Zugzwang

Zugzwang

Zugzwang (German for "compulsion to move", pronounced [ˈtsuːktsvaŋ]) is a term usually used in chess which also applies to various other games. The term finds its formal definition in combinatorial game theory, and it describes a situation where one player is put at a disadvantage because he has to make a move when he would prefer to pass and make no move. The fact that the player must make a move means that his position will be significantly weaker than the hypothetical one in which it was his opponent's turn to move.

In game theory, it specifically means that it directly changes the outcome of the game from a win to a loss. The term is used less precisely in games such as chess; i.e., the game theory definition is not necessarily used in chess (Berlekamp, Conway & Guy 1982:16), (Elkies 1996:136). For instance, it may be defined loosely as "a player to move cannot do anything without making an important concession" (van Perlo 2006:479). Putting the opponent in zugzwang is a common way to help the superior side win a game. In some cases it is necessary to make the win possible (Müller & Pajeken 2008:173).

The term zugzwang is frequently used in chess. A player whose turn it is to move who has no move that does not worsen his position is said to be in zugzwang (Soltis 2003a:78). Thus every move would make his position worse, and he would be better off if he could pass and not move. Sometimes different chess authors use the term zugzwang in different ways (Flear 2004:11–12).[note 1] In some literature a reciprocal zugzwang (see below) is called zugzwang and a one-sided zugzwang is called a squeeze (Hooper & Whyld 1992).

The term zugzwang was used in German-language chess literature in 1858 (or earlier) (Winter 1997). The first known use of the term in English was by World Champion Emanuel Lasker in 1905 (Winter 2008). The concept of zugzwang (as distinguished from the word) must have been known to players many centuries earlier, since it is necessary to win the elementary king and rook versus king endgame, among others. The concept is also seen in an endgame study published in 1604 by Alessandro Salvio, one of the first writers on the game. It also appeared in Shatranj studies dating back to the early 9th century, over 1000 years before the first known use of the term zugzwang.

In a chess endgame, being in zugzwang usually means going from a drawn position to a loss or a won position to a draw, but it can be from a win to a loss, or a substantial loss of material which probably affects the outcome of the game. A chess position of reciprocal zugzwang or mutual zugzwang is equivalent to the more precise definition of zugzwang in game theory. Opposition is a special kind of zugzwang (Flear 2000:36). Trébuchet is a special type of zugzwang that is discussed below.

Positions with zugzwang occur fairly often in chess endgames. For instance, twelve of the 105 endgames in the book Endgame Virtuoso Anatoly Karpov involve zugzwang (Károlyi & Aplin 2007:358). National Master Alex Angos wrote an entire book about zugzwang, You Move ... I Win! (Angos 2005). According to John Nunn, positions of reciprocal zugzwang (see below) are surprisingly important in the analysis of endgames (Nunn 1995:6), (Nunn 1999:7).

The remainder of this article is about zugzwang in chess.

Contents


Introduction

Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 458
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1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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White to move draws; Black to move loses
Flear 2004, p. 11
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5  black king  black pawn  black king  black pawn  black king  black pawn  black king  black king 5
4  black king  white pawn  black king  white king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Black to move. Black is in zugzwang because he must move and lose the game

There are three types of chess positions:

  1. both sides would benefit if it were their turn to move
  2. only one player would be at a disadvantage if it were his turn to move
  3. both players would be at a disadvantage if it were their turn to move.

The great majority of positions are of the first type. In chess literature, most writers call positions of the second type zugzwang, and the third type reciprocal zugzwang or mutual zugzwang. Some writers call the second type a squeeze and the third type zugzwang (Hooper & Whyld 1992) (Hooper 1970:196–97).

Normally in chess, having tempo is desirable because the player who is to move has the advantage of being able to choose a move that improves his situation. Zugzwang typically occurs when all the moves available are "bad" moves, tangibly weakening the moving player's position (usually from a draw to a loss or from a win to a draw) (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:22).

Zugzwang most often occurs in the endgame when the number of pieces, and so the number of possible moves, is reduced, and the exact move chosen is often critical. The diagram at top right shows the simplest possible example of zugzwang. If it is White's move, he must either stalemate Black with 1.Kc6 or abandon the pawn, allowing 1...Kxc7 with a draw. If it is Black's move, the only legal move is 1...Kb7, which allows White to win with 2.Kd7 followed by queening the pawn on the next move.

The diagram at below right is another simple example. Black, on move, must allow White to play Kc5 or Ke5, when White wins one or more pawns and can advance his own pawn toward promotion). White, on move, must retreat his king, when Black is out of danger (Flear 2004:11–12). The squares d4 and d6 are corresponding squares. Whenever the white king is on d4 with White to move, the black king must be on d6 to prevent the advance of the white king.

In many cases, the player having the move can put the other player in zugzwang by using triangulation; that article has an illustrative example. Zugzwang is very common in king and pawn endgames, where it is frequently achieved through triangulation. Pieces other than the king can also triangulate to achieve zugzwang – e.g., see the queen versus rook position at Philidor position. Zugzwang is a mainstay of chess compositions and occurs frequently in endgame studies.

Andy Soltis notes that many players do not appreciate zugzwang, thinking that it is an obscure concept that never occurs in their games. Without zugzwang, it would be very hard to win a chess game, even with an extra piece (Soltis 2009:15).

