep into the ground. It has served as a grave. ... The vase-painting in fig. 7 must not be regarded as an actual conscious representation of the Athenian rite performed on the first day of the Anthesteria. It is more general in content; it is in fact simply a representation of ideas familiar to every Greek, that the pithos was a grave-jar, that from such grave-jars souls escaped and to them necessarily returned, and that Hermes was Psychopompos, Evoker and Revoker of souls. The vase-painting is in fact only another form of the scene so often represented on Athenian white lekythoi, in which the souls flutter round the grave-stele. The grave-jar is but the earlier form of sepulture; the little winged figures, the Keres, are identical in both classes of vase-painting."]

Erasmus, however, translated "pithos" into the Latin word "pyxis", meaning "box". [In his notes to Hesiod's "Works and Days" (p.168) M.L. West has surmised that Erasmus may have confused the story of Pandora with the story found elsewhere of a box which was opened by Psyche; the Panofskys (1956) follow him in this surmise.] The phrase "Pandora's box" has endured ever since.



* Athanassakis, A. "Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, Shield" (New York 1983).
* Beall, E. "The Contents of Hesiod's Pandora Jar: "Erga" 94-98," Hermes 117 (1989) 227-30.
*Harrison, Jane Ellen, "Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion" (1903) 1922, pp 280-85.
* Griffith, Mark. "Aeschylus "Prometheus Bound" Text and Commentary" (Cambridge 1983).
* Hesiod, "Works and Days" [ On-line text] .
* Kenaan, "Pandora's Senses: The Feminine Character of the Ancient Text" (Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2008), Pp. xii, 253 (Wisconsin Studies in Classics).
* Kirk, G.S., "Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures" (Berkeley 1970) 226-32.
* Lamberton, Robert, "Hesiod", New Haven : Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0300040687. Cf. Chapter II, "The Theogony", and Chapter III, "The Works and Days", especially pp.96-103 for a side-by-side comparison and analysis of the Pandora story.
* Leinieks, V. "Elpis" in Hesiod, "Works and Days" 96," "Philologus" 128 (1984) 1-8.
* Moore, Clifford H. "The Religious Thought of the Greeks", 1916.
* Musaeus, Immanuel, "Der Pandoramythos bei Hesiod und seine Rezeption bis Erasmus von Rotterdam" (Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004), Pp. 234 (Hypomnemata, 151).
* Nilsson, Martin P. "History of Greek Religion", 1949.
* Pucci, Pietro, "Hesiod and the Language of Poetry" (Baltimore 1977)
* Smith, William, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology", 1870, sub "Pandora" [ On-line text]
* [ William Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology" (1870) vol I:177, sub "Anesidora"] "Spender" is a misprint of "sender", often repeated.
* Verdenius, Willem Jacob, "A Commentary on Hesiod "Works and Days" vv 1-382" (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1985). ISBN 9004074651
* Vernant, J.P., "Myth and Society in Ancient Greece" (New York 1990) 183-201.
* Warner, M., "Monuments and Maidens: The Allegory of the Female Form" (New York 1985) 213-40
* West, M.L. "Hesiod, "Theogony", ed. with prolegomena and commentary" (Oxford 1966).
* -- "Hesiod, "Works and Days", ed. with prolegomena and commentary" (Oxford 1978).
* -- "Hesiod, "Theogony", and Works and Days" (Oxford 1988).
* Zeitlin, Froma. "Playing the Other: Gender and Society in Classical Greek Literature" (Princeton 1995).

External links

* [ Story of Pandora's Jar at The Classics Pages]

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