- Air Inter
Air Inter was incorporated on
November 12, 1954. It operated its first commercial flight between Parisand Strasbourgon March 16, 1958. However, it was 1960 when the airline started regular commercial services. [http://www.fotw.net/flags/fr$hfair.html Air France (Airline, France)] ]
The company established its operational and engineering base at
Paris Orly Airport, where its flights were concentrated at Orly Ouest, Orly Airport's West Terminal.
Air Inter was founded as a semi-public
entityto provide efficient domestic air transportat the lowest cost. Its financial backers included French public and private sector transport businesses in road, rail and air transport, as well as banks. [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~mrg217/MA.pdf M.R. Golder, The Changing Nature of French Dirigisme - A Case Study of Air France. Thesis submitted at Trinity College, Oxford, 1997, pp.28/9] ] Air Franceand Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français (SNCF), the state railwaycompany, were Air Inter's two largest public sector shareholders, each holding 24% in the airline. UTA was its largest private sector investor. UTA initially held a 15% minority stake in Air Inter. UTA subsequently increased its shareholding to 36%, becoming the largest single shareholder.
January 12, 1990Air Inter, with UTA and Air France, became part of an enlarged Air France group, which in turn became a subsidiary of Groupe Air France. Air Inter changed to Air France Europe following a mergerwith Air France and UTA. On April 1, 1997it was absorbed into Air France. On that day the firm ceased to exist as a legal entity within Groupe Air France.
February 23, 1960France's Ministry of Public Works and Transport decided to transfer Air France's domestic monopolyto Air Inter. This provided the impetus for Air Inter to start scheduled services within metropolitan France, as well as between the mainland and Corsica. Though a private sectorcompany because of its limited liabilitystatus, Air Inter was compelled to operate unprofitable regional domestic routes to justify its domestic monopoly on profitable routes from Paris.
Air Inter primarily operated high-frequency scheduled internal flights from Paris Orly to cities in metropolitan France, principally
Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg and Mulhouse. Following the opening of Charles de Gaulle Airport near the northern Paris suburbof Roissy-en-Franceand the transfer of the bulk of Air France's international operations from Orly to Roissy-Charles de Gaulle from 1974, as well as the simultaneous transfer of UTA's Le Bourget-based operation to that airport, Air Inter began serving these routes from Charles de Gaulle as well (with the exception of Nice) to feed domestic passengers into those airlines' international networks.
Air Inter also linked Orly with additional second and third-tier provincial French towns as well as with all three commercial airports on Corsica (
Ajaccio, Bastia, Calvi). The airline operated regional domestic scheduled routes between major French cities as well.
Many of Air Inter's routes serving smaller towns were contracted to TAT.
During that period Air Inter had a large share of the domestic market. It was the only airline plying most of the domestic trunk routes within metropolitan France on a regular scheduled basis, especially from and to Paris. [ [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~mrg217/MA.pdf M.R. Golder, The Changing Nature of French Dirigisme - A Case Study of Air France. Thesis submitted at Trinity College, Oxford, 1997, p.28] ] The exceptions were Paris-Nice and Paris-
Basle/Mulhouse. Air Inter's flights between Paris Orly and Nice competed indirectly with Air France's Paris Charles de Gaulle-Nice flights. Air Inter competed head-on with Swissair, the former Swiss flag carrier, between Paris Charles de Gaulle and Basle/Mulhouse.
The difference between the competing Air Inter and Swissair services on this route was that the former's passengers had to use the terminal at Basle/Mulhouse airport through the domestic channel that connected the airport to the French city of Mulhouse, whereas the latter's used the international channel that linked the airport with the Swiss city of Basle. For this reason, Air Inter's flights were categorised as domestic while Swissair's were international.
In addition, UTA had limited rights to carry passengers, cargo and mail on the internal legs of its long-haul services, between Paris Charles de Gaulle and Lyon, Marseille, Nice as well as Bordeaux. However, flights were too infrequent to pose a threat to Air Inter.
SNCF, one of Air Inter's two largest public sector shareholders, was also the company's main competitor on domestic trunk routes inside France. This intensified when SNCF began high-speed, high-frequency Train à Grande Vitesse (TGV) services on purpose-built tracks from 1981. The launch of TGV services between Paris and Lyon, one of Air Inter's busiest as well as shortest routes, in 1981 led to reduction in frequency and smaller aircraft on Air Inter's competing service.
The only other domestic air routes on which Air Inter competed with Air France in the pre-liberalisation era were routes linking the mainland with Corsica.
Annual passenger numbers on Air Inter's domestic scheduled network grew steadily to 21 million, actually beating Air France one year. This established the firm as the largest scheduled domestic airline in
Air Inter was also one of the few European ultra short-haul, mainline scheduled operators to be profitable most of the time and was a forerunner of today's low-cost airlines in Europe. Fares were lower than domestic air fares elsewhere in Europe and competing rail fares, with short turnarounds (35 minutes for a full 314-seat A300 was common), no seat allocation,
no frillsservice on board and minimum crews.