History

According to chess historian Edward Winter (Winter 1997), in German, the term "zugzwang":

had been in regular use in the nineteenth century. Pages 353-358 of the September 1858 Deutsche Schachzeitung had an unsigned article 'Zugzwang, Zugwahl und Privilegien'. F. Amelung employed the terms Zugzwang, Tempozwang and Tempozugzwang on pages 257-259 of the September 1896 issue of the same magazine. When a perceived example of Zugzwang occurred in the third game of the 1896-97 world championship match between Steinitz and Lasker, after 34...Rg8, the Deutsche Schachzeitung (December 1896, page 368) reported that 'White has died of Zugzwang'.

The earliest known use of the term "zugzwang" in English was on page 166 of the February 1905 issue of Lasker's Chess Magazine (Winter 2008). The term did not become common in English-language chess sources until the 1930s, after the publication of the English translation of Nimzowitsch's My System in 1929 (Winter 1997).

The concept of zugzwang, if not the term, must have been known to players for many centuries. Zugzwang is required to win the elementary (and common) king and rook versus king endgame (Soltis 2003a:79), and the king and rook (or differently-named pieces with the same powers) have been chess pieces since the earliest versions of the game (Davidson 1981:21–22,41).

Katai, 9th century
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3  black king  black king  black king  white rook  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black knight  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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White to move and win

The earliest use of zugzwang (other than in basic checkmates) may be in this study by Zairab Katai, which was published sometime between 813 and 833. (This study was actually from the predecessor of chess Shatranj but the moves of the king, rook, and knight are the same. Masters of this era composed many studies in which Black was in zugzwang so that any move fatally weakened his position.) After

1. Re3! Ng1
2. Kf5! Kd4
3. Kf4

puts Black in zugzwang, since 3... Kc4 4. Kg3! Kd4 5. Re1 and White wins (Soltis 2009:15).

Polerio, 1585
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5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black pawn  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  white rook  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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White to play and win

The concept of zugzwang is also seen in the 1585 endgame study by Giulio Cesare Polerio at right, published in 1604 by Alessandro Salvio, one of the earliest writers on the game. Angos (2005:108–9) gives the position as by Polerio in 1585. The only way for White to win is 1.Ra1!! Kxa1 2.Kc2!, placing Black in zugzwang. His only legal move is 2...g5, whereupon White promotes a pawn first and then checkmates with 3.hxg5 h4 4.g6 h3 5.g7 h2 6.g8(Q) h1(Q) 7.Qg7# (Sukhin 2007:21,23).

Joseph Bertin in The Noble Game of Chess (1735), which Hooper and Whyld consider "the first worthwhile chess textbook in the English language", referred to the concept of zugzwang, albeit without using that word, when he set forth as the 18th of his 19 rules about chess play, "To play well the latter end of a game, you must calculate who has the move, on which the game always depends." (Hooper & Whyld 1992:38–39).

Philidor, 1777
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7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
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5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  white queen  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black rook  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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After 36.Kc3, Black is in zugzwang, since he must move his rook away from his king.

François-André Danican Philidor wrote in 1777 of the position at below right that after White plays 36.Kc3, Black "is obliged to move his rook from his king, which gives you an opportunity of taking his rook by a double check, or making him mate" (Philidor 2005:272–73).[note 2] Lasker explicitly cited a mirror image of this position (White: king on f3, queen on h4; Black: king on g1, rook on g2) as an example of zugzwang in Lasker's Manual of Chess (Lasker 1960:37–38). The British master George Walker analyzed a similar position in the same endgame, giving a maneuver that resulted in the superior side reaching the initial position, but now with the inferior side on move and in zugzwang. Walker wrote of the superior side's decisive move: "throwing the move upon Black, in the initial position, and thereby winning" (Walker 1846:245).

Morphy, 1840s?
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5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  white rook  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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White to play and mate in two moves

The great American player Paul Morphy (1837–1884), like Salvio and Philidor an unofficial World Champion, is credited with composing the position at right "while still a young boy". After 1.Ra6!, Black is in zugzwang and must allow mate on the next move with 1...bxa6 2.b7# or 1...B (moves) 2.Rxa7# (Shibut 2004:297).

Examples from games

Fischer versus Taimanov, second match game

Fischer vs. Taimanov, 1971, second game
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5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white bishop  black knight  white pawn 5
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Position after 85. Bf5, Black is in zugzwang

Some zugzwang positions occurred in the second game of the 1971 candidates match between Bobby Fischer and Mark Taimanov.[1] In the position in the diagram, Black is in zugzwang because he would rather not move, but he must: a king move would lose the knight, while a knight move would allow the passed pawn to advance (Wade & O'Connell 1972:413). The game continued:

85... Nf3
86. h6 Ng5
87. Kg6

and Black is again in zugzwang. The game ended shortly (because the pawn will slip through and promote) (Kasparov 2004:385):

87... Nf3
88. h7 Ne5+
89. Kf6 1-0.

Fischer versus Taimanov, fourth match game

Fischer vs. Taimanov, 1971, fourth game
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Position after 57. Ka6

In the position on the right, White has just gotten his king to a6, where it attacks the black pawn on b6, tying down the black king to defending it. White now needs to get his bishop to f7 or e8 to attack the pawn on g6. Play continued:

57... Nc8
58. Bd5 Ne7
59. Bc4! Nc6
60. Bf7 Ne7

Now the bishop is able to make a tempo move. It is able to move while still attacking the pawn on g6, and preventing the black king from moving to c6.

