- Office of the United States Trade Representative
Office of the United States Trade Representative Agency overview Formed 1962 Preceding agency Office of the Special Trade Representative Headquarters Winder Building 600 17th St. NW Washington, D.C. Employees 200 Agency executives Ron Kirk, Ambassador
Peter Allgeier, Deputy Ambassador
Demetrios Marantis, Deputy Ambassador
Parent agency Executive Office of the President of the United States Website www.ustr.gov
The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the president of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG).
Established as the Office of the Special Trade Representative (STR) under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the USTR is part of the Executive Office of the President. With over 200 employees, the USTR has offices in Geneva, Switzerland, and Brussels, Belgium. The current United States Trade Representative is Ron Kirk.
The head of the office holds the title of United States Trade Representative (USTR), which is a Cabinet-level position (though not technically within the Cabinet). The United States Trade Representative and Deputy United States Trade Representatives (DUSTR) carry the title of Ambassador.
Ron Kirk is the current Trade Representative, with Demetrios Marantis, Michael Punke and Miriam Sapiro serving as Deputy Trade Representatives.
The Special 301 Report
The Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the USTR under Section 182 as amended of the Trade Act of 1974. The Act states that the USTR must on an annual basis, by April of each year:
"identify those foreign countries that deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable markets access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, and those foreign countries identified under" this "paragraph that are determined by the Trade Representative to be priority foreign countries". The Act defines "priority foreign countries" as "those foreign countries that have the most onerous or egregious acts, policies, or practices that deny adequate and effective intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, whose acts, policies, or practices described in" this "paragraph have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on the relevant United States products, and that are not entering into good faith negotiations, or making significant progress in bilateral or multilateral negotiations to provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".
The Uruguay Round Agreement Act furthermore states that countries may be identified under Special 301 "taking into account the history of intellectual property laws and practices of the foreign country, including any previous identifications" and "the history of efforts of the United States, and the response of the foreign country, to achieve adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights". It also states that compliance with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights does not preclude a country from being identified as denying "adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".
List of United States Trade Representatives
Image Trade Representative From To Appointed by Christian Herter 1962 1966 John F. Kennedy William M. Roth 1967 1969 Lyndon B. Johnson Carl J. Gilbert 1969 1971 Richard Nixon William D. Eberle 1971 1975 Richard Nixon Frederick B. Dent 1975 1977 Gerald Ford Robert S. Strauss 1977 1979 Jimmy Carter Reubin Askew 1979 1981 Jimmy Carter Bill Brock 1981 1985 Ronald Reagan Clayton K. Yeutter 1985 1989 Ronald Reagan Carla A. Hills 1989 1993 George H. W. Bush Mickey Kantor 1993 1997 Bill Clinton Charlene Barshefsky 1997 2001 Bill Clinton Robert Zoellick 2001 2005 George W. Bush Rob Portman 2005 2006 George W. Bush Susan Schwab 2006 2009 George W. Bush Ron Kirk 2009 present Barack Obama
- Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
- Doha Development Round
- Generalized System of Preferences
- International Trade Administration
- United States International Trade Commission
- United States Commercial Service
- World Trade Organization
- ^ Masterson, John T. (2004). International trademarks and copyright: enforcement and management. American Bar Association. ISBN 9781590313596. http://books.google.com/books?id=BIA9w-89SYcC&source=gbs_navlinks_s.
- ^ Masterson, John T. (2004). International trademarks and copyright: enforcement and management. American Bar Association. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9781590313596. http://books.google.com/books?id=BIA9w-89SYcC&source=gbs_navlinks_s.
- USTR website
- 2005 Special 301 Report (pdf)
- 2010 Special 301 Report (pdf)
- USTR Trade Data
- U.S. Chamber State Fact Sheets
Executive Office of the President of the United StatesCouncil of Economic Advisers · Council on Environmental Quality · National Security Council · Homeland Security Council · Office of Administration · Office of Management and Budget · Office of National Drug Control Policy · Office of Science and Technology Policy · Office of the United States Trade Representative · President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board · President's Intelligence Advisory Board · White House Office · Office of the Vice President United States Trade Representative
Christian Herter (1962) · William M. Roth (1967) · Carl J. Gilbert (1969) · William D. Eberle (1971) · Frederick B. Dent (1975) · Robert S. Strauss (1977) · Reubin Askew (1979) · William E. Brock III (1981) · Clayton K. Yeutter (1985) · Carla A. Hills (1989) · Mickey Kantor (1993) · Charlene Barshefsky (1997) · Robert Zoellick (2001) · Rob Portman (2005) · Susan Schwab (2006) · Ron Kirk (2009)
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