January 1, 1995Air Inter lost its monopoly on the domestic trunk routes from Paris Orly. From that day, any EU-based rival was free to compete on these routes, without restrictions on capacity, frequency or fares. [ [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~mrg217/MA.pdf M.R. Golder, The Changing Nature of French Dirigisme - A Case Study of Air France. Thesis submitted at Trinity College, Oxford, 1997, p.48] ]
The sale of controlling stakes in Air Inter and UTA to Air France, as well as integration of both of the former into the latter, was part of a French government plan to create a unified, national carrier with the
economies of scaleand global reach to counter threats from the liberalisation of the EU's internal air transport market. [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/e6c07ce8-6de8-11dc-b8ab-0000779fd2ac,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2Fe6c07ce8-6de8-11dc-b8ab-0000779fd2ac.html&_i_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.uk%2Fsearch%3Fhl%3Den FT.com/Business Life, The Monday Interview, 30 September 2007 - Pilot who found the right trajectory] ]
Listed below are the main aircraft types that were part of Air Inter's fleet at one point or another throughout its 37 years of continuous operations:
Aérospatiale CaravelleIII series/12 series ("Super 12")
Airbus A300B2/B4 series
Airbus A320100/200 series
Airbus A330300 series
* Fokker F-27 "Friendship" 500 series
* Fokker F100
Vickers Viscount700 series.
Air Inter entered the
jet agewith the Caravelle III.
Air Inter was an early operator of the Airbus A300, the European aircraft manufacturer's first commercial
jetlinerand the airline's first widebodied aircraft. The fleet reached 22 aircraft.
Air Inter was also a launch customer for the Dassault Mercure, the French answer to the
Boeing 737, as well as the Airbus A320 (eventually building a fleet of 33 of the 320 variant alone), the only airline customer in the world for the former and joint launch customer with Air France and British Caledonianfor the latter.
The Mercure entered commercial airline service with Air Inter in 1975. In addition to the ten aircraft that formed part of Air Inter's original order for the Mercure, the airline had the aircraft's
prototypeconverted to airline standard as well. This subsequently joined the fleet, increasing the company's Mercure sub-fleet to eleven. It was withdrawn from service in 1995, after 20 years' uninterrupted service.
A320entered service with Air Inter in 1988.
A330was the last aircraft type to join the Air Inter fleet in 1994.
Incidents and accidents
There were 12 recorded incidents/accidents involving Air Inter aircraft throughout 37 years of uninterrupted commercial operations, three of which were fatal. One of the other nine reported incidents involved
hijacking an aircraft, with the loss of one life. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/dblist.php?sorteer=datekey_desc&kind=%&cat=%&page=1&field=Operatorkey&var=6668 Air Inter at the Aviation Safety Network Database] ]
The airline's three fatal accidents are:
August 12, 1963a Vickers Viscount 708 (registration F-BGNV) [http://aviation-safety.net/photos/displayphoto.php?id=19630812-0&vnr=1&kind=PC] operating a scheduled flight from Lilleto Lyon crashed while holding over Tramoyesat FL30 on the instructions of Lyon ATC, resulting in the deaths of the aircraft's 20 occupants (four crew members and 16 passengers) as well as one person on the ground. A storm forced the flight crew to request ATC permission to descend to FL25. In response, the crew received clearance for a straight-in approach to Lyon Bron Airport's runway 17. Eyewitnesses reported the aircraft flying low in an easterly direction in the heart of the storm. The aircraft struck trees, the roof of a farmhouse and a telephone pole before coming to rest in a field. The investigation board cited exceptionally bad weather where the aircraft was instructed to hold, as well as a possibility of lightning dazzling the crew and causing temporary blindness or appreciably incapacitating both pilots. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19630812-0 Accident Investigation Report, Air Inter Vickers Viscount 708 (F-BGNV)] ]