61. Be8

and Black is in zugzwang. Knights are unable to make a tempo move (Nunn 1995:7), so moving the knight would allow the bishop to capture the kingside pawns. The black king must give way.

61... Kd8
62. Bxg6! Nxg6
63. Kxb6 Kd7
64. Kxc5

and White has a won position. Either one of White's queenside pawns will promote or the white king will attack and win the black kingside pawns and a kingside pawn will promote. Black resigned seven moves later (Silman 2007:516–17), (Averbakh 1984:113–14), (Flear 2007:286–87). Andy Soltis says that this is "perhaps Fischer's most famous endgame" (Soltis 2003b:246).

Tseshkovsky versus Flear, 1988

Tseshkovsky vs. Flear, 1988
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8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black bishop e7 black king f7 black rook g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 white pawn e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 white king f5 black king g5 white queen h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
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Position after 86. Ke5. Black to move is able to hold the draw.

This position from a 1988 game between Vitaly Tseshkovsky and Glenn Flear at Wijk aan Zee shows an instance of "zugzwang" where the obligation to move makes the defense more difficult but it does not mean the loss of the game. A draw by agreement was reached eleven moves later (Flear 2007:241).[2]

Reciprocal zugzwang

Hooper 1970, p. 21
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5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
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Reciprocal zugzwang, White to move draws, Black to move loses

A special case of zugzwang is reciprocal zugzwang or mutual zugzwang, which is a position such that who ever is to move is in zugzwang. Positions of reciprocal zugzwang are surprisingly important in the analysis of endgames (Nunn 1995:6), (Nunn 1999:7). A position of mutual zugzwang is closely related to a game with a Conway value of zero in game theory (Stiller 1996:175).

The diagram on the right shows a position of reciprocal zugzwang. If Black is to move, he must move 1... Kd7 and lose because White will move 2. Kb7, promote the pawn, and win. If White is to move, he must either move 1. Kc6 which is a draw because it stalemates Black or he must abandon the pawn, which is also a draw after Black captures the pawn. Both sides would be in zugzwang if it were their move, so it is a reciprocal zugzwang (Hooper 1970:21), (Averbakh 1993:35).

In a position with reciprocal zugzwang, only the player to move is actually in zugzwang. However, the player who is not in zugzwang must play carefully because one inaccurate move can cause him to be put in zugzwang (Müller & Pajeken 2008:179). That is in contrast to regular zugzwang, because the superior side usually has a waiting move to put the opponent in zugzwang (Nunn 1999:7).

Second example

Flear 2004, p. 22
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7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
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5  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Reciprocal zugzwang or mutual zugzwang: White to move draws, Black to move loses

Another example is shown in the diagram on the right – if White is to move the game is drawn; if Black is to move he loses. With White to move:

1. Kd5 Kd7
2. c5 Kc7
3. c6 Kc8!
4. Kd6 Kd8!

Black has the opposition and draws because 5. c7+ Kc8 6. Kc6 is stalemate.

If Black is to move, White wins

1. ... Kd7
2. Kb6 Kc8
3. Kc6 Kd8

and White wins with

4. Kb7

or

4. c5 (Flear 2004:22), (see king and pawn versus king endgame).

Examples from play

Kalashnikov vs. Karpov, analysis position
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7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  black king  white pawn  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black rook  black king  black king 1
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Analysis position after alternate 49th move for Black. Mutual zugzwang: White to move draws, Black to move loses.

The position at right is a position that could have occurred in the 1961 game between Viacheslav Kalashnikov and the young Anatoly Karpov. White to move in this position draws, but Black to move loses. Karpov's 49th move in the actual game avoided the zugzwang and the game was drawn (Károlyi & Aplin 2007:22). This is one of 209 mutual zugzwang positions in the rook and pawn versus rook endgame (Nunn 1999:7).

Karpov vs. Kasparov, analysis position
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7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black pawn  white knight  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  white pawn  black bishop  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Mutual zugzwang, White to move draws, Black to move loses

The second position is an analysis position from the ninth game of the 1984 World Chess Championship between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov. The alternate move 45... Ke6 is considered and this position could result after move 57. White to move draws; Black to move loses. It would have been White's move in this analysis position. Kasparov played a different 45th move and Karpov won after seventy moves (Kasparov 2008:111), (Károlyi & Aplin 2007:269).

Trébuchet

Flear 2004, p. 13
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  white king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Trébuchet (extreme mutual zugzwang), whoever moves loses

An extreme type of reciprocal zugzwang, called trébuchet is shown in the third diagram. It is also called a full-point mutual zugzwang because a full point (win versus loss) is at stake (Nunn 2002:4). Whoever is to move in this position loses the game—they must abandon their own pawn, thus allowing their opponent to capture it and proceed to promote the remaining pawn (Flear 2004:13).

Examples

Silman, p. 98
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  white king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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White to move. Black wins by reaching a trébuchet.

This diagram shows a position in which a trébuchet can be reached to win the game. The first king to reach the blocked pawns will win. Play continues:

1. Kxh6 Kxc3
2. Kg5 Kd3!

2... Kd4?? loses because after 3. Kf5 Black is on the wrong side of the trébuchet.

3. Kf5 Kd4!

and Black wins the pawn and the game (see King and pawn versus king endgame) (Silman 2007:98).

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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black pawn  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Reciprocal zugzwang: whoever is on move loses

Another simple example is seen in the diagram at right. Black, on move, must play 1...b3, allowing 2.axb3#. White, on move, must move his king away, allowing 1...b3, with an easy win for Black.

Example in study

van Zuylen & van Nyewalt, 1792
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black pawn  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  white pawn 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  white pawn  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Mutual zugzwang

This position is a mutual zugzwang from a 1792 study. The first player to move runs out of moves and loses (Speelman 1981:43).

Analysis from game

Analysis from Najdorf vs. Mecking, 1978
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black pawn  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn 6
5  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn 5
4  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  white pawn  black king 4
3  white pawn  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Whoever is to move loses.

In this analysis from a 1978 game between Miguel Najdorf and Henrique Mecking, whoever is to move loses. (It would have been White's move had the analysis position occurred in the game.) (Silman 2007:385–87)

Example in game

Verőci vs. Bohmgren, 1972
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8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black pawn 7
6 a6 black pawn b6 black king c6 black pawn d6 black king e6 black king f6 white king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 white pawn b5 black king c5 white pawn d5 black king e5 black king f5 white pawn g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 black king e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 black king c3 black king d3 black king e3 black king f3 black king g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 black king b2 black king c2 black king d2 black king e2 black king f2 black king g2 black king h2 black king 2
1 a1 black king b1 black king c1 black king d1 black king e1 black king f1 black king g1 black king h1 black king 1
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Whoever moves loses; Black to move in the game resigned

In this position from a game at the 1967 Chess Olympiad, whoever moves loses. In the game it was Black's move, who resigned (Nunn 2010:106).

In endgame study

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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white knight  black king  white knight 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black queen  white knight  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white knight 1
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Position discovered by Bourzutschky - whoever moves loses

Marc Bourzutschky has used computer analysis to find some complicated trébuchet positions. If White is to move in this position, Black quickly drives White's king toward the corner and mates no later than move 8, e.g. 1.Kb2 (1.Nhg7 Qf4+ or 1.Nh4 Qe3+ also leaves White's king in trouble) Qg2+ 2.Kb3 Qb7+! 3.Ka3 Qb6 4.Nf4+ Kc4! 5.Ka2 Qb3+! 6.Ka1 Kb4 7.Ng7 Ka3 8.Nge6 Qb2#. Black on move must give ground, enabling White to gradually improve the positions of his pieces, e.g. 1...Kc4 (1...Kc3 allows 2.Nf2! Qxf2?? 3.Ne4+) 2.Kd2! Kd5 3.Ne3+ Ke5 4.Ng7 and White mates by move 42 according to Bourzutschky.– scroll down to No. 282

Mined squares

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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  xw  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black circle  white pawn  black king  white king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Squares marked with dots are mined squares for the king of that color

Corresponding squares are squares of mutual zugzwang. When there is only one pair of corresponding squares they are called mined squares (Dvoretsky 2003:87). A player will fall into zugzwang if he moves his king onto the square and his opponent is able to move onto the corresponding square. In the diagram on the right, if either king moves onto the square marked with the dot of the same color, he falls into zugzwang if the other king moves into the mined square near him (Dvoretsky 2006:19).

Zugzwang required to win

In some endgames it is necessary to place the opponent in zugzwang in order to force a win. These include:

In addition, zugzwang is required in many king and pawn versus king endgames in order to force promotion of the pawn and in other king and pawn endgames with more pawns (Müller & Pajeken 2008:173). (See pawnless chess endgame and fortress (chess) for some discussion of some of these endings.)

Zugzwang helps the defense

Based on Varga vs. Acs
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black bishop 6
5  black king  white knight  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn 5
4  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Black to move puts White in zugzwang

Zugzwang usually works in favor of the stronger side, but sometimes it aids the defense. In this position based on a game between Zoltán Varga and Peter Acs, it saves the game for the defense:

1... Kc4!! Reciprocal zugzwang
2. Nc3 Kb4 Reciprocal zugzwang again
3. Kd3 Bg7 Reciprocal zugzwang again
4. Kc2 Bh6
5. Kd3 Bg7
6. Nd5+ Kxa4
7. Ke4 Kb5
8. Kf5 Kc5
9. Kg6 Bd4
10. Nf4 Kd6
11. h6 Ke7
12. h7 Bb2

This position is a draw and the players agreed to a draw a few moves later (Müller & Pajeken 2008:179–80).

Benko
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8  black king  black king  black bishop  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  white bishop  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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1. Kc6! wins, 1. Kd6? draws
Benko
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black bishop  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  white pawn  black king  white king  white bishop  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Position after 3... Bb7!, draw because of zugzwang

In this position from Benko, White should win but he makes an error and gets into zugzwang which enables Black to draw.

1. Kd6? Bb7
2. Bd7 Bf3
3. Be6 Bb7!

and Black draws because White is in Zugzwang (Fine & Benko 2003:153–54).

In a study

Amelung, 1901; Maizelis, 1956
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  white king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  white rook  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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White to move wins; Black to move draws

This position is a 1901 endgame study by Amelung. White to move wins by taking the opposition after 1. Kb7! and putting Black in zugzwang, e.g. 1... Kc4 2. Kb6 b3 3. Ka5 Kc3 4. Ka4 b2 5. Ka3 and White wins the pawn. In 1956 Ilyia Maizelis pointed out that Black to move can take the opposition and put White in zugzwang:

1... Kc5!
2. Kb7 Kb5!
3. Ka7 Ka5!

and White cannot make progress (Angos 2005:109–10).