October 27, 1972a Vickers Viscount 724 (registration F-BMCH) [http://aviation-safety.net/photos/displayphoto.php?id=19721027-0&vnr=1&kind=PC] operating a scheduled night flight from Lyon to Clermont-Ferrandcrashed into the Pic du Picon mountain 44km east of Clermont-Ferrand airport at 1,000ft killing 60 of the aircraft's 68 occupants, including all five crew and 55 of the 63 passengers. The accident was caused by the flight deck crew's failure to notice their plane's radio compasshad shifted 180 degrees, most likely as a result of electrical discharges in rainfall blocking the signals emitted by Clermont-Ferrand's NDB, while being instructed to fly a holding patternprior to receiving clearance to descend to 3,600 ft. This resulted in the crew's initiating their descent too early, which set the aircraft on a collision course with the mountain. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19721027-0 Accident Investigation Report, Air Inter Vickers Viscount 724 (F-BMCH)] ]
January 20, 1992an A320-111 (registration F-GGED) [http://aviation-safety.net/photos/displayphoto.php?id=19920120-0&vnr=1&kind=PC] crashed into a ridge near Mount Sainte-Odile in the Vosgesmountains while on final approach to Strasbourg at the end of a scheduled flight from Lyon. This resulted in the deaths of 87 of the aircraft's occupants (five crew members, 82 passengers), the worst accident in company history. There were six survivors (one crew member, five passengers). The accident was caused by the aircraft's wrongly programmed Flight Control Unit (FCU), a consequence of the crew's failure to notice that the FCU was in [incorrect] vertical speed mode when programming the angle of descent (-3.3 [3.3 degrees] ). The excessive descent (3,300 ft./minute instead of 800 ft./minute) took the aircraft below its minimum safe altitude. This resulted in the aircraft's striking trees and a 2,710ft high ridge in the cloud-covered mountains. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19920120-0 Accident Investigation Report, Air Inter Airbus A320-111 (F-GGED)] ]
*IATA Code: IT
*ICAO Code: ITF
Callsign: Air Inter
* [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/e6c07ce8-6de8-11dc-b8ab-0000779fd2ac,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2Fe6c07ce8-6de8-11dc-b8ab-0000779fd2ac.html&_i_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.uk%2Fsearch%3Fhl%3Den FT.com/Business Life, The Monday Interview, 30 September 2007 - Pilot who found the right trajectory]
* [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~mrg217/MA.pdf M.R. Golder, The Changing Nature of French Dirigisme - A Case Study of Air France, St. Edmunds Hall, Oxford. Thesis submitted at Trinity College, 1997]
* [http://www.fotw.net/flags/fr$hfair.html Air France (Airline, France)]
* [http://aviation-safety.net/database/dblist.php?sorteer=datekey_desc&kind=%&cat=%&page=1&field=Operatorkey&var=6668 Air Inter at the Aviation Safety Network Database]
* [http://www.centercomp.com/cgi-bin/dc3/gallery?911 Air Inter DC-3 Museum Pictures]
* [http://www.airliners.net/open.file?id=1228258&size=L&width=1024&height=695&sok=JURER%20%20%28nveyvar%20%3D%20%27Nve%20Vagre%27%29%20%20BEQRE%20OL%20cubgb_vq%20QRFP&photo_nr=15 Air Inter F-27-500 on a visit to Berlin Tegel on April 9, 1978]
* [http://www.airliners.net/open.file?id=1249388&size=L&width=1024&height=680&sok=JURER%20%20%28nveyvar%20%3D%20%27Nve%20Vagre%27%29%20%20BEQRE%20OL%20cubgb_vq%20QRFP&photo_nr=6 Air Inter Dassault Mercure 100 at Basle/Mulhouse Euro Airport during August 1985]
* [http://www.airliners.net/open.file?id=1258341&size=L&width=1280&height=926&sok=JURER%20%20%28nveyvar%20%3D%20%27Nve%20Vagre%27%29%20%20BEQRE%20OL%20cubgb_vq%20QRFP&photo_nr=3 Air Inter Aerospatiale SE-210 Caravelle 12 at Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport on October 16, 1990]
* [http://www.airliners.net/open.file?id=1235227&size=L&width=1000&height=697&sok=JURER%20%20%28nveyvar%20%3D%20%27Nve%20Vagre%27%29%20%20BEQRE%20OL%20cubgb_vq%20QRFP&photo_nr=8 Air Inter A300 B2-1C departing Palma de Mallorca Son San Juan Airport on August 5, 1993]
* [http://www.airliners.net/open.file?id=0065913&size=L&width=930&height=456&sok=JURER%20%20%28ert%20%3D%20%27S-JJXQ%27%29%20%20BEQRE%20OL%20cubgb_vq%20QRFP&photo_nr=6 Air Inter A330-301 at Paris Orly Airport on September 14, 1993]
* [http://www.airliners.net/open.file?id=1235113&size=L&width=1024&height=708&sok=JURER%20%20%28nveyvar%20%3D%20%27Nve%20Vagre%27%29%20%20BEQRE%20OL%20cubgb_vq%20QRFP&photo_nr=9 Air Inter F100 at Madrid Barajas Airport on September 10, 1995]
* [http://www.timetableimages.com/ttimages/it.htm Air Inter timetable images]
* [http://www.uniformfreak.com/1airinter.html Air Inter uniform images, 1990s]
*cite journal| title=Flight International | publisher=Reed Business Information | place=Sutton, UK | issn= 0015-3710 (various backdated issues relating to Air Inter, 1960-1997)
*cite journal| title=OAG Flight Guide Worldwide | publisher=OAG Worldwide | place=Dunstable, UK | issn= 1466-8718 (various backdated issues relating to Air Inter scheduled flight information, 1960-1997)
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