Zugzwang in the middlegame and complex endgames

Alex Angos notes that, "As the number of pieces on the board increases, the probability for zugzwang to occur decreases." (Angos 2005:178) As such, zugzwang is very rarely seen in the middlegame (Angos 2005:183).

Sämisch versus Nimzowitsch

Sämisch vs. Nimzowitsch, 1923
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black queen  black king  black king  black pawn  black king 7
6  black pawn  black king  black king  black bishop  black pawn  black king  black king  black pawn 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black rook  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black pawn  black king  white pawn  black pawn  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black bishop  white queen  black king  white pawn  white pawn 3
2  white pawn  white pawn  black king  white bishop  black king  black rook  white bishop  black king 2
1  black king  white knight  black king  black king  white rook  black king  white rook  white king 1
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White resigned.

The game Fritz Sämisch versus Aron Nimzowitsch, Copenhagen 1923,[3] is often called the "Immortal Zugzwang Game".[note 3] Some consider the final position to be an extremely rare instance of zugzwang occurring in the middlegame (Reinfeld 1958:90). It ended with White resigning in the position in the diagram.

White has a few pawn moves which do not lose material, but eventually he will have to move one of his pieces. If he plays 1.Rc1 or Rd1, then 1...Re2 traps White's queen; 1.Kh2 fails to 1...R5f3, also trapping the queen, since White cannot play 2.Bxf3 because the bishop is pinned to the king; 1.g4 runs into 1...R5f3 2.Bxf3? Rh2 mate. Angos analyzes 1.a3 a5 2.axb4 axb4 3.h4 Kh8 (waiting) 4.b3 Kg8 and White has run out of waiting moves and must lose material. Best in this line is 5.Nc3!? bxc3 6.bxc3, which just leaves Black with a serious positional advantage and an extra pawn (Angos 2005:180). Other moves lose material in more obvious ways.

However, since Black would win even without the zugzwang (Nunn 1981:86), it is debatable whether the position is true zugzwang. Even if White could pass his move he would still lose, albeit more slowly, after 1...R5f3 2.Bxf3 Rxf3, trapping the queen and thus winning queen and bishop for two rooks (Horowitz 1971:182). Wolfgang Heidenfeld thus considers it a misnomer to call this a true zugzwang position (Golombek 1977). See also Immortal Zugzwang Game: Objections to the sobriquet.

Steinitz versus Lasker

Steinitz vs. Lasker, 1896-97
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black rook  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black pawn  black bishop  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black pawn  black king  black king  black queen  black king  white pawn  white bishop  black king 5
4  white pawn  black king  black pawn  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black pawn 4
3  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn 3
2  black king  black king  black king  white queen  black king  black king  black king  white king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  black king  black king 1
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Position after 34...Rg8!

This game between Wilhelm Steinitz versus Emanuel Lasker in the 1896-97 World Chess Championship,[4] is an early example of zugzwang in the middlegame. After Lasker's 34...Re8-g8!, Steinitz resigned because he has no playable moves.[note 4] White's bishop cannot move because that would allow the crushing ...Rg2+. The queen cannot move without abandoning either its defense of the bishop on g5 or of the g2 square, where it is preventing ...Qg2#. White's move 35.f6 loses the bishop: 35...Rxg5 36. f7 Rg2+, forcing mate. The move 35.Kg1 allows 35...Qh1+ 36.Kf2 Qg2+ followed by capturing the bishop. The rook cannot leave the first rank, as that would allow 35...Qh1#. Rook moves along the first rank other than 35.Rg1 allow 35...Qxf5, when 36.Bxh4 is impossible because of 36...Rg2+; for example, 35.Rd1 Qxf5 36.d5 Bd7, winning. That leaves only 35.Rg1, when Black wins with 35...Rxg5! 36.Qxg5 (36.Rxg5? Qh1#) Qd6+ 37.Rg3 hxg3+ 38.Qxg3 Be8 39.h4 Qxg3+ 40.Kxg3 b5! 41.axb5 a4! and Black queens first (Reinfeld & Fine 1965:71). Colin Crouch calls the final position, "An even more perfect middlegame zugzwang than ... Sämisch-Nimzowitsch ... in the final position Black has no direct threats, and no clear plan to improve the already excellent positioning of his pieces, and yet any move by White loses instantly" (Crouch 2000:36–37).

Podgaets versus Dvoretsky

Podgaets vs. Dvoretsky, USSR 1974
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black rook  black king  black king 8
7  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  white pawn  black pawn  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black pawn  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black pawn  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black knight  black queen 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  white pawn  white pawn  black king  black king  white pawn  white queen  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  white king  white bishop 1
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Position after 29.Qg2
Podgaets vs. Dvoretsky
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  white pawn  black pawn  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black pawn  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black pawn  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black knight  black queen 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black rook  black king  black king 3
2  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  white queen  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  white king  white bishop 1
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Final position, after 30...Kh6!!

Soltis writes that his "candidate for the ideal zugzwang game" is the following game (Soltis 1978:55) : Podgaets-Dvoretsky, USSR 1974 1.d4 c5 2.d5 e5 3.e4 d6 4.Nc3 Be7 5.Nf3 Bg4 6.h3 Bxf3 7.Qxf3 Bg5! 8.Bb5+ Kf8! Black exchanges off his bad bishop, but does not allow White to do the same. 9.Bxg5 Qxg5 10.h4 Qe7 11.Be2 h5 12.a4 g6 13.g3 Kg7 14.0-0 Nh6 15.Nd1 Nd7 16.Ne3 Rhf8 17.a5 f5 18.exf5 e4! 19.Qg2 Nxf5 20.Nxf5+ Rxf5 21.a6 b6 22.g4? hxg4 23.Bxg4 Rf4 24.Rae1 Ne5! 25.Rxe4 Rxe4 26.Qxe4 Qxh4 27.Bf3 Rf8!! 28. Bh1 28.Qxh4? Nxf3+ and 29...Nxh4 leaves Black a piece ahead. Ng4 29.Qg2 (see diagram at left) Rf3!! 30.c4 Kh6!! (diagram at right) Now all of White's piece moves allow checkmate or ...Rxf2 with a crushing attack (e.g. 31.Qxf3 Qh2#; 31.Rb1 Rxf2 32.Qxg4 Qh2#). That leaves only moves of White's b-pawn, which Black can ignore, e.g. 31.b3 Kg7 32.b4 Kh6 33.bxc5 bxc5 and White has run out of moves.[note 5] 0-1

Harper versus Zuk

Harper vs. Zuk
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black knight  black king 7
6  black king  black pawn  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black pawn  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black pawn 5
4  black king  white pawn  white pawn  black king  black queen  black king  black pawn  white pawn 4
3  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white rook  white queen 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black rook  white knight  white king 1
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Position after 36...Rf1: White is utterly helpless

Harper-Zuk, Halloween Open, Burnaby, British Columbia 1971[5] is a grisly example of zugzwang in the middlegame. White's queen, rook, knight, and king have a total of one legal move (Qh3), which loses the queen, rook and king on successive moves (... gxh3 followed by ... Qxg2#). The game concluded: 37.b5 Kh8 37...Nf5 and Nd4-e2 was crushing, but letting White self-destruct is even quicker. 38.a4 Kh7 39.a5 Kg8 0-1 After 40.axb6 axb6, white is forced to play 41.Qh3, and then it is mate in two: gxh3 42.Kh2 Qxg2#.

Van Dongen versus Wijsman

Van Dongen vs. Wijsman, Eindhoven 2005
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black rook 7
6  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  white king  white pawn 6
5  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black pawn  black rook  black pawn  black pawn  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black knight  white rook  white rook  black king  black king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
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Position after White's 74th move

An unusual example of zugzwang in a complicated endgame occurred in the position at right. On the previous move Black, with a winning position, had played 73...d4? and White responded 74.Rd2-d3!!, when Black, a knight up with three dangerous passed pawns, suddenly must fight for a draw. Tim Krabbé explains that the pawns on d4 and e4 are blocked and pinned, the knight is bound to the defense of e4, the rook is bound to the defense of d4, and the pawn on b4 is bound to the defense of the knight. Krabbé analyzes as best for Black 74...b3! 75.Rxd4 Rxd4 76.Rxc3 Rd8 77.Rxb3 Re8 78.Re3 Re5 79.Rc3 (79.Kxf6? Rxa5 82.Kg6 Ra1 83.f6 Rg1+ wins) Re8 80.Re3 Re5 81.Rc3 and the game will end in a draw by repetition of moves. Instead, Black played 74...Nb5? 75.Rxe4 Nd6 76.Re6 Rc6 77.Rxd4 Rxh6+ 78.Kxh6 Nxf5+ 79.Kg6 1-0.[6]

Zhilin versus Chernov

Zhilin vs. Chernov, 1960
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8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black pawn  black king  black bishop  black king  black king  black pawn  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  white pawn  white pawn  black pawn 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  white queen  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black queen  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
With 1. Kh4! Black is in zugzwang after some pawn moves

In the game between Vitaly Valentinovich Zhilin and Chernov (or Tchernov) in the 1960 USSR championship, White was a pawn down and just sacrificed a bishop on h3. After 1. Kh4! Black is placed in zugzwang after moving his b- and h-pawns. The game continued:

1. Kh4! b6
2. Kh5 b5
3. Kh4 h5
4. Kxh5

Now Black is in zugzwang and resigned (Nunn 1981:86–87), (van Perlo 2006:71).

Fischer versus Rossetto

Fischer vs. Rossetto, 1959
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black rook  black king  black king  black knight  black king  black king 8
7  black king  white rook  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn 7
6  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black pawn  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  white bishop  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king 3
2  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  white pawn 2
1  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Position after 33. Ba4-b3!, Black is in zugzwang

In this 1959 game[7] between future World Champion Bobby Fischer and Héctor Rossetto, 33. Bb3! puts Black in zugzwang (Soltis 2003b:34). If Black moves the king, White plays Rb8, winning a piece (...Rxc7 Rxf8); if Black moves the rook, 33...Ra8 or R...e8, then 34.c8=Q+ and the black rook will be lost after 35.Qxa8, 35.Qxe8 or 35.Rxe7+ (depending on Black's move); if Black moves the knight, Be6 will win Black's rook. That leaves only pawn moves, and they quickly run out (Giddins 2007:108). The game concluded:

33...a5
34.a4 h6
35.h3 g5
36.g4 fxg4
37.hxg4 1-0 (Fischer 2008:42).

Example from Euwe and Meiden

From Euwe & Meiden
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black rook  black king  black rook  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black pawn  white rook  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black pawn  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black pawn  black queen  black knight  black king  black king  black pawn 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king  white bishop  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  white pawn 3
2  white pawn  black king  white queen  black king  black king  white pawn  white pawn  black king 2
1  black king  black king  white rook  black king  black king  black king  white king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Position after 24. Bf5, a full board zugzwang

In this example from a master versus amateur game in the book by Euwe and Meiden, Black is in a full board zugzwang. Any move by a black piece loses at least a pawn (Euwe & Meiden 1966:125–26).

Zugzwang Lite

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black rook  black bishop  black queen  black king  black king  black knight  black rook 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black pawn  black pawn  black bishop  black pawn 7
6  black king  black king  black knight  black king  black king  black king  black pawn  black king 6
5  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  white knight  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  white pawn  white pawn  white bishop  white pawn 2
1  black king  white rook  white bishop  white queen  white king  black king  white knight  white rook 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
HodgsonArkell after 9...axb5; according to Rowson, White is in Zugzwang Lite
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black rook  black king  black queen  black king  black rook  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black bishop  black pawn  black pawn  black bishop  black pawn 7
6  black king  black king  black knight  black pawn  black king  black knight  black pawn  black king 6
5  black king  black pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  white knight  white pawn  black king  white knight  white pawn  black king 3
2  black king  black king  black king  white bishop  white pawn  white pawn  white bishop  white pawn 2
1  black king  white rook  black king  white queen  black king  white rook  white king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
PortischTal, position after 13...Bd7; White to play, but Black has the easier game

Jonathan Rowson coined the term Zugzwang Lite to describe a situation, sometimes arising in symmetrical opening variations, where White's "extra move" is a burden (Rowson 2005:245). He cites as an example of this phenomenon HodgsonArkell, Newcastle 2001. The position at left arose after 1.c4 c5 2.g3 g6 3.Bg2 Bg7 4.Nc3 Nc6 5.a3 a6 6.Rb1 Rb8 7.b4 cxb4 8.axb4 b5 9.cxb5 axb5 Here Rowson remarks, "Both sides want to push their d-pawn and play Bf4/...Bf5, but White has to go first so Black gets to play ...d5 before White can play d4. This doesn't matter much, but it already points to the challenge that White faces here; his most natural continuations allow Black to play the moves he wants to. I would therefore say that White is in 'Zugzwang Lite' and that he remains in this state for several moves." The game continued 10.Nf3 d5 11.d4 Nf6 12.Bf4 Rb6 13.0-0 Bf5 14.Rb3 O-O 15.Ne5 Ne4 16.h3 h5!? 17.Kh2 The position is still almost symmetrical, and White can find nothing useful to do with his extra move. Rowson whimsically suggests 17.h4!?, forcing Black to be the one to break the symmetry. 17...Re8! Rowson notes that this is a useful waiting move, covering e7, which needs protection in some lines, and possibly supporting an eventual ...e5 (as Black in fact played on his 22nd move). White cannot copy it, since after 18.Re1? Nxf2 Black would win a pawn. After 18.Be3?! Nxe5! 19.dxe5 Rc6! Black seized the initiative and went on to win in 14 more moves.

Another instance of Zugzwang Lite occurred in Lajos PortischMikhail Tal, Candidates Match 1965, again from the Symmetrical Variation of the English Opening, after 1.Nf3 c5 2.c4 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.g3 g6 5.Bg2 Bg7 6.O-O O-O 7.d3 a6 8.a3 Rb8 9.Rb1 b5 10.cxb5 axb5 11.b4 cxb4 12.axb4 d6 13.Bd2 Bd7. Soltis wrote, "It's ridiculous to think Black's position is better. But Mikhail Tal said it is easier to play. By moving second he gets to see White's move and then decide whether to match it."[8] 14.Qc1 Here, Soltis wrote that Black could maintain equality by keeping the symmetry: 14...Qc8 15.Bh6 Bh3. Instead, he plays to prove that White's queen is misplaced. 14...Rc8! 15.Bh6 Nd4! Threatening 15...Nxe2+. 16.Nxd4 Bxh6 17.Qxh6 Rxc3 18.Qd2 Qc7 19.Rfc1 Rc8 Although the pawn structure is still symmetrical, Black's control of the c-file gives him the advantage.[8] Black ultimately reached an endgame two pawns up, but White managed to hold a draw in 83 moves.[9] See First-move advantage in chess#Symmetrical openings for more details.

Quotation

  • "Zugzwang is like getting trapped on a safety island in the middle of a highway when a thunderstorm starts. You don't want to move but you have to." - Arthur Bisguier (Müller & Pajeken 2008:173)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In some writings it is used very loosely. For example, in Understanding Chess Endgames, on page 200 John Nunn is discussing the "second-rank defense" in the rook and bishop versus rook endgame. White wants to maintain the king and rook on the second rank. At one point Nunn says that zugzwang temporarily forces the king off the first rank. But it is only temporary and does not break White's defense.
  2. ^ Philidor analyzed 36.Kc3 Rh2 37.Qb5+ Ka1 38.Qa6+ Kb1 39.Qb6+ Ka2 40.Qa7+ Kb1 41.Qg1+, winning Black's rook by a fork (or "double check" in Philidor's now-obsolete terminology).
  3. ^ According to Nimzowitsch, writing in the Wiener Schachzeitung in 1925, this term originated in "Danish chess circles" (Winter 1997).
  4. ^ (Reinfeld & Fine 1965:71) (Whyld 1967) (Soltis 2005:89–90). However, according to ChessGames.com and some print sources, Steinitz played on another five moves before resigning: 35.Re1 Qxf5 36.Re5 Qf3 37.d5 Qg3+ 38.Kh1 Qxe5 39.dxc6+ Kxc6 0-1 (Soltis 2005:90).
  5. ^ Notes based on those in Soltis 1978, pp. 55-56.

References

  • Angos, Alex (2005), You Move ... I Win!, Thinkers' Press, Inc., ISBN 978-1888710182 
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  • Averbakh, Yuri (1993), Chess Endings: Essential Knowledge (2nd ed.), Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-022-6 
  • Berlekamp, Elwyn R.; Conway, John H.; Guy, Richard K. (1982), Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays, 1, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-091101-9 
  • Crouch, Colin (2000), How to Defend in Chess, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-250-4 
  • Davidson, Henry A. (1981), A Short History of Chess, David McKay, ISBN 0-679-14550-8 
  • Dvoretsky, Mark (2003), School of Chess Excellence 1: Endgame Analysis, Olms, ISBN 978-3-283-00416-3 
  • Dvoretsky, Mark (2006), Dvoretsky's Endgame Manual (2nd ed.), Russell Enterprises, ISBN 1-888690-28-3 
  • Elkies, Noam D. (1996), "On Numbers and Endgames: Combinatorial Game Theory in Chess Endgames", in Nowakowski, Richard, Games of No Chance, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-57411-0 
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  • Fine, Reuben; Benko, Pal (2003) [1941], Basic Chess Endings (Revised ed.), McKay, ISBN 0-8129-3493-8 
  • Fischer, Bobby (2008) [1969], My 60 Memorable Games, Batsford, ISBN 978-1-906388-30-0 
  • Flear, Glenn (2000), Improve Your Endgame Play, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-246-6 
  • Flear, Glenn (2004), Starting Out: Pawn Endings, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-362-4 
  • Flear, Glenn (2007), Practical Endgame Play - beyond the basics: the definitive guide to the endgames that really matter, Everyman Chess, ISBN 978-1-85744-555-8 
  • Giddins, Steve (2007), 101 Chess Endgame Tips, Gambit Publications, ISBN 978-1-904600-66-4 
  • Golombek, Harry (1977), "zugzwang", Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess, Crown Publishing, ISBN 0-517-53146-1 
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  • Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), "zugzwang", The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-866164-9 
  • Horowitz, I. A. (1971), All About Chess, Collier Books 
  • Károlyi, Tibor; Aplin, Nick (2007), Endgame Virtuoso Anatoly Karpov, New In Chess, ISBN 978-90-5691-202-4 
  • Kasparov, Garry (2004), My Great Predecessors, part IV, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-395-0 
  • Kasparov, Garry (2008), Modern Chess: Part 2, Kasparov vs Karpov 1975-1985, Everyman Chess, ISBN 978-1-85744-433-9 
  • Lasker, Emanuel (1960), Lasker's Manual of Chess, Dover 
  • Müller, Karsten; Lamprecht, Frank (2001), Fundamental Chess Endings, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-53-6 
  • Müller, Karsten; Pajeken, Wolfgang (2008), How to Play Chess Endings, Gambit Publications, ISBN 978-1-904600-86-2 
  • Nunn, John (1981), Tactical Chess Endings, Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-5937-9 
  • Nunn, John (1995), Secrets of Minor-Piece Endings, Batsford, ISBN 0-8050-4228-8 
  • Nunn, John (1999), Secrets of Rook Endings (2nd ed.), Gambit Publications, ISBN 978-1-901983-18-0 
  • Nunn, John (2002), Endgame Challenge, Gambit Publications, ISBN 978-1-901983-83-8 
  • Nunn, John (2010), Nunn's Chess Endings, volume 1, Gambit Publications, ISBN 978-1-906454-21-0 
  • Philidor, François-André Danican (2005), Analysis of the Game of Chess (1777, reprinted 2005), Hardinge Simpole, ISBN 1-84382-161-3 
  • Reinfeld, Fred (1958), Hypermodern Chess: As Developed in the Games of Its Greatest Exponent, Aron Nimzovich, Dover 
  • Reinfeld, Fred; Fine, Reuben (1965), Lasker's Greatest Chess Games 1889-1914, Dover 
  • Rowson, Jonathan (2005), Chess for Zebras: Thinking Differently About Black and White, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-85-4 
  • Shibut, Macon (2004), Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory (2nd ed.), Dover, ISBN 0-486-43574-1 
  • Silman, Jeremy (2007), Silman's Complete Endgame Course: From Beginner to Master, Siles Press, ISBN 1-890085-10-3 
  • Soltis, Andy (1978), Chess to Enjoy, Stein and Day, ISBN 0-8128-6059-4 
  • Soltis, Andy (2003a), Grandmaster Secrets: Endings, Thinker's Press, ISBN 0-938650-66-1 
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  • van Perlo, Gerardus C. (2006), Van Perlo's Endgame Tactics, New In Chess, ISBN 978-90-5691-168-3 
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Further reading

  • Ward, Chris (1996), Endgame Play, Batsford, pp. 98–102, ISBN 0-7134-7920-5 
  • Kaufman, Larry (September 2009), "Middlegame Zugzwang and a Previously Unknown Bobby Fischer Game", Chess Life 2009 (9): 35–37 

External links


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